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SKETCHES 



VIRGINIA 



HISTOBICAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



Rut. WILLIAM HENHy POOTE, D. D. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

WILLIAM S. MARTIEN, 142 CHESTNUT STREET. 
18.50. 



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By WILLIAM S, MABTIEN, 
he Dielrict Court Cot Hie Eastern District of Pennsylva 



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CHAPTER OF CONTENTS. 



Introbectorv Chapter, - 

CHAPTER I. 



CHAPTER II. 
Rev. Frands Makemte and his Associates, - - - 

CHAPTER HI. 

The Confinement and Trial of Rev. Francis Makcmie for 
Preaching in New York, 1707, 

CHAPTER IV. 
The Scolcii Irish, ..... 

CHAPTER V. 
Siege of Londonderry, - . , . 

CHAPTER VI. 
Presbyterian Colonies in Virginia, - - . - 

CHAPTER VH. 

Rise of iJie Presbyterian Church in Hanover County; and 
Rev. William Robinson, . - . . 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Ministers visiting Hanover after Mr. Robinson, and previous 
to Rev. Samuel Davies, .... 



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CHAPTER IX. 
Vii^inia in 1743; Commissary Blair; William and Mary 



CHAPTER X. 

Rev. Samnel Davies from liis Birth to his Voyage to England, J57 

CHAPTER Xr. 

The Mission of Messrs. Davies and Tennent to Great Britain, 231 



CHAPTER XH. 

Journal of the Rev. Samuel Davies from July 2d, 1753, to 
February IStli, 1765, .... 

CHAPTER Xni. 

Rev. Samuel Davies— From his Mission to Great Britain to 
his Death, -..-.. 



CHAPTER XIV, 

Three Auxiliaries to the Cause of Liberty of Consci. 

CHAPTER XV. 

Progress of Freedom of Conscience during llie Times of the 
Revolution, and the aid given by Mr. Jefferson sind Mr. 
Madison, ------ 



CHAPTER XVI. 

James Waddell, D.D.. and the Churches of Ihe Northern 
Neck, 



CHAPTER XVn. 
Log Colleges, - , - - . 

CHAPTER XVm. 

Hampden Sidney College, 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Rev. John Blair Smith, and the Revival of 1787-^ 



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CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XX. 



Rev. William Gralinm— Liberty Hall and Washmglon Ool- 
Ipge, --...-- 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Rev. Dniry Lany, ..... 

CHAPTER XXn. 
Mary Moore, ...... 

CHAPTER XXHI. 

The Commission of Synod— with Sketches of Legrand. Mar- 
shall, and Lyle, ..... 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Moses Hoge, n. D. 



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ADVEKTISEMENT. 



It was in contemplation that the Sketches in this 
volume should be continued to a later period. Materials 
were procured in abundance; and a number of sketches 
prepared, viz: James Turner — Gary Allen — The old 
Churches and Church Yards in the Valley — List of all 
the members of Hanover Presbytery, from its formation 
to the year 1786, with short notices of many of the 
brethren — and Cornstalk, the Shawanee Chief. But 
the size of the volume forbids their insertion. The 
appearance of a second volume will depend upon the 
reception the present volume may meet with from an 
indulgent public. 

RoMNEY, Hampshire Co., Virginia, 
ir 1649. 



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SKETCHES 



V I E G I N I A. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

Therb have lived men, in Virginia, whose names are worthy 
of everlasting remembrance. There have been events that 
should never be forgotten. There have been principles avowed, 
whose influence will bo felt through all time. There have been 
historians of Virginia — there have heen volumes of Biogra- 
phy worthy of the writers, and of the men whose lives they 
record. The materials for these volumes have been found 
abundant, and are not yet exhausted. Mines of literary wealth 
remain untouched. 

Virginia claims the veneration and love of her children. 
Situated in the medium latitude between the extremes of the 
Union, she borders on the Atlantic, and six of her sister States. 
In her bosom was the first of those colonies, that have in- 
creased and multiplied into the United States of America. As 
the mother of groat men, and theatre of great events, in 
Church and State, all posterity will acknowledge her claims. 

While political events have had their historians, and political 
men their biographers, the great struggle for Religious Liberty 
which preceded the Bill for Religious Freedom, has never been 
set forth. It has been but slightly referred to in the record of 
those very events over which it had a controlling influence. 
And while it remains untnown, Virginia, both past and pre- 
sent, remains untnown. The power of the religious principle 
in moulding the civil and political institutions in Virginia has 
not been appreciated. The law for religious freedom, in the 
Statute book, cannot be duly estimated, while the history of 
the men, that thought and laboured and suffered for the un- 
restrained liberty we enjoy, remains unwritten. This liberty 
was not the offspring of mere greatness of mind, or of political 



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2 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

sagacity. It was a child of principle, cradled in sufferings, 
and fed on tears. Afflicted beyond endurance, it fled from the 
old world, and suffered, and toiled in patience, and gain'ed the 
victory in the new. It is the glory of Virginia that the con- 
test for civil and religious lihcrty began so early in her 
borders, and was so soon followed by that phenomenon, entire 
freedom of conscience, novel to herself and strange to the old 
world. 

The object of the following sketches is to delineate some of 
the scenes witnessed in Virginia, and portray the characters 
of some of hor children, and of some, who captivated by her 
beauty and fertility, cast in their lot, for life or for death, for 
glory and wealth, or poverty and suffering, and aided la the 
working out the system of things which has been, and is, the 
glory of Virginia. These have not been given in any ^ olume 
of History or Biography presented to the public ; and their 
omission has rendered the history of Virginia enigmatical. 
Effects have been delineated for which no sufficient cause has 
been given. And readers of voluminous histories of Virginia 
have risen from this enjoyment, or task, with very imperfect, if 
not utterly eiTOneous views of the principles and doings of the 
past. OONTEIBUTIONS TO ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY have been 
made to illustrate the character, doings, and fate, of that de- 
nomination, which, established by law, with tho settlement of 
the province, was sustained by the legislature with paramount, 
and almost uncontrolled, influence, for nearly a century and 
a half. Some reference has been made in history to classes of 
people that, at different times, previous to 1700, appeared, 
were opposed, persecuted, in part put down, in part driven 
away, but not annihilated; hut history has not said that they 
finally wrought a change in the sentiments of the freeholders 
of Virginia, and consequently in her constitution. These 
sketches will attempt to set forth these men and their doings. 
And if they appear to be sketches of a denomination, it is 
because the men whose acts have been worthy of something 
better than vituperation and forgetfulness were of that denomi- 
nation. 

Tho materials for these sketches have been gathered in 
every section of the State. Records of Civil Courts and 
Ecclesiastical Judicatories, in manuscript, have been examined, 
volume after volume. Private journals, diaries, memoranda, 
and family genealogies have been fully consulted and freely 
used. Magazines of unquestioned standing, and pamphlets to 
be relied on, have contributed largely. Comparatively little 
has been taken from any political history, in general circula- 
tion. The events described in such history are supposed to be 
known; and are here introduced only to show the reader where- 



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INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 3 

abouts in the civil history of the State, tic events, here re- 
corded, find their place and give their moulding influence. 
The writings of Captain John Smith are an exception. The 
sources of traditionary information have been examined. Over 
these the grave is rapidly closing; already the memory of what 
was done and said in the Eevolution speaks oat, at distant in- 
tervals, from here and there a solitary representative of the last 
century. Traditions have been compared with written docu- 
ments, and nothing has been received from conjecture, or pre- 
concieved hypothesis. The sources of information are faith- 
fully given, in all- cases, where the knowledge of the source 
ia supposed to be of any importance. 

No invidious comparisons are designed in these sketches, 
whose object is to rescue from oblivion the names and virtues 
of noble men, — " Sons of Liberty" — of that liberty which 
rejoices all good men. In making this rescue, facts and cha- 
racters will be brought into view worthy of the study of the 
aged and the young, of the ministor of the gospel and the 
statesman. The principles of liberty, in matters of religion 
and the State, will be seen struggling against error and miscon- 
ceptions, gaining the ascendency step by step, conflict by con- 
0ict, — "the blood of the slain multiplying the martyrs," — till at 
last the groans are lost in the shouts of victory. And if in 
doing this, the names of men not yet recorded in their proper 
place in history, and the relation of events, not hitherto no- 
ticed, or slightly passed over, hold a prominent place, there 
can be no complaint. Truth is stronger and more strange 
than fiction. Every writer gives what he supposes, or wishes 
others to suppose, the most important in the past. Political 
writers seem to labour under a great difficulty in making record 
of the principles and doings of religious men, — at least of 
some religious men, — and also in stating the proper influence 
of religion, either in principle or in practice. It has of late 
years become a matter of earnest inquiry, — What has the reli- 
gious principle done? That strange, abused, inexplicable Car- 
lyle has turned the current of English history for generations. 
The obscure past outshines the present. The clouds that over- 
hung the Puritans are dissolving, and long defamed names 
are resplendent in letters of glory. 

The labours of the man, who uncheered by any companions, 
through many years of toil and suffering, unstimulated by ap- 
'plause, in the colony or the mother land, laid the corner stone 
of a majestic spiritual building to the honour of the Lord Jesus, 
in the New World, are not now appreciated, because unknown. 
The importance of the congregations, gathered by his sufferings 
and solitary labours, is not felt because not understood. To 
understand these, and to appreciate the labours of such men as 



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4 INTEODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

Davies, Itoljmson, "VVaddel, Craig, Broi\-n, Ilenrj, and Todd, 
and the congregations gathered by them, and multiplied by the 
Smiths and Grahams and Hoge, and the men trained by their 
teaching and their example, it will be necessary to take a view 
of the civil and 'religious condition of Virginia daring tho first 
Boventy years of her colonial existence. Reference must be 
made to the condition of Ulster, Ireland, during the same 
period, and some preceding and some succeeding years, because 
BO many Virginia families and Virginia principles claim Ire- 
land, and through her Scotland, as their Mother Land. 

The cavaliers of Virginia and the Puritans of New England 
agreed in thinking religion an essential part of the State ; and 
that the wiU of the majority should decide in all ecclesittstical 
concerns. They each established their forms, and resolutely 
defended them. They each drove out from their borders, as 
far as practicable, all dissenters, and called it self-defence, the 
liberty of the majority. The emigrant from Ulster, contended 
for the liberty of the minority, and in this differed from the 
Cavaliers and the Puritans. On the subject of civil liberty, the 
Puritan and the Presbyterian agreed, and both for a time dis- 
agreed with the Cavalier. The union of the three wrought the 
American Revolution, and established the liberty of law- The 
part of history, not yet written, contains the devclopement of 
the principles of these people, modified by education and cir- 
cumstances. And if these sketches shall throw any light on 
important facts hitherto imperfectly known, they will have 
fulfilled the object for which they were designed. 

To a great extent, and generally as far as practicable, or 
useful, the important facts are given in the words of the ori- 
ginal writer, or author of the tradition, that the reader may 
make his own construction. By this means numerous foot- 
notes are avoided, the searching out authorities for verification 
less necessary, and the liability to misconstruction greatly 
lessened. Due acknowledgment is made, or intended to be 
made, of the assistance rendered by friends of truth, in the 
chapters in which their assistance was given. The reader will 
perceive that the treasury, from which these sketches have been 
drawn, is not exhausted. Whether another volume shall follow 
in succession will depend, other things being equal, much upon 
the reception this may meet with from an indulgent public. 

It is proper to state that great use has been made of Hening's 
Statutes at large. The laws of Virginia that appear in the fol- 
lowing sketches have been taken from that work. Tliey are 
quoted by their number, and the year. It will be understood 
without continual reference, that the Extracts are from the 
laborious collections of W. W. Hening. 

I have also made frequent use of the labours of the Rev. 



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INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 5 

Richard Webster, where an acknowledgment of the obligation 
was inconvenient. His collections are a treasury of facts for 
an American Ecclesiastical historian. It is not impossible 
there may be valuable papers, illustrating particular facts, 
hereafter brought to light, which may modify or strengthen the 
statements made in tiese sketches. All things bow to the 
majesty of truth. 



CHAPTER I. 

VIKGINIA IN SIXTEEN HUNDRED AUD EIOHIY-EIGHT. 

The year 1688 is an epoch in English history. The protestant 
succession was then secured to the crown of England. The 
protestant religion was established as the religion of the State ; 
in England, under the form of prelacy, in Scotland, of presby- 
tery. Civil liberty made a great advance, and the anglo-saxon 
race ascended in the sight of all Europe, regaining what had 
been lost after Cromwell, and thenceforward holding the bal- 
ance of power. 

The civil and ecclesiastical condition of Virginia, at that 
time, cannot fail to he interesting to those, who take pleasure 
in noticing the progress of the human race, in the discovery, 
the possession, and the defence of the rights of man, Vir- 
ginia, as she was then, and as she is now, exhibits strongly by 
contrast, colonial dependence on arbitrary power, and repub- 
lican liberty. About that time, commenced in Virginia, a 
contest for religious liberty, which, after a hundred years of 
conflict, ended in the famous law entered on her statute hook 
in 1'7S5, declaring the citizens of the commmonwealth as free 
in mind as in body, in rehgiou as in politics. Four score and 
two years had passed since the little fleet of three ships, 
whose whole capacity for burden did not exceed one hundred 
and sixty tons, set sail from Blackwall in England on the 19th 
of December, 1606, under the command of that experienced 
navigator, Christopher Newport, hearing a company of adven- 
turers to the wilderness of Virginia. Three of these enter- 
prising men will be famous to all posterity, Bartholomew Cros- 
nold, Rev. Robert Hunt, and Captain John Smith. The 
names of the others have been saved from absolute oblivion 
by the famous Smith in his history of Virginia. 

On the 26th of April 1607, the fleet, driven by a storm, 
entered the Chesapeake. On the 30th they cast anchor at a 



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6 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

point well known in moilern times. Tke voyagers named it 
Point Comfort, because after their long voyage and the late 
Btorm it had — " pnt them in good comfort." On the 13th of 
May the colony ivas landed on a peninsula, on the north side 
of James' river, about forty miles from its mouth. There they 
commenced tho first permanent colony in North America. In 
honour of the king, James I., the place was called Jamestown. 
Hero was a theatre, on which the enterprise, courage, and 
magnanimity of Smith, and the piety and patriotic devotion of 
Hunt displayed themselves. Here was the residence of the 
Governor, and tho place of the meeting of the Burgesses, who 
claimed and exorcised in the wilderness all the privileges of 
Englishmen. Here at the time of the accession of the Prince 
of Orange, in 1688, was tho only place in the colony that 
might be called a town. 

In 1688 the plantations in Virginia were scattered along 
the shores of the Chesapeake, — across the narrow strip of land, 
that separates the bay from the ocean, — along the banks of the 
rivers and creeks that fall into that noble bay, and on their 
tributary streams to the head of tide water. No settlement 
had been made above the falls where the river Powhatan, 
"falleth from the rockes farrewcst." The neighbourhood of 
some navigable water being esteemed essential to the success- 
ful operations of planters, the most fertile portions of land 
between the rivers, were occupied only in scattered positions. 
The espeetation of finding abundant mines of the precious 
metals had allured multitudes, of the early adventurers, to 
Virginia. This had passed away, and tho more sober, and 
ultimately more enriching, pursuits of agriculture occupied the 
public mind. The colony had become permanent in its inhabi- 
tants, and in its occupations. Few emigrants came, as at first, 
with the expectation of sudden wealth, and a speedy return to 
England. A cheerful independence, in the new country, in 
preference to poverty in the old, was the more reasonable 
expectation and desire. The emigrants also came in families, 
or sought to unite themselves, by marriage, with the older colo- 
nists. They were encouraged to do this, by the patrons in 
England, to give importance to the colony and increase their 
income; and by the colonists, to add to their numbers, their 
pecuniary strength and warlike means. The importation of 
wives by the cargo, that stroke of policy in the patrons, had 
long ceased, and men wooed and won their wives, according to 
tho usages of civilized life. Children, grand children, and 
great grand children claimed Virginia as their home, England 
as tho fatherland. 

Of all the productions, which the earth brought forth iu 
abundance, tobacco received the greatest attention. The first 



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yiRGINIA IN 1688.— PLANTATIONS. 7 

Bpecimen of this plant peculiar to America was taken to 
Englan<i, from Carolina, by Kalph Lane, in 1586. It met the 
entire reprobation of the Queen. In leas than ten years after 
the settlement of the colony, at Jamestown, tobacco was the 
principle article of export. The demand increased with the 
consumption, and the cultivation with the demand. The 
making of tar, pitch, and turpentine, and the hunting of mines, 
the objects of the Erst emigrants, were abandoned for the 
occupation of the planter. Governor Bertely says, in 1671, 
" commodities of the growth of our own country we never had 
any, but tobacco, which yet is considerable that it yields his 
Majesty a great revenue." The planters, being absorbed in 
the cultivation of tobacco, repeatedly suffered the evils of 
famine through their neglect to cultivate corn in auf&cieut 
quantities for home consumption. The supply from the savages, 
always scanty and precarious, became wilfully less, as the 
wants of tho planters increased. The Indians desired by all, 
and every moans, to drive the intruders from their fields and 
rivers. Laws were passed by tho House of Burgesses to en- 
force the production of com, and limit the amount of tobacco. 
In 1624, at tho first Assembly, whose records have been pre- 
served, it was resolved, by act 16th — " That three sufficient 
men of every parish shall bo sworno to see that every man 
shall plant and tende sufficient corne for his family. Those 
men that have neglected so to do are to bo by the said three 
men presented to be censured by the Governour and Couusell." 
By act 18th — " Every freeman shall fence in a quarter of an 
acre of ground before Whitsuntide next to make a garden for 
planting vines, herbs, roots, &c. sub po;na ten pounds of 
tobacco a man." The evil not being remedied by these enact- 
ments, it was ordered, in the year 1630, by act 6th — " That 
two acres of corne or neere thereabouts bee planted for every 
head that worketh in the ground, and the same to bee sufficiently 
tended weeded and preserved from hoggs cattell and other in- 
conveniences. And if any planter shall be found delinquent 
therein, hee shall forfeit all his tobacco, which bee made of his 
cropp that yeare the one balfe to the informer, the other to bee 
employed to publique uses for the good of tho country." In 
the revisal of tho laws in 1632 the wording of this law was 
altered, but the spirit retained. In the revisal of 1642, Act 
8th, the penalty was changed to — "five hundred pounds of 
tobacco per acre defective." In 1647 the act for enforcing 
the planting of two acres, — " either in Indian or English 
grayne" — is renewed. Act 6th with the additional penalty — 
" and for the neglect of any constables in not presenting both 
the planting and sufficient tending thereof, that the commis- 
sioners of the county doe impose a fine of five hundred pounds 



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8 SKETCHES OF VIRGtNU. 

of tob'o upon each constable so defaulting — and in case the 
commissioners do not take a strict care in taking accompt of 
the constables in the execntion of this act, that then the said 
commissioners shall be fined at the discretion of the Gov'r 
and Council." In the same year the exportation of corn was 
forbidden on penalty of five hundred pounds of tobacco; and 
the price, at home, was limited to one hundred pounds of to- 
bacco per barrel containing five Winchester bushels. In 1657, 
during the Commonwealth of England, the act for planting two 
acres of corn was renewed, with the same penalty on the 
planters; the constables not being mentioned. 

Tobacco became the standard of value, and supplied, in part 
at least, the place of a circulating medium of the precious 
mctais. By act 64, in 1632 — " The Secretaries fees shall be 
as followeth, viz — ffor a warrant 051bs of tobacco, — ffor a passe 
lOlbs, — ffor a freedom 20, — fi'or Commission of Administration 
20,— The Marshalls fees shall be, ffor an arrest lOlba of To- 
bacco, — ffor warning the cort 02, — imprisonment, coming in 
10, going out 10, — Laying by the heels 5, — whippinge 10, — 
Pillory 10, — Duckinge 10. — The Prisoner lying in prison, 
Marshalls attendance per day 5, — ffor every 51bs of tobacco 
the Marshall may require 1 bushel of corne." By act 01st 
1642, Attorney's fees, in the county court, for any kind of ser- 
vice, was not to exceed 201bs of tobacco, upon penalty of 500 
lbs of tobacco; and in the quarter court not to exceed 501bs, 
Bpon penalty of 20001b8 of tobacco. The house of Burgesses 
was slow in admitting Lawyers to plead in the courts, on any 
terms. Ono of the charges, — "Duckinge lOlba," — refers to 
the English law for the punishment of turbulent women. 

The price of tobacco was always fluctuating on account of 
the varying quantity and qaality of the crops. Somo years, 
immense crops were tended, and the supply of good tobacco 
was greater than the demand ; in other years the quantity was 
less, and the quality inferior. Keeping accounts in tobacco 
became inconvenient, especially if payment were delayed for a 
length of time. It was therefore enacted 1633, Act 4th — 
" Whereas it hath beene the usuall custome of marchants and 
others dealinge intermutually in this colony to make all bar- 
gains, contracts, and to keep all accounts in tobacco and not 
in money, contrary to the former custome of this plantation 
and manner of England, and other places within the Kings 
dominions, which thinge hath bredd many ineonvenienceys in 
the trade, and occasioned many troubles as well to the mar- 
chants as to the planters, and inhabitants amongst themselves. 
It is thought fitt iy the G-overnor and Oouncitl and the Bur- 
gesses of this Grand Assembli/, That all accounts and con- 
tracts be usually made and kept in money and not in Tobacco, 



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VIRGINIA m 1688.— TOBACCO. 9 

That all plea^ and actions of debt or trespass be eommoneed 
and sett downe in lawful money of England onlie, and in no 
other commoditie." In order to preserve an equality in the 

Erice of tobacco the Legislature frequently attempted to regu- 
tte the quantity of the crops, by determining, by Statute, how 
many hills of tobacco might be tended for each poll on a 
plantation. 

In 1688 there were no large towns in Virginia, nor any num- 
ber of small ones, or even villages. The Legislature, in con- 
formity to the wishes of the mother country, encouraged the 
gathering of numerous families, in close community, for the 
purpose of traffic and mechanical trades. It layed out towns 
and made regulations for them. It directed that foreign traffic 
should bo carried on, exclusively at these towns. Ports of 
entry were made in sufficient numbers to accommodate the 
country, and secure the revenue. But the places, called towns, 
or ports of entry often consisted of a single dwelling-house with 
a store, or office ; and not a single flourishing town was to be 
found in the whole province, Jamestown, the capital, not 
excepted. The trade now collected in cities, as centres, was 
then scattered over the whole country. The planters preferred 
making sale of their own tobacco directly to the foreign trader; 
and welcomed the vessels that cast anchor, for the purpose of 
trade, in the nearest river, or at the most convenient landing, 
not very scupulous whether the port was established by law or 
chosen for convenience. A statute of Assembly required the 
planters to report, on pain of fines, the number of hogsheads 
they sold these foreign vessels. Whether the change effected, 
by transferring the principal business of the whole country to 
a few cities, either within or without the state, has proved 
beneficial to community at large, by confining to a few hands 
the business once shared by all, is a matter for discussion. 
The popular feeling is, however, in favour of cities, and the 
course of trade is settled on the principle, the more merchants 
the more traffic, and the better business. 

The inhabitants of the colony were all planters. Scattered 
over the country as suited their interest or convenience, they 
lived unrestrained, fed by their plantations and the abundance 
of the sea. Their first exposure had been to the pressure of 
famine; and the next to massacre from savage hands. The 
plentiful crops gathered, in consequence of the watchful care 
»f the legislature, and the remembrance of past sufferings from 
their improvidence, had removed the fears of want ; and their 
increasing numbers, and the wasting strength of the Indian 
tribes, had relieved them from the alarms of midnight attacks. 
Governor Berkeley says, in 1671, — " We suppose, and I am very 
sure we do not much miscount, that there are in Virginia above 



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10 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

forty tliousand persons, men. women, and children, and of 
■which there are two thousand blacii slavea, six thousand Chris- 
tian servants for a short time, the rest are borne in the iiountry 
or have come in to settle and seat in bettering their condition 
in a growing country. Yearly, we suppose, there comes, of 
servants, about fifteen hundred, of which most are English, few 
Scotch, and fewer Irish, and not above two or three ships of 
negroes in seven years. Eight thousand horse could be easily 
called together on alarm." These planters cherished a spirit 
of personal independence, in all their communications. Each 
lived on his own freehold, and could draw from the soU abun- 
dant provisions ; and from the neighbouring streams and 
marshes, fish and fowl in variety ; and from the surrounding 
forests, the wild deer, and innumerable smaller game. Capti- 
vated with this kind of life, few mechanics, that came to the 
colony would continue to carry on their trade. The planters 
purchased in England, or from vessels direct from the mother- 
land, what their necessities required ; and indulged in luxuries as 
far as their tastes demanded, or their resources permitted. They 
delighted in an isolated life. The aversion to living in con- 
tiguous dwellings, or even in neighbourhoods, was carried to an 
extent, that required legislative interference. Act 5th, 1667, 
Says — "Whereas the despatch of business in this country is 
much obstructed for want of bridle wayes to the severall houses 
and plantations, Jt is enacted by the Grand Assembly and the 
authority thereof, that every person having a plantation shall 
at the most plaine and convenient path that Icades to his house 
make a gate in his fFence for the convenience of passage of 
man and horse to his house about their occasions at the discre- 
tion of the owner." To this may be added an enactment ex- 
pressive of indignant hospitality. Act 16th, 1663 — "Whereas it 
is frequent with diverse inhabitants of this country to entertaine 
strangers into their houses without making any agreement with 
the party what he shall pay for his accommodations, which {if 
the party live) canseth many litigious suites, and if the stranger 
dye lays a gap open to many avaricious persons to ruyne the 
estate of the person deceased, ffor remedy whereof for the 
future, — Be it enacted that noe person not making a positive 
agreement with any one he shall entertayne into his house for 
dyett or storeage shall recover any thing against any one soe 
entertayned or against his estate, but that every one shall be 
reputed to entertayne those of curtesie with whom they make 
not a certain agreement." 

This predeliction of the Planters for isolated life raised an 
almost insuperable barrier to the instruction of the mass of the 
people. Neither the King in Council, nor the Legislature 
of the Province had taken any effective steps for the education 



„^,.,.,glc 



VIRGINIA IN 1688.— MANNER OF LIVING. H 

of even a portion of the people. Some preparatory movements 
had been made for the erection of a college, in the early days 
of the colony ; some donations were made for that purpose ; and 
tho subject had been repeatedly agitated in succeeding yeara, 
without success. Efforts had been made by individuals to 
establish free schools, as appears from Act 18th, 1642, 3 — 
" Ee it also enacted and confirmed upon consideration had of 
the Godly disposition and good intent of Benjamin Symme, 
deceased, in founding by his last will and testament a free 
school in Elizabeth county, for the encouragement of all others 
in the like pious performances, that the said will and testament 
with all donations therein contained concerning the free school 
and tho situation thereof in the said county and the land 
appertaining to tho same, shall be confirmed according to the 
true meaning and godly intent of the said testator without any 
alienation or conversion thereof to any place or county." That 
this plan failed of its designed good, appears from Governor 
^ ' ' 's letter about thirty years after. He says, in 1671 — 
r to the inquiry what was done in education — "The 
same course that is taken in England out of tho towns ; every 
man according to his ability instructing his children. But I 
thank God there are no free schools nor printing, and I hope 
we shall not have these hundred years; for learning has 
brought disobedience and heresy, and sects, into the world, 
and printing has divulged them, and libels against the best 
government, God keep us from them both." This opinion of 
the Governor was no idle abstraction; for in February, 1682, 
according to Hening, vol. 2d, p. 518 — " John Buekner was called 
before Lord Culpepper and his Council for printing the laws of 
1680 without his Excellency's license, and he and the printer 
ordered to enter into bonds in ^100 not to print any thing 
thereafter until his majestie's pleasure should be known." 
Without a printing press, college, or free schools, or public 
schools of any kind, it is not to be supposed that the benefits of 
education were diffused further than the piety and enterprise of 
the different families, or some members of them, found oppor- 
tunity. Instruction of children was a domestic duty. 

The government of the colony, in 1668, was the same as 
Berkeley tells us it was in 1671, being in — "a Governor and 
sixteen Counsellors, who have, from his sacred majestic, a com- 
mission of Oyer and Terminer, who judge and determine all 
eauses that are above fifteen pounds sterling; for what is under 
there are particular courts in every county, which are twenty 
in number. Every year, at least, the Assembly is called, be- 
fore whom lye appeals, and this Assembly is composed of two 
Burgesses out of every county. These lay the necessary taxes, 



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12 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

as the necessity of the war with the Indians, or other exigen- 
cies require." 

Captain Smith in his History of Virginia, pp. 88, 39, fo]. 2d, 
has preserved the concise account given by John Rolfe, of the 
meeting of the Burgesses in the year 1619, under G-ovcmor 
Yeardly; — "Then our Governour and Councell caused Bur- 
gesses to he chosen in all places, and met at a Generall Assem- 
bly, where all matters were debated thought expedient for the 
good of the colony." This meeting was called on the authority 
of the Company in London ; but its powers were not fully 
defined. Previously to the year 1645, the number of Bur- 
gesses to be sent by each neighbourhood, or plantation, as the 
settlements were called, or by shires after they were formed, 
was indefinite. 

The first Assembly, whose records have been preserved, was 
held in 1624. Ten years afterwards, by act of Assembly, the 
country was divided into eight shires — *' which are to be gov- 
erned as the shires in England. The names of the shires are, 
James City, Henrico, Charles City, Elizabeth City, Warwick 
River, Warrosquyoake, Charles River, Accawmack. And as in 
England, sheriffs shall be elected to have the same power as 
there; and Serjeants, and bailiffs where need requires." In 
the year 1643, the number of shires was ten. The burgesses 
were sent from, — Henrico 3, Charles City 3, James City 6, 
Warwick 2, Elizabeth City 2, Isle of Wight 2, Upper Nor- 
folk 2, Lower Norfolk 2, York 3, Northampton 2. At the 
time Berkeley wrote, in 1671, there were twenty counties, or 
shires, Henrico, Charles City, York, New Kent, James City, 
James County, Warwick, Surry, Isle of Wight, Nansemond, 
Lower Norfolk, Elizabeth City, Gloster, Lancaster, Rappahan- 
nock, Stafford, Westmoreland, Northumberland, Northampton, 
and Accomack. 

In the year 1645, the number of burgesses from each county, 
was limited to four, except James City county, which might 
Bend five, and the city one. Act 84th, in the year 1662, de- 
clares — "that hereafter noe county shall send above two bur- 
gesses who shal be elected at those places in each county where 
the county courts are usually kept." By the same law the 
metropolis was entitled to one burgesse; and the counties 
severally were empowered — "to layout one hundred acres of 
land, and people it with one hundred tithable persons" — and 
the place, thus laid out, was entitled to one burgesse. By the 
85th Act of the same year — "Whereas, the immoderate 
expenees of the burgessesses causing diverse heartburnings 
between them and the people occasioned an injunction to 
make agreement for the allowance before the election which 



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VIRGINIA IN 168S.— HOUSE OF BURGESSES. 13 

may hereafter probably induce intereated persons to pur- 
chase votes by offering to serve at low rates, by which 
means the candour and flreedome which should be in the 
choice of persons credited with soe honorable and greate a 
trust might be very much prejudiced and that place itself 
become mercenary and comtemptable, — Be it therefore enacted 
that the maintenance of every burgesse shal be one hundred 
and fifty pounds of tobacco and caske per day, besides the 
necessary charge of goeing to the Assembly and retoroing." 
Each county paid its own delegates from the county levy. 

All freemen, at first exercised the right of suffrage. They 
sent their suffrage to the place of election, in writing, when it 
was most convenient not to attend personally. Keithor the 
place of election, or the qualifications of candidates for the 
Assembly were established by law, till necessity compelled. 
Act 8th, 1654, declares — "The persons who shall be elected to 
serve in Assembly shall be such and no other than such as are 
persons of known integrity and of good conversation and of 
the age of one and twenty years." By the same act the Right 
of Suffrage was restricted — "all housekeepers whether ffree- 
bolders, leaseholders, or otherwise tenants, shall onely be 
capable to elect Burgesses — Provided that this word house- 
keeper repeated in this act extend no further than to one 
person in a ffamily." The next year this restriction was 
repealed. In the Bevisal of 1657, 8, the right of suffrage was 
extended to — " all persons inhabiting in the colony that are 
freemen." Bat by Act Sd, 1670 the right of suffrage was 
confined to freeholders — " Whereas the usuall way of chuseing 
burgesses by the votes of all persons who having served their 
time are ffreemen of this country who having little interest in 
the country doe oftener make tumults at the election to the 
disturbance of his majestie's peace, then by their discretions in 
their votes provide for tho conservative thereof, by making 
ehoyce of persons fitly qualified for the discharge of soe great 
a trust, and whereas the lawes of England grant a voyce in 
such election only to such as by their estates real or pcraonall 
have interest enough to tye them to the endeavour of the pub- 
lique good : — it is hereby enacted that none but ffreehoMors and 
housekeepers who only are answerable to tho publique for the 
levies shall hereafter have a voice in tho election of any bur- 
gesses in this country; and that the election be at the Court- 
iiouse." This restriction was enforced by the instructions from 
King Charles 2d to Governor Berkeley in 1676. In article 2d, 
he says — " You shall take care that the members of the Assem- 
bly be elected on!y by Freeholders as being more agreeable to 
the custome of England, to which you are as nigh as conve- 
niently you can to conforme yourselfe." 



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14 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

In 1688 the loilians in Virginia were a subdued people. 
Thej never welcomed the English to a permanent settlement. 
They met, with ivarliko demonstrations, the little band that 
stepped on shore at Cape Henry the 26th of April, 1607, and 
wounded them with arrows. For about seventy years, they 
resisted the English at every advance into the country, as ene- 
mies whose destruction they would gladly compass at all hazards. 
Their power and spirits were broken by Nathaniel Bacon in 
1676. Powhatan never loved the whitemen. He made every 
effort, a sagacious savage could devise, for their destruction. 
The influence of that admirable girl, Pocahontas, was wonderful 
and extensive but temporary. It is an exhibition of the power of 
loveliness and gentleness over barbarians. She was the beauty 
of her tribe, — of Virginia ; as gentle and kind as she was beau- 
tiful. Her father loved her passionately. The nation admired 
her. The father's love, and the nation's admiration were the 
Englishman's shield. The Virginia Indians, in their almost 
numberless tribes, had, from the head of tide water to the 
ocean, been brought under the dominion of the warlike Pow- 
hatan. The fierce Opechankanough, in his implacable enmity, 
breathed the true spirit of the savages. Brave in war, open in 
his enmity, he carried the hearts of the redmcn with him. He 
knew well there could be no divided empire with the English. 
He turned the chafed spirits of the subjugated tribes against 
these intruders. The fires of exterminating war burned in every 
savage breast. They asked no peace whilo the habitation of a 
whiteman encumbered their cornfields, or his footsteps were 
traced in their forests. Opechankanough died as he lived, a 
brave, implacable savage. 

The doings of the English, in the early years of their settle- 
ment, were not calculated to win the confidence of the natives, 
or break their cour;%e. The ease with which they would be 
surprised, provoked the depredations of the savages. And the 
unwise and feeble revenge of the colonists embittered the 
already aggravated and cruel spirits of barbarous men, that 
fought for their forest fields and comfortless homes. The sea- 
captains, and traders, and explorers seemed to forget that the 
Natives had rights or fe.elings, and that revenge is the darling 
passion of the savage. Corn grew luxuriously, in the Indians' 
fields, along the river banks, yielding abundance for the tribes, 
but not enough to supply the colonists, and the vessels visiting 
the coast. When traffic and persuasion, and threats, failed 
to procure the wished supply, resort was had to violence. 
Bolfe's narrative, as given by Smith, says, — "In December 
(1619) Captain Ward returned from Patawomeek the people 
there dealt falsely with him, so that he took eight hundred 
bushels of eorne from them by force." One man alone was 



"•— 8'^ 



VIRGINIA IN 1688.— INDIANS. J5 

more terrible to tliem than all the colony beside, in its early 
years, Captain John Smith. They trembled at his very name. 
His bravery, his strength, his power of command, hia excel- 
lence in every thing a savage adinired, 'united to hia aceom- 
pliahmcnta as an Englishman, entirely overawed their fierce 
spirits. Ardently desiring hia death, they knew not how to 
kill him when in their power. The rest they hated, and mur- 
dered as occasion offered. 

The early chartera speak of christainizing the aavagea as 

fart of the objects designed in making settlements in Virginia, 
n the letters patent to Sir Thomas Gates, 1606, the begin- 
ning of a plantation in America, between thirty-eight and five 
and forty degrees of north latitude, is spoken of as — " a work 
which may, by the Providence of Almighty God, hereafter 
tend to the glory of his divine majesty, in propagating Chris- 
tian religion to such people as yet live in darkness and misera- 
ble ignorance of the true knowledge and worship of (, J and 
may in time bring the infidels and savages living n those 
parts, to human civility, and to a settled quiet go e nment 
In the third charter dated March 12th, 1611-12— and for 
the propagation of Christian religion, and reclaiming, of p j le 
barbarous to civility and humanity we have by ou lette s 
patent, &c." In the commission, to Sir Francis Wyatt and 
hia Council, dated July 24th, 1621, — "which said Council are 
to assist the Governor in the administration of justice, to ad- 
vance Christianity among Indiana, to erect the colony in 
obedience, &c." In the instructions given him, the third is — 
" To use meana to convert the heathen, viz. to converse with 
some ; each town to teach some children fit for the college 
intended to bo built." The history of this college shows kind 
and benevolent designs which were not succeaaful and is worthy 
of remembrance. 

Eiforts, for the conversion of the savages, were early made, 
by some ministers, and some pious laymen, Opechankanongh 
pretended a desire to become a christian. He beguiled the pioua 
head of the college, Mr. Thorpe, to take much pains in instruct- 
ing him, in hopes of numerous converts, till the fatal Friday, 
March 22d, 1622. That good man, with multitudes of others, 
was horribly massacred, according to the secret plans of this 
wily chief, who und tl m k f eligion plotted the complete 
and sudden destruct n f th E lish. 

* Kev. Robert Hunt n f tl e few of that company who 
landed at Jamestown th Ifeth of May, 1607, whose bio- 
graphy posterity will d H appears to have been equal 
to his station aa pa t f th 1 nists. Whatever may have 
been his desires for the conversion of the savages, the difficul- 
ties of his situation and his short life prevented the accomplieh- 



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16 SKETCHES OF ViaGINIA. 

ment of any good. Mr. "Whitaker instructed and baptized 
Pocahontas, in preparation for her marriage; but neither the 
baptism nor the marriage exorcised any happy influence towards 
the conversion of hor nation to Christianity. Capt. Smith, in 
vol. lat, p. 58, gives us — " the opinion of Master Jonas Stock- 
ham a minister in Virginia, who even at this time when all 
things were so prosperous, and the salvages at the point of con- 
version, against all their governours and eouncels opinion, writ 
to the couneoll & company in England to this effect. May 28th, 
1621. As for thoao lasie servants who had rather stand all 
day idle, than worke, though but an houre in this Vineyard, & 
spend their substance riotously, than east the auperfiuity of their 
wealth into your treasury I leave them as they are to the eter- 
nal] judge of the world B t y ght worthy that hath 
adventured so freely, I w 11 n t x m ne, if it were for the 
glory of God, or your d e of which it may be you 
expect should flow unto y u w tl a full t de, for the conversion 
of the Salvages : I wonde y u u e t the means. I confess 
you say well to have them e t d by faire means, but they 
scorne to acknowledge it, as for the gifts hestowcd on them 
they devoured them, and so they would the givers if they could, 
and though many have endeavoured by all means they could 
by kindnesse to convert them, they find nothing from them but 
derision and ridiculous answers. We have sent hoies amongst 
them to Icarne their language, but they return worse than they 
went ; hut I am no Statesman, nor love I to meddle with any 
thing but my bookes, but I can find no probability hy this 
course to draw them to goodnesse ; and I am persuaded if Mars 
and Minerva goe hand in hand they will effect more good in 
one houre than these verbal Mercurians in their lives, and till 
priests and ancients have their throats cut, there is no hope to 
bring them to conversion." Smith appears to have adopted 
this opinion. It spread over the colony, and through England ; 
and efforts for the conversion of the Indians were few previous 
to the eighteenth century. That individuals felt deeply inte- 
rested for the salvation of this unhappy race is unquestionable ; 
but public sympathy was not with them for a century after the 
fatal massacre of 1622. 

The Acts of Legislature passed in 1623, 4, show the terror of 
the colonists and their hostile feelings towards the authors of 
their sufferings. Act 23d says, "that every dwelling house 
shall be pallizaded in for defence against the Indians." Act 
24th — "that no man go or send abroad without a sufficient 
party well armed," In 16B2 the citizens were required to 
carry their arms to church. Act 25tli — "that men go not to 
worke in the ground without their arms (and a centenell upon 
them.) Act 26 says — "that the inhabitants go not aboard 



"•— 8'^ 



VIRGINIA IN 16SS.— INDIANS. I^ 

sliips or upon any other oecasioBS in such numbers, as thereby 
to weaken and endanger the plantations." Act 27th — "that 
the commander of every plantation take care that there be 
sufficient powder and ammunition within the plantation under 
his command and their pieces fixt and their arms complete." 
Act 29 — " that no commander of any plantation do either him- 
selfe or suffer others to spend powder unnecessarily in drinking 
or entertainments." Act 32d contemplates the entire destruc- 
tion of the Indians — "that at the beginning of July next the 
inhabitants of every corporation shall fall upon their adjoyning 
salvages, as we did last yeare, those that shall be hurt upon 
service, to be cured at the public charge ; in case any to be 
lamed to be maintained by the country according to his person 
and quality." 

This war of extermination was carried on, with spirit, for 
years. At last it became disgusting. The savages were less 
spirited in their attacks and defence, and the colonists began 
to feel the savages were men, barbarous indeed, but men pos- 
sessed of rights. The 1st Act of the Session 1655, 6, was in 
their favour; — "Whereas wee have bin often putt into great 
dangers by the invasions of our neighboring and bordering 
Indians which humanely have been only caused by these two 
particulars our extreme pressures on them and thcire wanting 
of something to hazard and loose beside their lives; Therefore 
this Grand Assembly on mature advice doth make these throe 
ensuing acts, which by the blessing of God may prevent our 
dangers for the future and may he a sensible benefitt to the 
whole country for the present: fBrst, for every eight wolves 
heads brought us by the Indians, the king or great man (as 
they call him) shall have a cow delivered him at the charge o£ 
the publick. This will be a step to civilizing tliem and to 
making them Christians, besides it will certainly make the com- 
manding Indians watch over their own men that they do us no 
injuries, knowing that by their default they may be in danger 
of losing their estates, and therefore be it enacted as aforesaid 
only with this exception that Accomack shall pay for no more 
than what are tilled in their own county." 

" Secondly — If the Indians shall bring in any children as 
gages of their good and quiet intentions to us and amity with 
us, then the parents of such children shall choose the persona 
to whom the care of such children shall be entrusted, and the 
cquntrey by us their representatives do engage that wee mil not 
use them as slaves bat do their best to bring them up in Chris- 
tianity, civihty, and the knowledge of necessary trades: And 
on the report of the commissioners of each respective county 
that those under whose tuition they are, do really intend the 
bettering of the children in these particulars then a salary shall 
be allowed to such men as shall deserve and require it." 



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18 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

Thirdly — " What lands the Indiana shall be possessed of by 
order of this or other ensuing assemblyes, such land shall not 
be alienable by them the Indians to any man de futuro,>for this 
■will putt us to a continuall necessity of allotting them new 
lands and possessions, and they will be alwaies in feare of what 
they hold not being able to distinguish between our desires to 
buy or enforcement to have, in case their grants and sales be 
desired: Therefore be it enacted tbat for the future no sucb 
alienations or bargaines and sales be valid without the assent 
of the Assembly. This act not to prejudice any Christian 
who hath land allready granted by patent." 

In the session of 1657, 8, acts were passed forbidding any 
person, to whom an Indian child had been committed, assign- 
ing or any way transferring that child; and that the child 
should be free at twenty-five years of age : — also to prevent the 
stealing of Indian children, or the buying them from the 
Indians or others for traiEe, or the selling them in any condi- 
tion by the English, on penalty of five hundred pounds of 
tobacco. 

But in 1676, in consequence of the exasperation arising 
from Eaeon's war, the Assembly resolved — " and bee it further 
enacted hy the authority aforesaid, that all Indians taken in 
warr shall be held and accounted slaves during life." This act 
was repealed by the general act setting aside all the acts of 
Assembly that sat in 1676 under the auspices of Bacon. But 
it is believed that there are slaves living who are descended 
from Indian captives, in this, or previous wars. 

Nothing had been done for Christianizing the Indians, that 
produced any efi'ect, from the settlement of the colony till the 
English Revolution in 1688. Besides Pocahontas, no name of 
an individual is given that embraced Christianity. Their num- 
bers had decreased; their power and spirits were broken. 
While they ceased to make war upon the English, they hated 
them no less, and lovod their religion and desired their civiliza- 
tion no moro. After the death of the famous Powhatan, and 
the fierce Opechankanough, no warrior or statesman of emi- 
nence arose among the Indians east of the mountains. The 
feeble tribes after Bacon's war were esteemed helpless enemies 
rather than terrible foes, for whose civilization or conversion 
there was no hope. Among all the Indian women of Virginia, 
Pocahontas had no rival, and posterity will lovo to think that 
few of any race either in England or America could claim to 
be her superior. 

The names and power of the tribes that hunted on the banks 
and fished in the streams of the beautiful rivers occupied by 
the colony in 1688 is thus given hy Smith, Vol. 1st, pp. 116 — 
118. He begins with the James, which — " falleth from rockes 



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VIRGINIA IN 168B^INDIANS. J_9 

farre west in a country inhabited by a nation they call Mona- 
cans — but wliere it commetli iato our discovery it ia Powiiatan. 
In a peninsula on the North side of this river are the English 
planted in a place they call James Towne. The first, and next 
the river's mouth are the Kecoughtans, who besides their -wo- 
men and children have not past 20 fighting men. The Paspa- 
heghea (on whose land is seated James Towne some 40 myles 
from the Bay) have not past 40. The river called Chickaha^ 
wania, the backe river of James Towne neare 250. The 
Weanocks 100. The Arrowhatocks 30. The place called 
Powhatan, some 40. On the south side this river the Ap- 
pamatuchs have 60 fighting men. The Quiyoughcobanocka 
2o. The Nansamunds 200. The Cheropeacks 100. Four- 
teen mylea northward from the river Powhatan ia the river 
Pamounkee. On the south side inhabit the people of Yough- 
tenund, who have about 60 men for warres. On the north 
branch Mattapament, who have 30 men. "Where the river ia 
divided the country ia called Pamounkee, and nourisheth ncare 
300 able men. About 25 myles lower on the north side of this 
river is Werawoeomico, where their king inhabited when I was 
delivered him prisoner; yet they are not past 40 able men. 
Ten or twelve myles lower on the south side of this river, ia 
Chiskeack, which hath some 40 or 50 men. These, as also 
Apamatuck, Irrohatuck and Powhatan, are the great King's 
chief alliance, and inhabitants. The rest his conquests. There 
is anuther river, some 30 myles navagable that commcth from 
inland, called Payankatanke, the inhabitants are about 50 or 60 
servicable men. The third navigable river is called Tappaha- 
nock, this id navigable some 130 mylea. At the top of it inhabit 
the people called Mannahoacks amongst the mountaines. Upon 
this river on the north side are the people Cuttatawomen, with 
30 fighting men. Higher are the Moraughtacunds, with 80. 
Beyond them Rappahanock with 100. Far above is another 
Cuttatawomen with 20. On the south is the pleasant seat of 
Nantaughtacund having 150 men. The fourth river is called 
Patawomeke. It is inhabited on both sides. First on the 
south side at the very entrance is Wighcocomico and hath 
some 130 men, beyond them Sekacawone with 30. The 
Onawmanient with 100. And the Patawmokes more than 
200." 

On the eastern shore in Accomac, he reckons on the river 
Tants Wicomico with 100 men; the Acohanock-with 40; Ac- 
comack 80. Southward, the Chawonocks and Mangoaga. 
There were numberless small divisions of these tribes whose 
names are occasionally mentioned in history. 

The effort to convert the Indians was made in good faith. 
Stiih tells us, pp. 1623, that the king had formerly issued 



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20 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

letters to the bishops in his kingdom — " for collecting money 
to erect and build a college in Virginia, for the training up and 
educating infidel children in the true knowledge of Crod. And 
according there had been paid near fifteen hundred pounds 
towards it." The Bishop of Litchfield promised Sir Edwin 
Landys that a collection should he made in his diocese for the 
purpose. And he (Sir Edward) likewise moved and obtained, 
that ten thousand acres of land should be laid off for the Uni- 
versity at Henrico, a place formerly resolved on for that 
purpose. This was intended, as well for the college for the 
education of Indians, as also to lay the foundation of a semi- 
nary of learning for the English." Fifty men were sent in 
1619 and fifty more the next summer to work these lands — 
" as tenants at halves." From each of these hundred hands it 
was expected that five pounds would be gained. Thus five 
hundred pounds a year would be secured to the college. Mr. 
George Thorpe, a kinsman of Sir Thomas Dale, and a gentle- 
man of his Majesty's privy chamber, and one of the Council in 
England for Virginia, was sent over in 1620 as the company's 
deputy and superintendent of the colony. For his support 
the company allowed three hundred acres with ten tenants. 
" And (p. 166) he particularly mentioned one unknown gentle- 
man alone, who promised five hundred pounds, on demand, for 
the conversion and education of threescore Indian children. 
There had been (p. 171) presented, by an unknown person the 
former year (1619) a communion cup, with a cover and case, a 
trencher plate for the bread, a carpet of crimson velvet, and a 
damask table-cloth, for the use of the college. And now in 
the beginning of this year (1620) another unknown person sent 
five hundred pounds directed, To Sir Edwin Landya, the faith- 
ful Treasurer of Virginia. This was for the maintenance of a 
convenient number of young Indians, from seven or under to 
twelve years of age, to be instructed in reading and the princi- 
ples of the Christian religion, and then to be trained and 
brought up in some lawful trade, with all gentleness and 
humanity, till they attained the age of twenty-one; and 
after that to have ^nd enjoy the like privileges with the native 
English in Virginm iho company ordered a treaty to be 
made with Opechankanough in order to promote the design, 
and also that presents be made him. " Mr. Nicholas Farrar 
who bequeathed thiee hunlred pounds for converting the infi- 
del children in "Vngmia to be paid at such time as it should 
appear by certificite that ten Indian children were placed in 
college." Mr. Thorpe entered upon his ofSco with spirit ; 
made the treaty gave the presents, and as he supposed won 
the confidence of the savage chief. In the fearful massacre 



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VIRGINIA IN 16S8,— THE AFRICAKS. 21 

perpetrated by the savage chief in 1622, this friend of the 
Indiana was cruelly murdered. With him expired the college, 
for the civilization of the Indians. 

Servants of the African race, in 1688, composed about one 
twentieth of the population. The first company of Negroes 
were brought into the colony in the month of August succeed- 
ing the first meeting of the Burgesses, under Governor Teardly. 
Beverly, in his history of Virginia, says that the introduction of 
NeOToes ivaa in the summer after the first meeting of the house 
of Burgesses, and that these two events took place in 1620. 
Smith in his history of Virginia says the two events took place 
in 1619: vol. 2, pp. 37, SS, 39— "For to begin with the 
yeare of our Lord 1619 there arrived a little pinnace privately 
from England about Easter for Captain Argall, who taking 
order for his affairs, within four or five dales returned in her, 
and left for his deputy Captain Nathaniel Powell. On the 
eighteenth of April], which was ten or twelve daies after, 
arrived Sir George Yearly, by whom we understood Sir Ed- 
ward Sands was chosen Treasurer, and Master John Parrar 
his deputy. Sir George Yearly to beginne his government 
added to be of his Councell Captaine Francis West, Captain 
Nathaniel Powell, Master John Porey, Master John Rolfe and 
Master William Wickham and Master Samuel Macoike, and 
propounded to have a Generall Assembly with all expedition. 
In May came in the Margaret of Bristoll, with four and thirty 
men, all well and in health, and also many devout gifts, and 
we were much troubled in examining some scandalous letters 
sent to England, to disgrace this country with barrennesse, to 
discourage the adventurers. The 25th of June came in the 
Triall with come and cattell all in safety, which took from us 
cleerely all feare of famine ; then our Governor and Councell 
caused Burgesses to be chosen in all places, and met at a 
General! Assembly, where all matters were debated thought 
expedient for the good of the colony. About the last of 
August came in a Dutch man-of-warre that sold na twenty 
Negroes." Stith in his history of Virginia says on the fourth 
page of his preface — " the inquisitive reader will easily per- 
ceive how much of this volume is founded on Captain Smith's 
materials. They are large and good and of unquestionable 
authority, for what is related while he staid in the country. 
The latter part of his history especially from Captain Argall'a 
government is liable to some just suspicions. Not that I ques- 
tion Captain Smith's integrity ; for I take him to have been a 
very honest man and a strenuous lover of truth," In his 182d 
page of history Mr. Stith relating the doings of 1620 says — 
" In May this year, there was held another General Assembly, 
which has through mistake, and the indolence and negligence 



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22 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

of onr historians, in searching sueh ancient records as are still 
extant in the country, been commonly reputed the first General 
Assembly of Virginia. But the privilege was granted 'sooner, 
&c."; and in hia history of the doings of 1619 he follows 
Smith's account of the calling the Assembly. At the close of 
the sentence he adds — "And we are likewise told by Mr. 
Beverly, that a Dutch ship putting in this year sold twenty 
Negroes to the colony, which were the first of that generation, 
that were ever brought to America;" — but he does not give 
the reason why he follows Beverly in this matter and Smith in 
the other. Modern historians have followed Beverly without 
giving a reason. The oldest authority is for placing the intro- 
duction of Negroes in 1619, 

_ Until the introduction of Negroes the labours of the planta- 
tion were thrown as much as possible on hired servants, as in 
England; or on bought servants, persona, who by previous 
agreement with ship-owners, were sold to planters for a term of 
years sufficient to pay for their transportation. The tending 
tobacco is particularly irksome and was gladly consigned to 
redemptioners and heathen Africans. In 1619, says Stith — 
p. 167-8, "the Treasurer and Council received a letter from 
his Majesty, commanding them forthwith to send away to 
Virginia a hundred dissolute persons, which Sir Edward Zouch 
the Knight Marshal would deliver to them. In obedience to 
his Majesty's command, it was resolved to send them over with 
all eonveniency to be servants, which the Treasurer nnder- 
stood, would be very acceptable to the colony. And I cannot 
but remark, how early that custom arose of transporting loose 
and dissolute persons to Virginia as a place of punishment and 
disgrace. It hath laid one of the finest countries in British 
America under the unjust scandal of being a mere hell upon 
earth," These dissolute persons arrived in the year 1620. 

Those servants who were sold for their passage commanded 
different prices at difi'erent times. We are told by Smith, vol. 
2, pp. 104, 5, that the passage money was six, eight, or ten 
pounds ; but that the demand for them was so great in a few 
years, that they were sold in Virginia for forty, fifty, and sixty 
pounds. In page 88 he tells us — "an industrious man not 
otherwies imploied may well tend four akers of corne, and 
1000 plants of tobacco," The produce of corn on new ground, 
he says was — " thirty or forty bushels an aker, and a barrel! 
of pease and beanes, which we esteem as good as two of corne, 
BO that one man may provide corne for five and apparell for 
two by the profit of his tobacco." The price of the Africans 
at their introduction is not given. The thousand plants of 
tobacco would produce about one hundred weight of merchant- 
able tobacco. In 1672 the price of a servant to serve five 



"•— rfl^ 



VIRGINIA IN 1888.— THE AFRICANS. 23 

years was about ten, and of an African, according to Bancroft, 
vol. 1, p. 115, about twenty-five pounds. 

In 1688 about one in twenty of the inhabitants of Virginia 
were of the African race. Vigorous efforts were made by 
pains and penalties to prevent the intermingling of the white 
and black races. The Anglo Saxon and the African was to be 
kept pure, the one as master, and the other as slave. The 
result of servitude, beyond the present gain, and the possible 
intermingling, of the two races, in some small degree, appears 
never to have been anticipated. The gain from the African 
labour outweighed all fears of evil from the intermixture. 
There appears to have been no question about the morality and 
right of purchasing them for life, any more than of purchasing 
for a term of years those servants that come from England, 
who ultimately became freemen. 

"When a mixed breed appeared, it was enacted in 1662, in 
order to render all such connexion opprobrious, that — "Negro 
womcns children serve according to the condition of their 
mother." Greater severity in the management of Negroes 
was judged advisable, and in 1G69 it was enacted — "Whereas 
the only law in force for the punishment of refractory servants 
resisting their master, mistress or overseer cannot be inflicted 
upon Negroes, nor the obstinacy of many of them by other 
than violent means supprest, — Be it enacted and declared by 
this Grand Assembly, if any slave resist his master (or other 
by his masters order correcting them) and by the extremity of 
the correction should chance to die, that his death shall not be 
accompted ffelony, but the master (or that other person ap- 
pointed by the master to punish him) be acquit from molesta- 
tion, since it cannot be presumed that prepensed malice (which 
aloae makes murther ffelony) should induce any man to destroy 
his own estate." 

Act 3d, 1667 declares that — "Whereas some doubts have 
arisen whether children that are slaves by birth, and by the 
charity and piety of their owners, made partakers of the 
blessed sacrament of baptisme, should in virtue of their bap- 
tisme be made ffree. It is enacted and declared by the Grand 
Assembly, and the authority therof, that the conferring of 
baptisme doth not alter the condition of the person as to his 
bondage or ffireedom ; that divers masters ffreed from this doubt 
may more carefully endeavour the propagation of Christianity 
by permitting children, though -slaves, or those of greater 
growth if capable to be admitted to that sacrament." 

What persons were to be held as slaves is thus set forth by 
Act 12th, 1670 — "Whereas some dispute having arisen whe- 
ther the Indians taken in warr by any other nation, and by that 
nation that taketh them sold to the English, are servants for 



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24 



SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 



life or term, of years, — It is resolved and enacted that all ser- 
vants not being Christians imported into this colony by ship- 
ping shall be slaves for their lives ; but what shall come by land 
shall serve, if hoyes or girlea until thirty yeares of age ; if men 
or women twelve yeares and no longer." 

But in the year 1682 the Legislature went at length into 
this subject, and determined what persons shall be held slaves 
for life in Virginia, Act 1st, after reciting the act of 1670, 
goes on to say — "and forasmuch as many negroes, moores, 
mullatoes and others borne of and in heathenish, idollatrous, 
pagan, and mahomctan parentage and country have heretofore, 
and may hereafter he purchased, procured or otherwise obtain- 
ed of, from or out of such their heathenish country by some 
well disposed christians, who after such their obtaining and 
purchasing s«ch negroe moor or molatto as their slave, out of 
a pious aeale have wrought the conversion of such slaves to the 
christian faith, which by the laws of the country doth not 
manumit them or make them free, and afterwards seeck their 
conversion, it hath and may often happen that such master or 
owner of such slaves being by some reason inforced to bring 
or send such slaves into this country to sell or dispose of for 
his necessity or advantage, he the said master or owner of 
such servant which notwithstanding his conversion is really his 
slave, or his factor or agent must be constrained either to carry 
back or export againe the said slave to some other place where 
they may sell him for a slave, or else depart from their just 
right and tytle to such slave, and sell him here for no longer 
time than the English, or other christians are to serve, to the 
great losse and damage of such masters or owners; and the 
great discouragement of bringing in such slaves for the future 
and to no advantage at all to the planter or buyer; — and 
whereas also those Indians that are taken in warre or otherwise 
by our neighboring Indians confederates or tributaries to his 
majestie, and this his plantation of Virginia are slaves to the 
neighbouring Indians that soe take them and by them are like- 
wise sold to his majesties subjects here as slaves, — Bee it 
therefore enacted &c. — that all the said recited act of the 5th 
of September 1670 be, and is hereby repealed and made utterly 
voyd to all intents and purposes whatsoever. And be it 
enacted &c. — that all servants except Turkes and Moores 
■whilst in Amity with his majesty which from and after the 
publication of this act shall be brought or imported into this 
country, either by sea or land, whether Moores, Molattoes or 
Indians, who and whose parentage and native country are not 
christian at tho time of the first purchase of such servant by 
some christian although afterwards and before such their im- 
portation and bringing into this country, they shall be con- 



VIEGISiA IN 168S.— FOKM OP RELIGION. 25 

verted to the christian faith ; and all Indiana which shall 
hereafter be sold hj our neighbouring Indians or any other 
trafiqueing with us aa for slaves are hereby adjudged deemed 
and taken, and shall be adjudged deemed and taken to be 
slaves to all intents and purposes, any law usage or customs to 
the contrary notwithstanding. 

By the 3d Act of the same legislature, masters and over- 
seers were forbidden to — "permitt or suffer, without leave or 
license of his or their master or overseer, any negroe or slave 
not properly belonging to him or them, to remain or be upon 
his or their plantation above the space of four hourea at any 
one time." The penalty was two hundred pounds of tobacco. 
This act waa intended as a safeguard against insurrection. It 
made tho plantation of the master both the home, and the 
world, to the slave. 

So the state of servitude stood in 1688. There were inden- 
ted servants, redemptioners or those sold for a term of time 
for their passage, the dissolute and convicts and rebels sent 
away from England, and the African slaves. The last finally 
became predominant. They havo done the hard work, ami 
have in a measure moulded the habits and manners of Virginia. 

Toleration, in tho forms of Religion, was unknown in Virgi- 
nia in 1688. From the commencement of the colony, the 
necessity of the religioua element was felt. The company 
knew not how to control the members composing tho colony, 
but by religion and law. They exercised a despotism in both. 
The colonist left England from no ecclesiastical or political 
grievance. The advantages they expected to gain waa a 
release from poverty and debt. The hope of improving their 
condition cheered them to undertake the perilous enterprise. 

In their habits, manners, tastes, and style of living, they as 
nearly resembled England, as their possessions, and the soil, 
climate and productions of their new home, would permit. By 
force of circumstances they changed much, intentionally no- 
thing. They had been educated in the Church of England. 
They chose her forma, and her creed. The minister, Robert 
Hunt, that came with them, had been set apart by Diocesan 
authority. 

That many of the colonists disliked tbe restraints of that reli- 
gion, all required for their well being, is evident from Smith. 
He says, vol. 1st, p. 150—" On the 19th of December, 1606, we 
set sayle from Blackwall, but by unprospcroua winds were kept 
six weeks in the aight of England ; all which time, Mr. Hunt 
our preacher was so weake and sicke, that few expected his 
recovery. Yet although he was but twentie mylea from hiB 
habitation {the time we were in the Downes) and notwithstand- 
ing the stormy weather, nor the scandalous imputations (of 



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SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 



some few little l^etter than Atheists, of the greatest rank 
amongst us) suggested against him, all this could never force 
from him so much as a seeming desire to leave the business, 
but preferred the service of Grod, in so good a voyage, before 
any affection to contest with his godlesse foes, whose disas- 
terous designs (could tbey have prevailed) had even then over- 
thrown the busmesse, so many discontents did there arise, had 
he not with the water of patience, and his godly exhortations 
(but chiefly by his true devoted example) quenched those 
flowers of envie and diasention." 

At first the adventurers laboured and lived and traded in 
common stock. This state of things was to continue for five 
years, by the King's order. The King in his directions in 
1606, according to Stith, pp. 37, and 40, required — "that the 
said presidents, councils, and the ministers, should provide, 
that the true word and service of God be preached, planted, 
and used, not only in the said colonies but also, as much as 
might be, among the savages bordering upon them, according 
to the Rites and Doctrine of the Church of England, That 
all persons should kindly treat the savage and heathen people 
in those parts, and use all proper means to draw them to the 
true service and knowledge of God, and that all just and cha- 
ritable courses should be taken with such of them, as would 
conform themselves to any good and sociable traf&ck, thereby 
the sooner to bring them to the knowledge of God and the 
obedience of the King." 

Sir Thomas Dale who came over as high marshal of Virginia, 
introduced rules and regulations drawn up for him by Sir 
Thomas Smith, under the title of "Lawes, divine, moral!, and 
marshall for Virginia." The first section of this document 
says — "I do strictly command and charge all captaines and 
officers of what qualitie or nature soever, whether commanding 
in the field, or in towne, or towncs, forts, or fortresses, to 
have care that the Almighty God bee duly and daily served, 
and that they call upon their people to hear sermons ; as that 



also they diligently frequent morni 
themselves, by their own exemplar 
herein encouraging others thereunto 
often and wilfully absent themselves, 



ng and evening prayer 
and daily life and duty, 
; and that such who shall 
be duly punished accord- 



ing to the marshall law in that case provided." By the second 
law, death was the penalty of speaking "impiously" against 
the Trinity, or the known articles of religion. By tho third 
law, boring the tongue with a bodkin was tho penalty for pro- 
fanity, the second ofience. And for blaspheming God, the 
third ofi'ence was death by sentence of "Martial! Court." 
By the fifth law unbecoming treatment of ministers of religion 
was punished by whipping the offender three times publicly, 



"•— 8'^ 



VIRGINIA IN 1688.— FORM OF RELIGION. 2T 

and he " aske public forgiveness in tho assemblie of the congre- 
gation three several Sabbath daiea," By the sixth, absence 
from church " on the first towling of the bell upon the working 
daiea to heare divine service" — for the second offence, whip- 
ping, — for the third, six months in the gallies. For neglecting 
divine service on the Sabbath, — the third offence, death. By 
the thirty-third law, a failure to give satisfactory account of 
religious knowledge to the minister, — whipping; the second 
offence, two whippings and public acknowledgment; for the 
third offence whipping every day till the offender comply with 
the law. While Stith exclaims against these laws as subver- 
sive of the rights of Englishmen, he admits that — "had not 
these military laws been so strictly executed at this time, there 
were little hopes or probability of preventing the utter subver- 
sion of the colony." 

The little we know of the first ministers that came to Vir- 
ginia makes us wish we knew more. Bev. Robert Hunt, that 
saved the first colony from a mutiny while yet in sight of 
England, has left scarce a memorial. After the burning of 
Jamestown in 1607, 8, Smith says of him, — "Master Hunt 
our preacher lost all his library and all he had but the cloathes 
onhisbaeke; yet none never heard him repine at his loss." 
We know not the time of his death. 

A brief but honourable testimony is borne of Mr. Whitaker, 
minister of Bermuda Hundred, who instructed Pocahontas in 
the principles of the Christian religion, administered to her the 
ordinance of baptism, and performed for her the marriage 
ceremony. Smith, vol. 2d, p. 32, says — "Master Whitaker 
their preacher — (under date of June 18th 1614) complaineth, 
and much museth, that so few of our English ministers, that 
were so hot against the surplice and subscription come hither, 
where neether is spoken of. Doe they not wilfully bide their 
talents, or keep themselves at home for feare of losing a few 
pleasures; be there not any among them of Moses his minde, 
and the Apostles, that forsook all to follow Christ, but I refer 
them to the Judge of all hearts, and to the King that shall 
reward every one according to his talent." Mr. Whitaker had 
the charge of the town of Henrico, built in tho year 1611. 
He enclosed a hundred acres of laud, and built a parsonage 
which he called Eockhall. In the Epistle dedieatorie of W. 
Crashawe to the " Good Newes from Virginia" there is this 
eulogium. " I hereby let all men know that a schollar, a gra- 
duate, a preacher, well borne and friended in England; not in 
debt, nor disgrace, but competently provided for, and liked 
and beloved where he lived; not in want, but (for a schollar 
and as these days may be) rich in possession, and more in pos- 
sibilitie; of himself, without any persuasion (hut God's and his 



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28 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

own henrt) did voluntarily leare his -warmG nest; and to tlie 
■wonder of his kindred and amazement of them that knew him, 
undertooke this hard, but, in my judgement, heroicall resolu- 
tion to go to Virginia, and hclpe to beare the name of God 
unto the Gentiles." A memoir of thia man would find readers 
every where. 

In 1619 — the year the first colonial assembly was beld — the 
year African servants were brought into the colony — the year 
that the king determined to send dissolute persons to Vir- 

finia, and the company determined to send the colonists wives, 
Ir. Stith tells us there were about six hundred persons in the 
colony divided into eleven parishes, and for the supply of these 
there were five preachers- The doings of the colonial assembly 
before the year 1623, 4, are not known; but from after refer- 
ence it appears the salary of the ministers was ten pounds of 
tobacco per poll and a bushel of corn, provided it did not exceed 
fifteen hundred pounds of tobacco and sixteen barrels of com. 

In 1623, 4, the first assembly, whose records have been pre- 
served, held its meeting in the month of March. The first 
Act says — "There shall be in every plantation, where the 
people use to meete for the worship of God, a house or room 
ecquestered for that purpose, and not to be for any temporal 
uso whatever, and a place empaled in, sequestered only for the 
buryal of the dead." 

"Act 2d. That whosoever shall absent himselfe from di- 
vine service any Sunday without an allowable excuse shall for- 
feite a pound of tobacco, and ho that absenteth himselfe a 
month shall forfeite 50 pounds of tobacco." 

" Act 3d. That there he an uniformity in our church as 
neere as may be to the canons in England, both in substance 
and circumstances, and that all persons yield readio obedience 
to them under paine of censure." 

"Act 5th. That no minister bo absent from his church above 
two months in all the yeare upon penalty of forfeiting halfe his 
means, and whosoever shall absent above foure months in the 
yeare shall forfeit his whole means and cure." 

" Act 7th. That no man dispose of any of his tobacco before 
the minister be satisfied, upon pain of forfeiture double his part 
of the ministers means, and one man of every plantation to 
collect his means out of the first and best tobacco." 

The meaning of the word "poll" is defined in Act 1st, 
1642, 3 — "be it also enacted and confirmed, that there be ten 
pounds of tob'o per poll and a bashell of corne per poll paid to 
the ministers within the severall parishes of the coHony for all 
titheable persons, that is to say, as well for youths of sixteen 
years of age as upwards, as also for all negro women at the age 
of sixteen years." By Act 8th, 1662, the tithablcs were 



VIRGINIA m 1688.— PURITANS. 29 

intended to include all malea imported and all negroes males 
or females imported. 

In the year 1632, there was a revisal of the laws. The act 
for conformity was re-enacted, somewhat varying in words but 
not in spirit. The penalty for non-attendance at church was 
changed to "one ahillinge for every tymo of any person's 
ahsenco from church having no lawfull or reasonable excuse to 
bee absent." By Act 6th, The minister was required to 
preach one sermon every Sunday in the year — " havingo no 
lawfull impediment." By Act 7th, The ministers were re- 
quired to catechise the youth and others every Sabbath " halfe 
an houro or more before evening prayer." By Act 13th, "Ail 
preachinge, administeringe of the communion baptizinge of 
children and marriages shall be done in the church except in 
cases of necessilie." 

Act 11th, 1632 — "Ministers shall not give themselves to 
excesse in drinkinge or ryott, spending their tyme idelie by 
day or by night playinge at dice, cards, or any other unlawfull 
game, hut at all tymes convenient they shall hearo or reade 
somewhat of the holy scriptures or shall occupie themselves 
with some other honest studies, or exercise, always doinge the 
things which shall appertayne to honcstie and endeavour to 
profitt the church of God, havinge alwayes in mynd tliat they 
ought to excell all others in purifcie of life, and should be exam- 
ples to the people, to live well and christianlie," 

By Act 56, 1632 — "It is ordered. That no person or per- 
sons shall depart out of this colony to inhabit or abide within 
any other plantations of New England or elsewhere, onlcsse he 
ohtayne a lysense or passe for his departure under the Gov- 
ernor's hand." 

In the Itevisal of 1642, the Act for conformity was made 
more severe on ministers. "Pfor the preservation of the 
puritie of doctrine and unitie of the church. It is enacted that 
all ministers whatsoever which shall reside in the coilony are to 
be conformable to the orders and constitutions of the church of 
England, and the laws therein established, and not otherwise to 
be admitted to teach or preach publicly or privately. And that 
the Gov. and Counsel do take care that all nonconformists 
upon notice of them shall be compelled to depart the coilony 
with all convenience." 

This law was not a dead letter as will be seen in the treat- 
ment of the Puritans. These people began early to emigrate 
to Virginia hoping to find a resting place. And although in 
1614 Mr. Whitaker — "complaineth and museth much, that so 
few of our English ministers that were so hot against the sur- 
plice and subscriptions come hither where neither is spoken 
off" — in ten years the colonial Legislature resolved to con- 



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30 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA.. 

form the Church — "aa neere as may be to the forms and 
ceremonies of the Church of England. There is no intimation 
given hy historians of any persons in the colony to whom this 
law could apply but the Puritans. Cotton Mather in hia 
Magnalia, vol. Ist, pp. 538, 539, tells us — "In the year 1741, 
one Mr. Bennot, a gentleman from Virginia, arrived at Boston, 
Tvith letters from well disposed persons there, unto the ministers 
of New England, bewailing their said condition, for the waat 
of the glorious gospel, and entreating that they might hence 
be supplied with ministers of that gospel. These letters were 
openly read at Boston, upon a lecture day; whereupon the 
ministers agreed upon setting apart a day for fasting and 
prayer, to implore the direction of Crod about this business ; 
and then the churches of Watertown, iBraintree and Rowley, 
having each of them two ministers apiece, Mr. Philips of Water- 
town, Mr. Thompson of Braintree, and Mr. Miller of Kowley 
were pitched upon for the intended services, whereof the Gene- 
ral Court so approved, that it was ordered the Governor should 
recommend these persons by his letters to the Governor and 
council of Virginia, Mr. Philips being indisposed to the 
voyage, Mr. Knowles went in his room; and Mr. Miller's 
bodily weakness caused h^m also to decline the voyage. But 
the two churches of Watertown and Braintree, though they 
loved their ministers very well, yet cheerfully dismissed them 
unto this great concern; accounting it their honour that they 
had such desirable persons, by whom they might make a mis- 
sion of the gospel, unto a people that sat in the region and 
shadow of death. On October 7th, 1642, they began their 
voyage: — at Rhode Island they lay long wind bound; and 
they met with so many other difficulties, that they made it 
eleven weeks of dangerous passage before they arrived at Vir- 
ginia ; nevertheless they had this advantage on the way, that 
they took in a third minister for their assistance, namely Mr. 
James then at New Haven. 

"Though their hazardous retardation in this voyage, made 
them sometimeu to suspect whether they had a clear call of 
God unto their undertaking, yet the success of their ministry, 
when they came to Virginia, did sufficiently extinguish that 
suspicion. They had little eneonra'gement from the rulers of 
the place, but they had a kind entertainment with the people ; 
and in the several parts of the country where they were he- 
stowed, there were many persons brought home to God. But 
as Austin told mankind, tlie devil was never turned Cliristian 
yet; the powers of darkness could not count it for their interest, 
that the light of the gospel powerfully preached, should reach 
those dark places of the Earth. The rulers of that province 
did not allow of their puhlick preaching ; hut instead thereof 



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VIRGIKIA IN 1688.— PURITANS. 81 

an order was made, — That aueli as would not conform to the 
ceremonies of the Church of England, should by such a day 
depart the country. By which order, these holy, faithful, 
painsful ministers, were driven away from the Virginia coast. 
But when they returned, aa they left hehind them not a few 
seals of their ministry, so they brought with them some who 
afterwards proved blessings to New England." Mr. Winthrop 
tells us, that two years previous some Emigrants from Massa- 
chusetts had sought a residence in Virginia. It is not improb- 
able that the messenger Mr. Bennet was one of these. Or he 
might have been sent in their behalf. Ho also remarks — 
"that though the state did silence the ministers, because they 
would not conform to tbe order of England, yet the people 
resorted to them in private houses to hear them." This 
mission from Massachusetts took place about the time of the 
last war of Opechankanough, which resulted in his capture. 
About this time also a great sickness prevailed in the colony, 
which Mather connects with the driving away of the missiona- 
ries. 

Mr, Calamy in his life of Baxter tells ns — in a sketch of the 
life of Mr. Knowles — that in Virginia, " Mr. Harrison, that 
was the Governor's Chaplain, openly moved they might have 
full liberty, but secretly endeavoured they might bo dismissed, 
as he owned afterwards with concern and sorrow. This waa 
that Mr. Harrison that was afterwards so useful a man in Eng- 
land and Ireland. Mr. Knowles and Mr. Thomson being dis- 
charged from public preaching in Virginia, continued a while 
preaching, privately and did much good." After having re- 
ferred to the massacre in the Indian war that followed — he 
says — "five hundred are reported to have been mvirdered on - 
this occasion. Among those that escaped this miserable mas- 
sacre, some wore gathered into church order by Mr. Harrison, 
who became quite another man after this providence than he 
was before. But the Governor dismissed his chaplain who 
was now grown too serious for him." 

In 1648, as Mr. Holmes tells us in his annals, the Puritans 
were still namerous. About one hundred and eighteen wore 
associated in church fellowship under the Pastoral care of Mr. 
Harrison. The greatest numbers were in Nansemond County. 
This year Mr. Harrison, being driven from the colony, went to 
New England and thence to England. Mr. Durand one of its 
Elders having been banished by the Governor, retreated to 
North Carolina and took his abode on a neck of land which 
still bears his name. The Congregation was scattered, and 
nothing more is heard of any puritan preacher from New 
England, or elsewhere, unless some that came over in the time 
of Cromwell were such. John Hammond, the author of a, 



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32 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

pamplilet called Leah and Ractel, puUisbed in 1656, says — 
"And there was in Virginia a certaine people Congregated into 
a church calling themselvea Independents, which daily -increas- 
ing, seyerall consultations were had bj the State of that colony, 
how to suppress and extinguish them, which was duely put in 
execution; as first their pt^tor was banished; next their other 
teachers; then many by information clapt up in prison, then 
generally disarmed (which was very harsh in such a country 
where the heathen live round about them) by one Colonel 
Samuel Matthews, then a Counsellor of Virginia, so that they 
ItQCW not in those straights how to dispose of themselves." 
Mr. Winthrop tells us — that Mr. Harrison reported that many 
of the council were favourable to him and his opinions, and 
that by conjecture about a thousand of the people were of a 
similar mind. Mr. Hubbard tells us that Mr. Harrison after 
spending a year or two in New England, went to England and 
received the degree of Doctor of Divinity, and finally settled in 
Ireland. These events signalized the early part of Sir William 
Berkeley's administration. 

During the protectorate of Cromwell the legislat "e of Vir- 
ginia made efforts that were in part successful, to obtain a 
supply of proper ministers. Act 5th 1656 declared — " Where- 
as many congregations in this colony are destitute of ministers 
whereby religion and devotion cannot but suffer much impair- 
ment and decay, which want of the destitute Congregations 
ought to be supplied by all means possible to be used. As also 
to invite and encourage ministers to repaire hither and mer- 
chants to bring them in, Bee it therefore hereby Enacted for 
the reasons aforesaid that what person or persons soever shall 
at his or their proper cost and charge transport a sufficient 
minister into this eollony without agreement made with him 
shall receive for satisfaction of his or their said charges of him 
the said minister or they that shall entertain him for their 
minister, twenty pounds sterling by bill of exchange or two 
thousand pounds of tobacco, and also for what money shall be 
disbursed for them besides their transportation to be allowed 
for." By act 1st the power of managing the affairs of the 
parish was lodged in the hands of the vestry. This was pro- 
ductive both of good and evil. The vestry were supposed to 
consult the wishes of the parishioners, and thus was there an 
approach to freedom of conscience. But the power of oppress- 
ing the whole parish in the choice of a minister was lodged in 
the hands of the vestry, "Be it enacted by this present 
Grand Assembly concerning church G-overnment as followeth, 
that all matters concerning the vestry, their agreement with 
the minister, touching the Church Wardens, the poore, and 
other things concerning the parishes or parbhioners respee- 



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VIRGINIA IN 168S.— THE CLERGY. 33 

tively be referred to tlieir owne ordering anil disposcing from 
time to time aa they shall think fit." 

These efforts to bring over proper ministers were in part 
successful, Berkeley says — "the persecution in Cromwells 
tiranny drove divers worthy men hither." But in general the 
clergy were little better than before. Hammond in his Leah 
and Rachel, says — "Many came such as wore black coats, and 
could babble in a pulpit, roare in a tavern, exact from their 
parishioners, and rather by their dissoluteness e, destroy than 
feed their flocks. Loath was the country to be wholly without 
teachers, and therefore rather retain them, than be destitute; 
yet still endeavours for better in their places, which were 
obtained and those wolves in shceps clothing by their assem- 
blies questioned, silenced, and some forced to depart the 
country." 

Stith tells us, p. 173 — that the company as early as 1620 
"had ordered an hundred acres of land, in each of the Bur- 
roughs, to be laid off for a glebe." In 1656, Act 9th says — 
"Wberea^ there are many places destitute of ministers, and 
like to co'.Iiiuue soe, the people content not payingo their ac- 
customed dues, which makes them negligent to procure those 
which should teach and instruct them, soe by this improvident 
saving they loose the greatest benefitt and comfort a Christian 
can have, by hearing the word and use of the blessed sacra- 
ments, — therefore be it enacted &c. that all countys not yet 
laid OHt into parishes shall be divided into parishes &c. — and 
that all tithable persons in every parish within this coUony, 
respectively, in the vacancy of their minister, pay 15 lbs of 
tobacco per poll yearly &c. — this to go to building a parish 
church and purchasing a glebe and stock — for the nest minister 
that shall be settled there." After this particular care was 
taken by the Legislature that glebes should be provided for all 
the parishes. 

By the revisal of 1662 the unifortaity of worship was 
guarded with much circumspection. By act 2d, " twelve of 
the most able men were to be chosen as vestry men in each 
parish. None shall be admitted to be of the vestry that doe 
not take the oath of allegeance to his Majesty and subscribe to 
be conformable to the doctrines and discipline of the Church of 
England." By act 3d, glebes were to be laid out in every 
parish, "and a convenient house built upon them for the re- 
ception and abode of the minister ; and that such provision be 
made for his maintenance in the valuable and current com- 
modityes of the country as may be really worth at least foure- 
scoure pounds per annum, besides his perquisites and glebe." 
Act 4th says — "Noe minister be admitted to officiate in this 
country but such aa shall produce to the Governour a testimo- 



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34 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

niall that he hath received his ordination froin some Bishopp in 
England; and if any person pretending himself a minister 
shall contrary to this act presume to teach or preach pilhUque- 
ly or privately, the Governour and councell are desired and 
impowered to suspend and silence the person soe offending, 
and upon his obstinate persistance to compell him to depart the 
country with the first conveniency, as it hath been formerly 

Srovided hy the TTth act made at James Citty the second of 
larch 1642." By act 9th, persons absent from the prayers 
and preachings of the parish churches on the Sabbath and the 
four holidays were subject to a fine of fifty pounds of tobacco. 
By act 4th, December 1662 — "Whereas many acismaticall 
persons out of their aversenesse to the orthodox established 
religion, or out of the new fanglcd conceits of their owne 
hereticall inventions refuse to have their children baptized, be 
it &e. that all persons that, in contempt of the divine sacra- 
ment of baptisme, shall refuse when they may carry their child 
to a lawfuU minister in that county to have them baptized, shall 
be amerced two thousand pounds of tobacco ; halfe to the in- 
former, halfe to the publique." 

Governor Berkeley in 1671, in answer to the inquiry, 
" What course is taken about the instructing tho people within 
your government in the Christian religion?" says — " We have 
forty-eight parishes, and our ministers are well paid, and by my 
consent should be better, iftheywouldprayoftener andfreaeh 
less. But of all other commodities, so of this, the worst are 
sent to us, and we had few that we could boast of since the 
persecution in Cromwell's tyranny drove divers worthy men 
hither." 

There is an excuse however, or rather a palliation for the 
condition of the established church. The executive officer of 
the Episcopal Church did not reside in Virginia; nor tiU after 
the revolution in England, in 1688, did a commissary reside in 
the province. Proper discipline therefore could not be kept 
up. Multitudes of cases, that could not be judged in England, 
required attention on the spot ; and in their neglect the 
church suffered. 

The Quakers came in for their share of legislative opposi- 
tion. Uniformity in religion, after the manner of the Church 
of England, was the determined purpose of the majority of the 
colony. The estimation in which the Qakera were held, by the 
Legislature, can be best understood from tho preamble of 
Act 6th, 1659, 60 — " Whereas there is an tmreasonablc and 
turbulent sort of people, commonly called Quakers, who con- 
trary to the law do dayly gather together unto them unlaw'U 
assemblies and congregations of people, teaching and publish- 
ing lies, miracles, false visions, prophecies and doctrines, which 



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TIRGINIA IS 1688.— SEPARATISTS AND QUAKERS. 35 

have influence upon the communities of men both ecclesiasticall 
anii civil endeavouring and attempting thereby to destroy reli- 
gion, lawes, comunitics and ail bonds of civil societie, leaving 
arbitrarie to everie vaine and vicious person whether men shall 
bo safe, lawoa established, offenders punished, and governoura 
rule, hereby disturbing the pubiique peace and just interest, to 

prevent and restraine which mischiefe be it enacted" &e. 1st 

that any master of a vessel bringing a Quaker into the colony 
should be subject to a fine of one hundred pounds sterling: 
2d-— that all Quakers be arrested and imprisoned without bail, 
" till they do adjure the country, or putt in security with all 
speed to depart the eolonie and not to return again;" 3d — if a 
Quaker returned, he was to be punished and sent away; 4th — 
if he returned the third time he was to be proceeded against as 
a felon; 5th— -that no one should entertain a Quaker or permit 
their assemblies at bis house under the penalty of one hundred 
pounds sterling; and 6th — "that no person do presume on 
their peril to dispose or publish their bookes, pamphlets or 
libells bearing the title of their tenets and opinions." 

Act 9th of 1661, 2 after forbidding all unnecessary journeys 
on the Sabbath — " And that noe other thing, bo used or done 
that may tend to the prophanation of that day,— but that all 
and every person and persons inhabiting in this country dili- 
gently resort to their parish church or chappell," — imposes a 
fine of fifty pounds of tobacco for absence from the church on 
Sabbath, — "and the fewer holy days," but excepts Quakers 
and others for a greater punishment — " Quakers or other recu- 
sants who out of noneomformitio to the church totally absent 
themselves, — shall be liable to such fines and punishments as 
by the statue of 23d of Elizabeth are imposed on them, being 
for every months absence twenty pounds sterling, and if they 
forbeare a twelvemonth then to give good security for their 
good behaviour- besides their payment for their monthly ab- 
sences, according to the tenure of said statute. And that all 
Quakers for assembling in unlawful! assemblycs and conven- 
ticles be fined and pay each of them there taken, two hundred 
pounds of tobacco for each time they shall be for such unlaw- 
full meeting taken or presented by the church wardens to the 
county court and in case of the insolvency of any person 
among them, the more able then taken to pg,y for them." 

More severity was, in the opinion of the legislature called 
f&r against Separatists. Act 1st, 1663, declares — "that certain 
persons under the name of Quakers and other names of separa- 
tion have taken up and maintained sundry dangerous opinions 
and tenets, and — under pretence of religious worship, doe 
often_ assemble themselves in great numbers, — separating and 
dividing themselves from the rest of his Majesties good and 



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SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA, 



loyall subjects — Be it enacted, — that if any person or persons 
called Quakers, or any other separatists whatsoever in this 
colony, — shall departe from tiie places of their eeveritH habi- 
tations and assemble themselves to the number of five or more 
of the age of sixteen yeares or upwards at any one tyme in 
any place under pretence of joyning in a religious worship 
not authorized by the laws of England nor this country, — shall 
for the ffirst offence fforfeit and pay two hundred pounds of 
tobacco, — for the second offence forfeit and pay 6ve hundred 

Sounds of tobacco." Quakers or Separatists of ability were 
eld responsible for those that were poor. For the third 
offence, the punishment was banishment "to the places the 
Governor and Couneell shall appoint." The penalty for bring- 
ing in a Quaker was increased ; and all persons were forbid- 
den to — "entertaine any Quakers in or near their houses, that 
is, to teach or preach" — on penalty of five thousand pounds of 
tobacco. A proviso concluded the law — "if Quakers or other 
Separatists shall after such conviction as aforesaid give secu- 
rity that he, she, or they,, shall for the time to come forbeare 
to meet in any euch unlawfnll assemblies" — then they were 
to be discharged from all penalties. 

These laws were not dead letters. The Quakers suffered as 
the Puritans years before. Their historians complain much of 
fines levied under these laws. That their complaints are not 
without foundation will appear from the record of the House 
of Burgesses given by Hening, Sept'r 12, 1663 — "Whereas 
Mr. John Hill high sheriff of Lower Norfolk hath repre- 
sented to the House that Mr. John Porter, one of the Bur- 
gesses of that county was loving to the Quakers and stood well 
affected to them and had been at their meetings, and was so far 
an Anabaptist as to be against the baptizing of children, upon 
which representation the said Porter confessed himself to have 
and be well affected to the Quakers, but conceived his being at 
their meetings could not be proved, upon which the oaths of 
Allegiance and Supremacy were tendered to him which he 
refused to take ; whereupon it is ordered that the said Porter 
be dismissed this house." The refusal to swear allegiance to 
the King, or to acknowledge him as head of the Church 
visible, in the English dominions, was a political offence, of 
■which all the nonconformists in Virginia might be made guilty. 
Others besides Puritans and Quakers, or for other offences 
than Puritanism or Quakerism, suffered under the laws of 
Virginia as will appear from Hening, vol. 1st, " Oct, 7th, 1634, 
Henry Coleman excommunicated forty days, for using scornful 
speeches and putting on his hat in church, when according to 
an order of eoiirt, he was to acknowledge and ask forgiveness 
for an offence. In 1640, Stephen Reckcrs put in pillory two 



„^,.,.,glc 



VIHGIKU IN 1688.— CIVIL LIBERTY. g^ 

hours with a paper on his head expressing his offence, fined 
£50 sterling and imprisoned during pleasure for saying that 
his Majesty was at confession with the Lord of Canterbury. 
March 25th, 1630, Thoa. Tindall to be pillory'd two hours for 
giving my Lord Baltimore the lye and threatening to knock 
him down. 1640, Francis Wildes, clerk of Charles River 
Court, turned out of his place and fined for speaking against 
the laws of the last Assembly and the persons concerned in 
making them." A State religion can be maintained only by 
severe laws. 

The Governor and Council acted out to the extent of their 
ability, the state and parade of the King and his Lords. The 
House of Burgesses filled, in the colony, the place of the 
House of Commons in the mother land, and the wealthy plan- 
ters according to their means, that of the nobility and gentry. 
The more wealthy planters fiocked to the seat of government, 
particularly during the meeting of the House of Burgesses, 
and sessions of the General Court, and learned to imitate the 
profusion and elegance of the Governor. All the elements of 
the Virginia character, in its excellencies and follies, were in 
operation in 1688, wealth, love of ease, profusion of expense, 
generosity, unrestrained passions, chivalric attention to the 
fair, high sense of honor, personal independence, carelessness 
of money, sense of superiority and easy manners. These 
governed by devoted attachment to the crown, and the reli- 
gion of the State because it was the religion of the State, and 
of their fathers, and of the King, formed a state of society 
interesting and peculiar. It exhibited in strong contrast the 
scholar and the unlearned ; the vulgar and the gentleman ; the 
African slave and his Anglo-Saxon master. Compelled by 
their location, and the nature of their society, to the daily use 
of the horse, the Virginians became lovers of that noble ani- 
mal, and daring in his exercise. Self-possessed from their 
daily exposures, they were in danger of over-confidence in 
their own judgment and capabilities. They knew nothing in 
America greater and grander than their own beautiful and 
luxuriant colony. They talked independently to the mother 
country, bowing to the majesty of the crown, from whose splen- 
dor the ocean alone separated them, 

In civil matters, there was, in 1688, the idea and the exer- 
cise of Liberty. From the first meeting of the Legislature in 
1619 the colonists enjoyed all the priviliges of Englishmen. 
They were Royalists. They were loyal to the king. The 
inconveniences, arising from their distance from the throne, 
were counterbalanced by advantages resulting from the same 
distance and their wilderness home. The king could raise a 
revenue only through the house of Burgesses, They were 



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38 SKETCHES IN VIRGINIA, 

alwaj^ alow to load their fellow- citizens and tLemselves witli 
duties and imports. Act 8th of the first assembly, whose 
records are preserved, 1623, 4, declares — " The Governor shall 
not lay any taxes or ympositions upon the colony their lands 
or commodities other way than by the authority of the G-eneral 
Assembly, to be levyed and employed as the said assembly shall 
appoynt." And by the nest act they declare that the Gover- 
nor should not withdraw the inhabitants from their labours for 
his own services — "and in case the publick service require 
ymploymcnta of many hands before the holding a General 
Assemblie to give order for the same, in that case the levying 
of men shall be done by order of the Governor and whole 
body of the counsell and that in such sorte as to be least bur- 
thensome to the people and most free from partiality." To 
save the expense of calling the assembly — "the charge of which 
doth most times equal itt, if not exceed all other taxes of the 
country" — the house gave permission in the years 166.0 and 
1661, to the governor and council to lay the taxes, provided he 
did not exceed twenty pounds of tobacco per poll. " November 
9th, 1666, Die Jovis — The honourable Governour sent know- 
ledge of his pleasure to the house that two or more of the 
councel might join with the house in granting and confirming 
the sums of the levy. The humble answer of the house is, 
that they conceive it their privilege to lay the levy in the 
house, and that the house will admit nothing without reference 
from the honourable Governour and councel unless it be before 
adjudged and confirmed by act or order, and after passing in 
the house shall be humbly presented to their honors for appro- 
bation or dissent. Mr. Ballard, major Weir and captain Brid- 
f!r are appointed to present this answer to the honourable 
overnour and councel. This is willingly assented to and 
desired to remain on record for a rule to walk by for the future, 
which will he satisfactory to all. William Berkeley." 

The Legislature of Virginia early showed respect to age and 
enterprise. Act 10th, 1623, 4, says — "That all the old plan- 
ters that were here before or came in at the last coming of Sir 
Thomas Gates they and their posterity shall be exempted from 
their personal service to the warrs and any public charge 
(church duties excepted) that belong particularly to their per- 
sons {not exempting their families) except such as shall be 
ymployd to command in chief." In 1631 this act was amended 
by leaving out the words — ''they and their posterity." The 
spirit of this exemption law reserved an aged Quaker from the 
penalties of the law enacted against that sect, — as the Quaker 
accounts say that the first born male that grew to adult years 
became a Quaker, and in compliment to his birth was liberated 
from the penalties of the law. 



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VIRGINIA IN !6Se.— CIVIL LIBERTY. 39 

Thus Virginia appeared in 1688. The inhabitants occupied 
hut a small portion of her immense territories. Thej were 
rapidly increasing in wealth, and slowly extending their planta- 
tions toward the mountains. Tho protcstant religion was uni- 
versal. The forma of the church of England as general as 
the supply of ministers from England would allow ; and were 
guarded by penal laws. The dissenters from the forms and 
creed of tho State religion, oppressed by fines, and in some 
cases uncompromisingly driven from the colony. The rights 
of men in civil patters better understood than the rights of 
conscience. The Indian tribes East of the Blue Ridge broken 
in spirit and wasted. Not a congregation of them gathered 
for the worship of God, or civilization, from all the numerous 
tribes that once dwelt along the bay shore and the river banks. 
No college in the colony; and education but partially diffused. 
The citizens independent in their thoughts, habits and actions, 
enjoying the privileges of Englishmen, in their distant wilder- 
ness. With all the imperfections of society a foundation waa 
laid for a great and noble State, that retains many traits of its 
colonial infancy. The community at large were sensible of 
some great defect in their religious matters, and desirous of a, 
change. Averse to any fundamental revolution in creed or 
forms or State patronage, they longed for a purer ministry, 
and many desired more effect in ordinances, and more spiritual 
exposition of Scripture. In the preamble to the Revisal of 
1661, 2, they say — " And because it is impossible to honor the 
king as we should unlease wee serve and feare God, as wee 
ought, and that they might show their equall care of church 
and state they have set downe ccrtaine rules to be observed in 
tho Government of the church, until God shall please to tume 
his majesties pious thoughts towards us and provide a better 
supply of ministers among us." And in the 18th Act entitled 
"provisions for a coUedge," they say — "Whereas the want of 
able and faithful ministers in this country deprives us of those 
great blessings and mercies that always attend upon the ser- 
vice of God ; which want by reason of our great distance from 
our nation, cannot in probability be always supplied from 
thence ; Bee it enacted that for the advance of learning, edu- 
cation of youth, supply of the ministry, and promotion of 
piety, there bo land taken up or purchased for a colledge and 
free school." From tho first source, the king, they never 
obtained "a better supply." From the second, the college, 
which was soon after reared by Commissary Blair, the State 
has been drinking, as from a fountain of pearls; she has 
gathered gems that sparkle in her crown as an independent 
State. Relief in matters of Religion and Conscience was 
sought in vain from England; help came from another quarter. 



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40 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

The causes that has wrought most strongly to make Virginia 
what she is, have hceu partly moral and partly physical. Those 
that made her what she was in 1688 ifcore all in operation in 
1619. Previous to that date, tohacco planting became the 
absorbing occupation of the colonists, and in its operation was 
hostile to towns and villages and mechanical arts. In 1619, 
the Company in London at the instance of Sir Edward Landys, 
took steps to make the colony permanent by sending the colo- 
nists wives. In the same year the King determined to send a 
company of dissolute persons to act as servants to the colonists, 
making labour disreputable, and rendering Virginia for a time 
the receptacle of malefactors. In 1619 the first cargo of 
Africans was brought to Virginia and sold to the colonists as 
slaves for life. The servitude of Englishmen had a hound; 
that of the Africans no limits, as hia children were slaves. In 
1619 the moat vigorous efforts were made to christianize the 
Indians, and erect a college for the use of the colony. All 
these influences acting under the moulding power of a state 
religion made Virginia what she was on the accession of the 
Prince of Orange to the crown of England. After that event 
another element was infused, whose influence though last was 
not least, the Republicanism of the Religious principle. Its 
influence will be portrayed in the following sketches. 



REV. PEANCIS MAKEMIE AND HIS ASSOCIATES. 

The first minister, dissenting from the Church of England, that 
had leave, from the constituted authorities, to preach in Vir- 
ginia, was a Presbyterian. He is the first, on the Geneva 
model, that is known to have taken hia residence in Virginia, 
or the United States of America. This was Francis Makemie. 
The churches gathered by his labors, wore in Earbadoes, in the 
West Indies, — in that part of Maryland between the Atlantic 
and the Chesapeake,— and in Accomac county, Virginia. He 
has no lineal descendant on earth. Kot a 8ermon,_ or a page 
of a diary, and but a single letter, from his hand, is in exist- 
ence. No biographical sketch, drawn by a cotemporary, has 
given a portraiture of the man, or a connected history of his 
services. What remains of him, — and there are remains, — is 
like the ruins of an ancient temple, that awakes admiration by 
the beauty of the fragments, and the symmetry of the particu- 



FRANCIS MAKEMIE. 4]_ 

litr parts, while the uniquDness of the sculpture almost forbida 
an imiigination of the grandeur of the whole. 

Perhaps however it is not a matter of disquietude, that all 
that Makemie possessed in common with his race has passed 
away to the compcnd of all history, — he was born, he lived, 
and died; or that all he possessed in common with preachers 
of the Gospel in every age, ia preserved only in meager notices 
in the records of Ecclesiastical bodies. Wc are left to suppose 
that he had his share of the troubles and joys of life, in hia 
person and his family ; that ho knew the perplexities and excite- 
ments of the ministerial race, and came to his end with hope 
triumphant over the fears, and troubles, and doubts, which 
beset the human soul in his course of purification for heaven. 
The history of a man's life becomes interesting to his owa 
generation, or to posterity, only as he has done uncommon 
things well, or common things better than his compeers. The 
interest attached to the name, birth place, and labours of 
Makemie arises from the circumstance, that he was, in all pro- 
bability, the first consistent Presbyterian minister in the United 
States; certainly the first in Virginia. The Presbyterian 
tainisters, mentioned by Mather and others as residing in 
Massachusetts, at an early date, were more or less Congrega- 
tional in their forms and discipline. They were intermingled 
with Congregationalists, and ultimately became entirely blended 
with that denomination. Had Makemie been a man of less 
than mediocrity of talent, and had he been called only to the 
trials incident to a church of emigrants, his being first in a 
series of ministers, whose progression has been so noble, would 
encircle him with a halo bright from surrounding darkness. 

First in the scries of worthies is not the only honor of 
Makemie, Called to pass through scenes of trial and per- 
plexity, such as cannot be the lot of the present generation, 
he acquitted himself with honor. His imitators were clothed 
with honor. "The Attorney has met his match to-day" — 'was 
the exclamation of the bar, when Davies stood before the 
Governor and Council of Virginia and plead, as Makemie did 
in Virginia and before Lord Cornbury in New York, the true 
meaning and extent of the Act of Toleration, and vindicated 
the rights of conscience as acknowledged, imperfectly indeed, 
yet acknowledged by the English law. Makemie established 
the great truth, that it was no crime against the State, or known 
law, for him to preach the gospel to those who desired to hear, 
and avowed that desire to the magistrates. Davies followed 
his example, and the bar said he was a "capital lawyer spoiled." 
Reed, in his history of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, 
tells us that Makemie was from the neighborhood of Ramilton 
in Donegal. Ilia name, which has been spelled differently, by 



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42 



SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 



different -writers evidently meaning the eame man, — Mackamy, 
— Mackamie, — and McKemie, — was, as appears from the records 
of Accomac Court, spelled by himself, Makomie. It iildicates 
his origin from that race -which emigrating from Scotland to 
Ireland and from Ireland to America, bears, in America, the 
appellation, Scotch Irish. There is no record of the condition 
or baptismal names of his parents. His mental exercises, in 
his early days are unknown, with one single_ exception. In 
reply to a charge brought against him iu Virginia, of denying 
the influence of the Holy Spirit, because he rejected baptismal 
regeneration, he declared, that so far from denying the influence 
of the Spirit, he fully believed them to be indispensable to all 
religion; and that he had reason to thank God that at the age 
of fourteen, under the instruction of a pious schoolmaster, he 
felt their power on his own soul. 

Mr. Reed informs us that he -was introduced to the Presby- 
tery of Lagan, by his pastor, the Rev. T. Drummond, in the 
year 1680, and that he -was licensed by that Presbytery in the 
year 1681. Application had been made to that body, in 1678, 
by a Captain Archibald Johnson, for assistance in procuring a 
minister for Rarbadoes. In December, 1680, Colonel Ste- 
vens from Maryland, "near Virginia," applied to the same 
Presbytery for a minister to settle in that colony. In conse- 
quence of these applications, Makemie was ordained as Evange- 
list for America. The precise date of his ordination is not 
known. There is a deficiency in the records of the Presbytery 
of Lagan arising from the imprisonment of the Stated Clerk 
and some other members. Their crime had been the holding 
a fast on account of the peculiar situation of the country. 
They were fined, they suffered imprisonment for months, and 
then gave security for good behaviour for an act -which could 
be an offence only to a tyrant. Mr. Reed tells us that Make- 
mie removed to America, resided for a time on the Eastern 
shore of Virginia ; that the ministers from Europe uniting -with 
him in the formation of the first Presbytery in America accord- 
ing to the Westminster Confession, -were from the Province of 
Ulster, Ireland ; and there he pauses. 

From tiie circumstances of the case, it appears that he 
must have been ordained for his mission to America as early 
as 1682 or 3. He laboured in Earhadoes, in Maryland and 
Virginia. Mr. Spenoe in bis Letters tells us, that the churches 
in Somerset county, Maryland, were organized at a period of 
time -when there was no other Presbyterian minister to organ- 
ize than Francis Makemie. Snowhill was established by 
act of the provincial assembly, 1684, then in Somerset, now 
in Worcester, the latter having been set off as a county in 
1742. "It was,— Mr. Spence tells us,— settled by English 
Episcopalians, and Scotch and Irish Presbyterians, and it is 



FRANCIS MAKEMIE. 43 

certain that persons resided there at the time, or soon after 
the time, in which the town was laid out, who were afterwards 
raemhers of the Presbyterian church. My ancestor was a 
ruling elder in that church, — he was the father of five chil- 
dren, all of them natives of Snowhiil, or its neiglihourhood, 
the youngest of whom was born in 1698. I am persuaded that 
he lived in Maryland the last twenty years of the seventeenth 
century." To this church at Snow HiU Mr. Mahemie per- 
formed the duties of a minister, after he had assisted in ita 
organization. "I doubt" — says Mr. Spence — "whether the 
memory of any gospel minister was ever held in higher honour 
by an American congregation, than was that of Makcmie by 
the people of Snow Hill. His praises have not yet left the 
church, although he has rested from his labours almost a hun- 
dred and thirty years. Tradition has made a record of his 
labours and many -excellencies of his character; one genera- 
tion has uttered his praises in the ears of its successor, and you 
may even yet hoar its echo. Parents made his surname the 
Christian name of their children, until in the neighbourhood of 
Snow HUl it has become a common one. Information derived 
from aged lips, which it was once my pleasure to listen to, and 
my duty to honour, produces peculiar feelings whenever I hear 
the name of Francis Makemie." The "ancestor" of whom 
Mr. Speneo speaks, waa Adam Spence, an emigrant from 
Scotland, — "who had probably affixed his name to the Solemn 
League Covenant," — and had settled at or near Snow Hill, 
as a merchant about the year 1680. 

Mr. Makemie preached in Earbadoes. He declared, on his 
trial in New York, that he had certificates according to law, 
both for Barbadoes and for Virginia. He docs not mention 
the date of his certificate; that was not called for. The 
records of Accomac Court mention the fact of his preaching 
in Earbadoes, but does not give the date. Long after Make- 
mie's death the Presbytery and the Synod of Philadelphia, 
gave the congregation in Earbadoes their assistance, but their 
records make no mention of the time of his labours there. 

The first mention of Makemie's name by any record in the 
United States, is found in the county of Accomac, Virginia, 
aud bears date Feb. 17th, 1690. It is in the record of a suit 
brought hy him to recover from one William Finney, the 
amount due him for molasses sold. lie had other suit*!, in 
tlie same court, to recover debts, from careless or unjust 
debtors. These debts were the consequence of his being en- 
gaged in commerce. There is also a record of a certificate for 
four hundred acres of land bearing date Feb. 21st, 1092. 

Mr. Makemie was united in marriage to Naomi, the eldest 
daughter of "ffilUam Anderson, a wealthy merchant of Acco- 



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44 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

jnae. Mr. Anderson, hy will admitted to record Oct. 16, 1698, 
gave to Francis Makemie and his wife Kaorai, a tract of land, 
containing one thousand acres, at Matchatouk, a cre'ek that 
empties into the Chesapeake, a little south of the village of 
Onancock, the county seat, and made a port of entry in 1680. 
Near this village they had their residence, five or six miles from 
Drnmmondstown the present county seat. He also gave them 
the "plantation at Pocomokc, containing nine hundredand 
fifty acres, for and during their or either of their natural lives; 
in remainder to the child or heir of my daughter Naomi, if 
such she have, and its hereditable issue forever. But for want 
of such, then to revert and descend to my grand daughters, hy 
my daughter Comfort Taylor, and to her heirs forever." The 
■will goes on to say — "Item, myLotts heing three at Onancock 
town, I give unto Mr. Francis Makemie and his heirs and 
assigns forever. Item, I give and bequeath to my daughter 
Naomi Makemie, four Negro Slaveg, viz: — Dollae, Hannah the 
Elder, Barkeih, young Sarah. Item, I make, constitute, or- 
dain, and appoint my son in law, Mr. Francis Makemie ***** 
to be my joint and several executors of this my last willand 
testament, desiring them to be kind and assisting to my wife." 
In his will Mr. Anderson makes mention of three sisters, by 
the names of Barons, Hope, and Nock, to each of whom he 
makes a small legacy. No other person is Bamed as executor 
with Makemie. 

How Mr. Makemie became engaged in trade, and whether 
before or after his marriage, are questions not now to be 
answered. Mr. Anderson's will says — "I also give, unto said 
Makemie, all the money lent him, in full of all or any ac- 
counts, that may bo between us, upon consignments or any 
other ways; and my will is, that he may have his sloope with 
what may appertain to her at my death. Likewise whatever 
my daughter can claim as hers in my house,— without let or 
delay, and all — on both sides to he hallanced," 

The next important notice, in the records of Accomac bears 
date Oct. 15th, 1699. "Whereas Mr. Francis Makemie made 
application by petition to this court, that being ready to fulfill 
what the law enjoynes to dissenters, that he might be qualified 
according to law, and prayed that his own dwelling house at 
Pooomoke, also his own house at Ononcock, next to Captain 
Jonathan Liveiey's, might be the places recorded for meeting, 
and having taken the oaths enjoyned by act of Parliament in- 
stead of the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, and subscribed 
the Test as likewise that he did in compliance with what the 
said Law enjoynes, produce certificate from Barbadoes of hia 
qualifications there, did declare in open court, of the said 
county and owned the articles of religion mentioned in the 



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FRANCIS MAKEMIE. 



45 



statute made in tlie 13th year of Queen EHzaljeth, except the 
34th, 35th and 36th and those words of the 20th article, viz : 
the church hath power to decide rites and ceremonies, and 
authority in controversies of faith, which the court have 
ordered to be registered and recorded, and that the Clerk of 
the court give certificate thereof to the said Makemie accord- 
ing as the Law enjoynes." This is the first certificate of 
qualification under the Toleration Act, known to be on record. 
The two places mentioned in the preceding certificate were his 
own property under the will of his father in law. The dwelling 
house at Poeoraoke was in Virginia, not far from the present 
Village of Rehoboth, which is on the Maryland side of the 
river. In that village Makemie owned property. There was 
a meeting house. And there, at this day, ia a Presbyterian 
church, organized in the time of Makemie. In his will which 
bears date April 27th 1708, Makemie says — "as also my lot 
joining the new meeting house lot in Pocomoketown, called 
Rehoboth, empowering my executrix to make over and alienate 
that lot on which the meeting house ia built, in as ample a 
manner, to all intents and purposes as shall be required for 
the ends and uses of a Presbyterian congregation, as if I were 
personally present, and to their successors forever, and none 
else, but to such of the same persuasion in matters of religion." 
After the death of Makemie, hia dwelling house on Pocomoke 
ceased to be a place of worship; the public ministrations being 
confined to "Pocomoketown," or Rehoboth. 

Mr. Makemie mentions two other places in his will, — "my 
house and lot in the new town in Princess Anne county, on the 
Eastern branch of Elizabeth Eiver; as also my lot and house, 
or frame of a house, in the new town on Wormlcy'a creek, 
called Urbana." Whether he used these houses for merchan- 
dise or for public worship is not declared. But as he told Lord 
Cornbury on his trial in New Jork, — " but to give bond and 
security to preach no more in your excellency's government, 
if invited and desired by any people, we neither dare nor can 
do," — we cannot suppose he was backward to preach whenever 
he had an opportunity in Virginia. Around where Norfolk 
stands there was a congregation of Presbyterians. After 
Makemie's death, the people enjoyed the labours of Mr, Macky. 
How long Mr, Macky served them is unknown. 

In Maryland the places of Presbyterian preaching were 
Snow Hill, Rehoboth, or Pocomoketown, head of Monokin, 
Wicomico, and on Joseph Venable's land. The churches in 
these places have retained their light through many vicissitudes. 
They have witnessed in their seclusion the spread of the Pres- 
byterian church; and have rejoiced in the wonders of grace. 
Of this part of Maryland, Spence in his letters says — " There 



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4Q SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

is no body of land, of the same size, io the State, the eoil of 
which was, and is, so poor." Yet on account of its position, 
and the laws of Maryland, it presented inducementa'to Emi- 
grants, who desired freedom of conscience. Here they could 
find a residence convenient for commerce, and could worship 
God according to the conviction of judgment and not sin 
against the State. Here was the chosen spot for the first con- 
gregation of the Presbyterian Church, now so numerous and 
scattered over a wide country of inexhaustible richness. The 
Eoman Catholic proprietor of the colony to insure freedom of 
religious worship for his own sect, the papists, obtained in the 
charter granted him by Charles the 1st, June 20th, 1632, a 
clause for entire religious freedom. In Maryland, " a man 
might live in peace, whether Jew, Mohammedan, or Pagan ; 
whether Atheist, I>eist, or Polytheist; provided he neither 
molested his neighbour, nor endangered the public morals." 
The severity of the Virginia laws were strongly in contrast 
with this lenity. Dissenters from the established Church of 
England found in Maryland a quiet abode till the K,evolution 



The congregations that first worshipped in America accord- 
ing to the forms of the Presbyterian Church, on the Geneva or 
Scotch model, still have a name and a place among the people 
of God. He, that would visit these mother churches of the 
Presbyterian body in America, must go down to the narrow 
neck of land between the ocean and the Chesapeake. There 
ho will find Snow Hill, in Worcester, formerly Somerset, and 
may walk among the monuments and burial mounds so tenderly 
referred to by Mr, Spence. Thence let him take an excursion 
to the head of Wicomico (or Salisbury), and to the head of 
Monokin (or Princess Anne), and he will be walking over 
ground consecrated by such men as Makemie, McNish, Hamp- 
ton, Henry, Robinson, Daviea, Finley, and Rodgers. Let him 
go to Rehoboth and he may find the spot, given, by the first 
preacher, for the "New Meeting House;" and then let him 
cross the Virginia line, — but, alas! he will not find Makemio's 
"dwelling house at Pocomoke," — he may go to Onancock and 
Drummondstown, and walk around where Makemie lived and 
preached ; and find in Accomack a congregation of Presbyte- 
rians rising, phcenix like, from the ashes of those who heard 
Makemie preach and pray. The simplicity and hospitality of 
the inhabitants of the Peninsula are as unchanged as the plains 
and streams on which they dwell ; and the pious stranger shall 
be welcome now as in the days of the first preacher who suc- 
ceeded in organizing Presbyterian churches in America. 

Mr. Makemie came to America before any society, of which 
ive have any knowledge, was formed in England to assist Evan- 



FRANCIS MAKEMIE. 



47 



gelists in their preparation for their work in America, or in 
seeking their fields of labour, or during the years of their min- 
istry. By what pecuniary means he entered the ministry, or 
crossed the ocean, we cannot say. Perhaps in reaching the 
field of his labours he might have been assisted by the persons 
that afterwards formed the London Union. It is probable that 
the people petitioning from Barbadoes, and Col. Stephens of 
Maryland, exerted themselves to remove all obstacles in the 
way of their proposed missionary. It is supposed that he 
passed the earlier years of his Evangelical labours in Barba- 
does, and Somerset county Maryland, by whose united voice 
he had sought the new world. From the high regard with 
■which his name is mentioned at Snow Hill, it is natural to con- 
clude, that it was a place of his protracted labours, and perhaps 
also of his residence. Notwithstanding the rigorous laws of 
Virginia, as detailed in the preceding chapter, Makeioie made 
that State his home, after his marriage. What support his 
congregations gave him is unknown. Judging from the arrange- 
ments he made with the society in London, when he introduced 
his co-labourers into Maryland, his congregations were not pre- 
pared to give a very liberal support. After his marriage hia 
necessities were supplied by the fortune of his wife and the 
labours of his own hands. He is a singular instance of a man 
engaging in the work of an Evangelist and of a merchant, and 
prospering in both. Like Paul, he laboured, that he might 
preach the gospel, where, a ' competent support for a minister 
could not be obtained from the hearers, and God blessed him 
in his ministry and in his traffic. At his death there were 
congregations, gathered by bis labours, and fostered by his 
pastoral care, sufficient to give employment to three ministers ; 
and a sufficient amount of property acquired by marriage and 
by his enterprise to leave his family above want. 

Uniformity of worship had been attempted in Virginia, and 
maintained by severe laws. The Puritans had been driven 
from the colony, and the Quakers oppressed and enfeebled. 
Scotch and Irish merchants, or factors for English merchants, 
allured by the advantages of trade, were scattered through the 
colony. There was a most appalling necessity for faithful 
ministers of the Gospel, whose orthodox doctrines should be 
commended hj their consistent lives. Clergymen, that re- 
quired the enactment of such laws, by a civil tribunal, as have 
been preserved in the statute book of Virginia, to restrain their 
dissipation, and prevent neglect of duty, could scarcely be 
expected to promote vital godliness. It is a matter of tradition 
that Makemie suffered often under the laws of Virginia. " He 
durst not deny preaching, and hoped he never should, while it 
was wanting, and desired." In defence of himself he appeared 



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48 SKETCHES OF TTRGimA. 

before the Diagistratea and before the Governor, and tradition 
says made a favourable impression. We have historical and 
legal evidence of his appearing before the magistrates in 
Maryland and the court in New York, but only strong con- 
jectural evidence, besides tradition, of his being called before 
legal tribunals in Virginia. 

The Act of Toleration, entitled — "An Act for exempting 
their Majesties Protestant subjects, dissenting from the Church 
of England, from penalties of certain laws" — passed 1st of 
William and Mary, chap. 18th, 1689, under some unpleasant 
restrictions, secured to protestant ministers and churches, per- 
mission to worship God according to their own conscieneea. 
The first public acknowledgment, in Virginia, of this law as a 
law of the State, or of England, that is now known, appears 
in 1699, ten years after its becoming the law of the British 
dominions. When it does appear, its position and accompani- 
ments, are any thing but honorable to those to whom its 
provisions extended. All that dissented from the established 
forms of the Church of England, as they were in Virginia, 
■were classed with the drunkard and swearer. Act 1st, 1699, 
entitled "an Act for the more effectuall suppressing of blas- 
phemy, swearing, cursing, drunkenness and Sabbath breaking," 
— in its first section declares — " That if any person or persons 
brought upp in the Christian religion shall by writing, print- 
ing, teaching or advisedly speaking, deny the being of a God 
or the holy Trinity, or shall assert" or maintain there are more 
gods than one or shall deny the Christian religion to be true, 
or the holy scriptures of Old and New Testament to be of 
divine authority, and be thereof lawfully convicted upon indict- 
ment or information in the General Court" — for the first 
offence, disqualification for office civil, ecclesiastical, or mili- 
tary ; for the second offence, additional disabilities and " three 
years imprisonment without bail or mainprize." By the fourth 
section, profane swearing and drunkenness were punished by 
fines and lashes on " theire beare back well laid on," By the 
fifth section Sabbath breaking is provided for as follows — viz: 
" That if any person or persons of the age of twenty-one years 
or more doe neglect or refuse to resort to their parish church 
or chapell once in two months to heare devine service upon the 
Sabbath day, every person or persons soe neglecting or re- 
fuseing and being thereof lawfully convicted by confession or 
otherwise before one or more justice or justices of the peace 
where such offence shall be committed shall forfeit and pay for 
every such offence the sume of five shillings or fifty pounds of 
tobacco to be payed to the church warden of that parish, &c. 
— Provided always — that if any person or persons dissenting 
from the Church of England being every way qualified accord- 



FKANCIS MAKEMIE. 49 

ing to an act of Parliament made in the first year of the reigne 
of our aoverdgne lord the King that now is, and the late Queen 
Mary of hleased memory, entituled an act for exempting their 
Majesties Protestant subjects dissenting from the Church of 
England from ponaltyes of certain laws, shall resort and meet 
at any congregation or place of religious worship permitted and 
allowed by the said act of Parliament once in two months, that 
then the said penaltyes and forfeitures imposed by the act for 
neglecting or refuseing to resort to their parish church or 
chappel as aforesaid shall not be taken to extend to such 
person or persons, any thing in this act to the contrary not- 
withstanding." 

On this Mr. Hening well observes — " Nothing could be more 
intolerant than to impose the penalties by this act prescribed 
for not repairing to church, and thus hold out the idea of 
exemption hy a compliance with the provisions of such a law, 
as the statute of William and Mary, adopted by a mere 
general reference, when not one person in a thousand could 
possibly know its contents." 

In this same year, 1699, an act was passed providing for a 
thorough revisal of the laws. In the preamble of that act, the 
province is styled "Jdg Majestie's ancient and great colony 
and dominion;" the origin probably of the phrase of the "An- 
cient Dominion." This revisal, which was the fifth, was com- 
pleted in 1705. In this revisal the 30th Act is for the sup- 
pression of vice &c. In the clause about Sabbath breaking, 
the time of absence from church was limited to " the space 
of one month." The proviso for dissenters is in a parenthesis, 
thus, (excepting as is excepted in an act of parliament passed 
in the first year of King William and Queen Mary, intituled, 
An act for exempting their Majestys' protestant subjects 
dissenting from tho Church of England, from the penalties 
of certain laws"). Tho provisions of the Toleration Act are 
no where given in the statute book. It was left for the dis- 
senters to find them when their protection became necessary. 
It is not probable that even this reference would have appeared 
upon the statute book, had it not have been demanded by 
the dissenters, "who knew law," and had plead the provisions 
of the act of parliament for their defence. We know of no 
other dissenters in the colony at this time but the Quakers and 
Makemie and his Presbyterian friends. 

The Proviso made its appearance in April 1699. In the 
October following, Mr. Makemie obtained his license according 
to tho requirements of the toleration act. " Accomack county, 
s. c. These may certify to all to whom these presents may con- 
cern. That Mr. Francis Makemie, a dissenter and preacher in 
the aforesaid county of Accomack, hath, at a court held in the 
7 



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50 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

aforesaid county, October Sth 1699, performed and answered 
by taking the oaths, ke. enjoined by a certain act of parlia- 
ment, made the 24th day of May Anno Domini 1689,' in the 
first year of the reign of King William, and Queen Mary, enti- 
tled an Act for exempting their Majesties' protestant subjects, 
dissenting from the Church of England, from the penalties of 
sundry laws. And by his application to the Court, by petition, 
obtained order in October Court last, that his own house at 
Accomack town, and his dwelling house at Pocomoke, should 
be registered and recorded to be the first place of his constant 
and ordinary preaching. Which is attested, this 10th day of 
October A. D. 1699. 

Per me John Washeuen, C. C. C. Accomack." 

On the 15th of the same month (October) 1699, the follow- 
ing record appears, as given by Spence from an attested copy; 
viz. "Whereas Mr. Francis Makemie made application by 
petition to this Court, that being ready to fullfill what the law 
enjoynea to dissenters, that he might be qualified according to 
law, and prayed that bis own dwelling house at Pocomoke, also 
his own house at Ononeoct, next to Cant. Jonathan Live- 
ley's, might be the places recorded for the Meeting, and having 
taken the oaths enjoyned by act of parliament instead of the 
oaths of allegeance and supremacy, and subscribed the Test, 
as likewise that he did in compliance with what the said law 
enjoynes, produce certLGcate from Barbadoes of his qualifica- 
tions there, did declare in open court of the said county and 
owned the articles of religion mentioned in the statute made in 
the 13th year of Queen Elizabeth, except the 34th, 35th and 
36th, and those words of the 20th article, viz. — the Church 
Lath power to decide rights and ceremonies, and authority in 
controversies of faith, — which the Court have ordered to be 
registered and recorded, and that the clerk of Court give cer- 
tificate thereof to the said Makemie, according as the law 
enjoynes." 

These papers recognise Makemie as having been a preacher 
among dissenters, — that he had been previously qualified, or 
licensed, at Barbadoes to preach — and that now he was shielded 
by law in Virginia. 

Beverly, in his History and Present State of Virginia, pub- 
lished in 1705 says, Book 4th, Part 1st, Chap. 7th, p. 27— 
" The people are generally of the Church of England, which is 
the religion established by law in the country, from wbieb there 
are very few dissenters. Yet liberty of conscience is given to 
all other congregations pretending to Christianity, on condition 
they submit to all parriah duties." Free to exercise con- 
science, by paying an equal share to the support of the minis- 
ters of the established church, however much they disapproved 



FRANCIS MAKEMIE. gj 

of liim personally or officially, — by receiving marriage from hia 
hands and in the form of the state religion, — by paying all 
parish rates for building and repairing the public church, and 
purchasing and keeping in repair the glebe, — when' they had 
done this, they might build their own meeting house and sup- 
port their own minister. He goes on to say: " They have no 
more than five conventicles amongst them, namely, three small 
meetings of Quakers, and two of Presbyterians. 'Tia observed, 
that those counties where the Presbyterian meetings are, pro- 
duce very mean tobacco, and for that reason can't get an 
orthodox minister to stay amongst them; but whenever they 
could the people very orderly went to church. As for the 
Quakers, 'tis observed by letting them alone they decrease 
daily." So it appeara on account of the poorness of the 
tobacco the established clergy left some counties, although in 
1690 their salary had been fiscd at sixteen thousand lb. weight 
of that commodity. 

If this statement be true we can the more easily understand 
why Makemie had not been more molested. We suppose he 
took his residence in Accomack soon after his marriage. There 
was no Episcf^al minister to complain of him ; and many of 
the inhabitants preferred to hear Makemie to passing silent 
Sabbaths, and many others were true Presbyterians. Hia 
increasing popularity awakened hostility. And the conse- 
quence of hostility was the acknowledgment of the Toleration 
Act, and the complete protection of Makemie, Beverly does 
not say which two counties held the Presbyterians. We know 
that Accomack was one. When he said there were but two 
conventicles for Presbyterians, he may have referred only to 
the public meeting houses, or he may have written loosely, as 
Makemie had some four places to preach in. He certainly did 
write loosely, because he omitted the congregation of French 
Huguenots which by Act 2d December, ITOO, was recognised 
as a distinet parish, and exempted from " publick and county 
levies for the space of seven years." If he reckoned this con- 
gregation as one, then he wrote very carelessly in giving 
Makemie but one place. 

Notwithstanding all obstacles Mr. Makemie was abundantly 
successful in his ministerial labors. His hearers and congre- 
gations multiplied ; and the thoughts of all were turned to the 
mother country for a supply of ministers. He prepared for a 
veyage to England in the summer of 1703; and according to 
custom he, August 1st, executed a power of attorney to his 
wife and John Parker — " to do and transact all manner of 
business for him." This projected voyage did not take place. 
On the 30th May, 1704, ho, according to the records of Acco- 
ff.ack, executed a power of attorney to bis wife, Andrew 



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52 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

Hamilton and James Kemps, reciting that he was about "to 
depart for Europe," This voyage was accomplislied and occu- 
pied him about a year. A warm-hearted man wouH very 
naturally desire, after a protracted absence, to revisit his 
native land, renew the associations of his early life and recount 
his labours and the dealings of God with him in the colonies. 
Especially would he visit the surviving brethren of the Presby- 
tery that sent him forth as Evangelist. That he did visit 
London and make arrangements for the supply of the congre- 
gations with Evangelical clergymen — and that he brought a 
number of ministers from his native province are matters of 
fact on record. From a letter addressed by the Presbytery of 
Philadelphia to Sir Edmund Harrison, a gentleman of influ- 
ence with the dissenting ministers, bearing date May 1709, in 
the records of the Presbyterian Church, we learn—" The negoti- 
ation begun and encouraged by a friend, in the time when our 
worthy friend, Mr. Makemie (now deceased) was with you, for 
Evangelizing these colonies, was a business exceedingly accept- 
able to a multitude of people, and was likely to have been of 
great service, if continued, which makes us much grieved that 
BO valuable a design was, so soon after its beginning, laid aside. 
Unto whom can we apply more fitly than unto our fathers," 
Prom a letter from the same Presbytery to the Presbytery of 
Dublin, bearing date Sept. 1710, we learn— "As to the state 
of the church in these parts, our interest truly is very weak, 
and we cannot relate this matter without sorrow of heart, 
since it is too much owing to the neglect of ministers at 
home. Our late Rev. brother Mr. Francis Makemie prevailed 
with the ministers of London to undertake the support of two 
itinerants for the space of two years, and after that time to 
send two more on the same conditions, allowing the former 
after that time to settle, which, if accomplished, had proved of 
more credible advantage to tliose parts, considering how far 
scattered most of the inhabitants be. But alas they drew 
back their hand, and we have reason to lament their deficiency. 
Had onr friends at home been equally watchful and diligent as 
the Episcopal society at London, our interest in most foreign 
plantations might have carried the balance." 

In the letter to Mr. Harrison, the Presbytery ask for ,£200 
per annum, — "We doubt not but if the sum of about two 
hundred pounds per annum was raised for the encouragement 
of ministers in these parts, it would enable ministers and 
people to erect eight congregations, and ourselves put in better 
circumstances than hitherto we have been." In the letter to 
the Presbytery of Dublin, they say, what they request is — 
"you would raise one sixty pound to support an able well 
approved of young man from yourselves as an itinerant in 



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FRANCIS MAKEMIE. 53 

these parts, among the dispersed children of God for a year, 
after which time ive doubt not he may be settled comfortably." 
In their letter to Mr. Harrison they say — "it is well known 
what advantages the missionaries from England have of us, from 
the settled fund of their church, which not only liberally supports 
them here, but encourages so many insolences both against our 
persons and interests, which sorrowfully looking on, we cannot 
but lament and crave jour remedy." To the Synod of Glas- 
gow they say in their letter September, 1710 — "May it please 
the pious and reverend Synod, in compassion to the desolate 
souls in America, perishing for want of vision, to send over 
one or more ministers, and support them for a longer or 
shorter time. We further represent, that according to the 
best of our judgment, forty pounds sterling, annually paid 
in Scotland, to be transmitted in goods, will be a competency 
for the support of each minister you send, provided that of 
your pious and christian benevolence you suitably fit them 
out." From these extracts we are led to conclude that the 
assistance yielded, by the ministers in London, and the 
Presbytery of Dublin, was rather occasional than systematic. 
Had it have been systematic the Presbytery say they might 
have had "the balance." 

It the fall of 1V05, after his return from England, we find 
Mr. Makemie, in the month of November, before the County 
Court of Somerset, with two ministerial brethren, John Hamp- 
ton, and George McNiah, whom the records style "his asso- 
ciates." Certificates were damanded for these gentlemen, 
according to law, for the unmolested exercise of their minis- 
try. The religious aspect of Maryland had greatly changed 
since Makemie began to preach on the Eastern shore. Their 
consciences were unshackled. All men had liberty to worship 
God according to their consciences. In 1692 the Church 
of England became the Established Church of Maryland, 
and a tax of forty pounds of tabacco "per poll" was im- 
posed on every "taxable" to meet the expense of building 
and repairing churches, and supporting ministers. In 1702, 
dissenters from the Church of England were declared entitled 
to the benefit of the Toleration Act; but their meeting houses 
were to bo "unbarred- — unbolted^ — and unlocked." It was 
necessary for these gentlemen to obtain a license, for the exer- 
cise of their ofSce as ministers, in a State where conscience had 
<aice been free. 

Opposition to the licenses of Messrs. Hampton and McNish, 
was raised by the vestry of the parish of Coventry; and the 
matter was referred to the Governor and Council. The Rev. 
Robert Keith, minister at Dividing Creek, was supposed to be 
the author of the opposition, lie certainly united in it with all 



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54 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

hia power. The following extracts from the records of the court 
show the forma and spirit of the time. "At a court held for 
Somerset County, at Dividing Creek, the 14th day ofNovem- 
ber, 1705, present Capt. John West, Major John Cornish, Mr. 
Thos. Newbold, Capt. John Frankland, Capt. Chas. Ballart!, 
and Mr. Jos. Venables. "The petition of George McNish 
humbly sheweth, — That your petitioner craveth that the usual 
oaths according to law tendered to, and to be taken by dissent- 
ing Ministers and Preachers may be tendered to your peti- 
tioner, — George McNish." "The Rev. Robert Keith and Mr. 
Alexander Adama, — exhibit aa followeth, — That whereas, we 
have good ground to believe, that Mr. Francis Makemy and 
others his assistance are intended to address your worships on 
account of a Tolleration granted to the dissenters, for preaching 
and building meeting houses, and doing what else is incumbent 
on them as such, and wee duly considering the import of tho 
matter ; humbly desiro that the whole aa to the premises, be 
remitted to his Excellency the Governor of this Province, and 
the honourable Council of State thereof, By them to be 
considered, ordered and determined as they shall think fitt: 
And that nothing be done in the premises untill warrant or 
order be obtained from them, as to whole premises, or any 
part thereof. John Heath, Pro. Vestry." Upon considering 
these two petitions, the Justices resolved — " Notwithstanding 
the said McNish in decent manner, did require (he being a 
dissenter from the Church of England) that he might be digni- 
fied as by law in this county to preach, offering to take the 
oaths and subscribe the declaration, — to allow the said Vestry 
petition to have its final result and determination by his said 
Exncy and honble Council of State as prayed for." 

On the 8th of January 1705, 6, the same justices or com- 
missioners being present, " then did Mr. George McNish and 
Mr, John Hampton their petition exhibit," — having recounted 
the provisions of the toleration act, and stated the fact that 
they had previously offered themselves to the Court to take 
the oaths required and perform whatever else was required by 
law, they say — " we do humbly tender ourselves again to your 
worships, as the proper court held by the Justices of the Peace 
for this county empowered and required to administer such 
oaths, and for receiving such subscriptions." The Court de- 
termined to wait tho decision of his Excellency. This decision 
was at length given, and bears March 13th 1705. 

" Att a court held By her Majty's wor'U Justices of the 
Peace for Somerset county, att Dividing Creek, the 12th day 
of June, Anno Dom. 1706, — By his Exncy the Governor, 
March the 13th 1705, ordered then that the worpfull Justices 
of Somerset county, take the oaths of the Desenting ministers 



FRANCIS MAKEMIE. 



according to the Act of Parliament of tlie first of King Wm. 
and Quocn Mary, exempting her Majty's Protestant suhjects 
from certain penaltys, &c. 

"Signed per order W. Bladen, CI. Councoll." 

This decision of the Governor led the Court to enter the 
following record:— "This day appeared Mr. John Hampton 
and Mr, George McNish, exhibited an order from his Excel- 
lency the Governor and honorable Councill for their Qualifica- 
tion to preach in this county, in obedience thereunto this 
Court did administer the oaths appointed per Act of Parlia- 
ment, to the said Hampton and MeKish, who did comply 
therewith, and did likewise eubseribe the Declaration, where- 
upon_ this Court did allow' that the aforesaid Hampton and 
McNish should preach att the meeting house near Mr. Edgar's, 
the meeting house att the head of Monocan, the meeting house 
att SnowhUl, and the meeting house on Mr, Joseph Yenable's 
land, as per the Desenting preachers required." 

As Mr. Joseph Venable sat on the bench, and one of the 
meeting houses stood " on Mr. Joseph Venable's land," it waa 
weir that the Court referred the petitions to the Governor, and 
waited patiently for his decision. Governor Seymour was 
greatly grieved at the conduct of the beneficed clergy, and 
proposed that the Governor and Council should have power to 
oversee and discipline the ministers of the established church, 
in the total want of a church judicatory in the province. This 
plan of the Governor was defeated on the pretence that it was 
an attempt covertly to introduce Presbyterian forms. The 
clergy never forgave him, and triumphing in his defeat and 
their security, grew worse and worse. Tradition says, that at 
Wicomico, the rector, while administering the Lord's Supper, 
upon tasting the bread, cried out to the church warden, 
" George — this bread is not fit for a dog." The condition of 
the clergy waa such that a bishop of the Episcopal Church, 
now living, expressed amazement that God spared a church 
under such teachers to have any existence at all. 

Some time after the return of Mr. Makemie from Europe, 
the Presbytery of Philadelphia was formed. The day of its 
formation will, probably, never be known, as the first leaf of 
their book of records is missing. It is not probable that it waa 
formed till after the licensure or qualification of the ministers, 
Messrs. McNish and Hampton, who came over in 1705, and 
were qualified on the 12th of June 1706. It may however 
have been formed in the latter part of the year 1705. The 
records commence in the middle of a sentence. The business 
on hand, the trials of Mr, John Boyd; these were finished the 
next session of the Presbytery. — which was on the 27th of 
December. The year of this meeting ia supposed to be 1706. 



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56 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

as the next mectmg took place in March 1707. It ia not 
known that there ia any matter of importance depending on 
the decision respecting either the year or the month oil which 
the Presbytery was formed, farther, than it must have been 
formed previously to the close of the year 1706, and after the 
commencement of the year 1705. 

The ministers that formed this Presbytery, or were united 
with it previously to December 27th, 1706, were Francis 
Makemie, George McNish, John Hampton, Samuel Davis, 
John Wilson, Nathaniel Taylor, and Jedodiah Andrews. Ma- 
temie's residence was Ononcock, in Accomack county, Virgi- 
nia. Messrs. Hampton, McNish, and Davis, preached on me 
Eastern Shore of Maryland. Mr. Taylor was settled on the 
Patuxent. Mr. Wilson resided in Newcastle. Mr. Andrews 
in Philadelphia. This last mentioned gentleman became the 
Stated Clerk of Presbytery and filled the office for many 
years. A Mr. John Macky is mentioned in the minutes of 
Presbytery, for 1712, as living on Elizabeth river. He never 
became a member of the Presbytery. 

Mr, Makemie was Moderator of the Presbytery in Decem- 
ber, 1706. During the sessions of Presbytery, in March, 
1707, he, together with Mr. John Wilson, preached, according 
to appointment, on Hebrews, 1st chapter, 1st and 2d verses. 
Between these two meetings, Mr. Makemie, on hip way to 
Boston, in Massachusetts, stopped in New York city; and 
suffered imprisonment for preaching a sermon. Being per- 
mitted to give baQ, he returned home, attended the meeting of 
Presbytery in March, returned to New York and stood trial for 
the offence of preaching a sermon without leave of the Deputy 
Governor. At the next meeting which took place in Philadel- 
phia, May 1708, Mr. Makemie was not present. But the 
record states that he had complied with the order made the 
year previous requiring him to — "write to Scotland to Mr, 
Alex. Coldin, minister of Oxam, — and to give an account 
of the state and circumstances of the dissenting Presbyterian 
interest among the people in, and about, Lewistown, and to 
signify the earnest desires of the people, for the said Mr. Col- 
din's coming over to be their minister; and that Mr. Makemie 
make report of his diligence herein against the next Presby- 
tery." His absence from this Presbytery may have had con- 
nexion with his death. Before the next meeting Mr. Makemie 
had gone to the general assembly and church of the first born 
whose names are written on high. 

The immediate cause of his death, and the manner, are 
equally unknown. His will bears date April 27th, 1708. It 
was proved, according to law, on the 4th of August, of the 
same year. Some parts of his will are of permanent interest. 



,,^,.,.,j>k' 



FRANCIS MAKEMIE. 57 

Extracts shall be given from an attested copy by the Deputy 
Cierk of Accomack county. 

1st. After giving to his wife and two daughters, each, 
forty volumes of English books, to be chosen by them from 
Lis whole liberary, — the will adds — "and the rest of my 
library of Books of all sorts, I give and bequeath unto 
Mr. Jedediah Andrews minister at Philadelphia, excepting 
my law books, and after his decease or removal from Phila- 
delphia, I give and bequeath said Liberary to such minister 
or ministers as shall succeed him in that place and ofSce, and 
to such only as shall be of the Presbyterian or Independent 
persuasion and none else. My will is, that as soon as said 
Books are remitted to Philadelphia, the number and names of 
said Liberary may be put upon record, to be preserved there, 
as a constant Liberary for the use of foresaid minister or 
ministers successively, forever. I give, wQl, and bequeath 
onto Mr. Andrew Hamilton and his heirs forever, all my law 
books to be found among my liberary Books, and thoes he 
already hath in possession." Do yon know law? was the 
sneering inquiry put to him in New York on his trial. 

2d, As a farther expression of kind feelings to Mr. An- 
drews — "I give and bequeath unto Mr. Jedediah Andrews, 
minister at Philadelphia, and his heirs forever, my black 
camlet cloak, and jaj new cane, bought and fixed at Bos- 
ton;" — probably, when he fled from the attempt at a second 
arrest by the Deputy Governor of New York. 

3d. In the further disposition of property, he empowers his 
Executrix — "to sell, dispose of and alien my house and lott at 
the new towne in Princess Anne county, on the Eastern 
Branch of Elizabeth River, as also my lott and house or frame 
of house in the new towne on Wormlye's creek, called TJrbana, 
as also my lot Joyning to the new meeting House Lott, in 
Pocomoke town." The disposition of the meeting house lot 
has already been quoted. 

4th, He provides residuary legatees. "And if my daugh- 
ters aforesaid, die without issue of their natural Eodyes, their 
parts of all Estate reall and personall given by this will, I give 
and bequeath to my youngest sister Anne Makemie of the 
Kingdom of Ireland, and the two eldest sons of my brother 
John and Kobert Makemie, both of the name of Francis Ma- 
kemie, and their heirs forever." 

5th. His disposition of his children. After naming his wife 
as Executrix, he proceeds — " committing to her and her only, 
the guardianship and the tutorship of my aforesaid children, 
whilst in minority, during her natural life, and in case of the 
death of my deare wife, Naomie Makemie, before this my will 
is proved and executed, or the arrival of my said daughters, 



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58 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

Elizabeth and Anne Makemie, at age, I do constitute, appoint 
and ordaine the Honorable Colonel Francis Jenkins of Somer- 
set county, in Maryland, and Mary Jenkins, his Lady, and 
beloved Consort, Esecutors of thia my last Will and Testa- 
ment, and guardians to my eaid children during their minority, 
and till marriage, charging all persons concerned in the pre- 
sence of Almighty and Omniscient God, to give and allow my 
said children a sober, virtuous Education, either here or else 
where, as in Britain, New England, or Philadelphia." 

His daughter Elizabeth soon followed her father to the 
grave. The records of the court say that Mrs. Naomi Make- 
mie applied for administration on the estate of her daughter 
Elizabeth, on the 6th of October, 1708. 

His daughter Anne married a gentleman by the name of 
Holden. She lived to a great age, passing many years as a 
widow, and died possessed of a large estate. In her will, 
which bears date November 15th, 1787, she bequeathed one 
hundred pounds to the Pitt's Creek Congregation, the one that 
worshipped — "in the Meeting house near Mr. Edgar's, — to be 
disposed of by the Sessions for the support of a minister." 
This fund is still in existence. She made a donation of twenty 
pounds to the Rev. Jacob Ker. To the Rev. Samuel McMas- 
ters she gave — "forty six pounds, a mahogany desk, a bed and 
furniture, and a Negro woman called Keziah and her chil- 
dren." 

Col. Jenkins who is named with such marked confidence in 
the will, died soon after Mr. Makemie, and left no children. 
He bequeathed a great estate to his wife. 

Mr. John Henry, the successor of Mr. Makemie at Reho- 
both, came, in year 1710, an ordained minister, from the 
Presbytery of Dublin, and was installed pastor the same year. 
At the meeting of the Presbytery, Sept. 20th, 1710, in which 
Mr. Henry was received, three other ministers were also united 
with the judicatory, James Anderson from the Presbytery of 
Irvine in Scotland, Joseph Morgan from New England, and 
Paulus Van Yleek from the Dutch Reformed. After their 
admission there is the following — "Memorandum; Upon the 
admission of these ministers above mentioned; three Eiders 
more sat in Presbytery, namely, Mr. Peeree Bray, Mr. John 
Foord and Mr. Lenard Van Degrift." Mr. Henry was at the 
meeting of the Presbytery in 1716. His death is recorded on 
the minutes of Synod in 1717. Of him Mr. Spence says — " I 
remember to have seen, seventeen years ago, a manuscript 
strongly bound octavo volume, of from throe to five hundred 
pages, entitled — Common Place. It was a mass of religious 
instructions prepared by Mr. Henry for bis descendants. 
From my recollections of the book it enforced the prominent 



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MAKEMIE AND ASSOCIATES. 59 

doctrines of the Confession of Faith, in their length ani3 
breadth, urged upon those who should itihcrit his name or 
blood, the faithful performance of the duties which result from 
them, — with his advice as to the best manner of performing 
those duties." He left two sons. 

Eey. John Hampton came to America in 1705, was regu- 
krly invited to the congregation at Snow Hill in 1707, but 
was not installed till 1708. The services of his installation 
were performed by Rev. Mr. McNish alone; the other member 
of committee, Mr. Davis, having failed to attend on the occa- 
sion. After the death of Mr. Henry, Mr. Hampton was 
united in marriage with the widow. He was present at the 
Synod in Sept. 1720. His will was admitted to record Feb. 
2d, 1721. His death was reported to Synod Sept. 1721, but 
the day of his decease is not mentioned. 

Mrs. Mary Hampton, who had been connected in marriage, 
successively, with Colonel Jentina, Rev. John Henry, and 
Eev. John Hampton, departed this life 1744. " Her maiden 
name" — says Mr, Spenee — "was King. She was the daugh- 
ter of an Irish Baronet. She was a distinguished woman, or 
as I have heard her called — a great woman. She is uniformly 
called on the public records — madam. She left two sons, the 
only descendants of herself, or Mr. Henry ; they both attained 
manhood; were married, and their descendants may be found 
in Dorchester, Somerset, and Worcester Counties." 

Rev. George McNish, the other "assistance" of Mr. Ma- 
kemie, after declining calls from Monocan, Wicomoco — " the 
meeting house on Mr. Venable's land"— or Salisbury and 
Upper Marlborough, removed to Long Island in New York 
and became pastor of Jamaica in 1712. He resided in that 
place till his death in 1726. " By his exertions principally," 
says Mr. Webster, "the Presbytery of Long Island was formed 
consisting, besides himself, of the Rev. Samuel Pumry (or 
Pomroy) of Newtown, Rev. George Phillips of Setauket, and 
the Church in Southampton over which they ordained Rev. 
Samuel Gelston at their first meeting." Mr. McNish died in 
1720. 

Rev. Samuel Davis was a member of the Presbytery when 
the records commence,, and was probably an original member. 
He was from Ireland. He preached in different places on the 
Eastern Shore and died in 1726, 

Rev, John Wilson, another of the original members of 
Presbytery, was from Scotland. Aa early as 1704 was minis- 
ter of New Castle on the Delaware. He died in 1712. 

Rev. Nathaniel Taylor, another of the ministers that united 
to form the Presbytery, lived on the Patuxent. Dr. Baleh of 
Georgetown gives a tradition that a colony of Scotch came to 



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go SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

tliis country, about the year 1690, under the auspices of 
Colonel Ninian Beall, and settled on the Tatuxcnt. From 
these was formed Upper Marlhorough. Mr. Taylor came with 
them, or soon after them, to be their minister. His last 
attendance in Presbytery was in 17-09. Dr. Hill thinks the 
congregation at Upper Marlborough was organized at a later 
period, by Rev. Mr. Conn. It was of Scotch material. 

Rev. Jodcdiah Andrews was born in Hingham, Massaehu- 
Betts, July 1674 : was a graduate of Harvard in 1695 ; com- 
menced preaching in Philadelphia 1608 ; was an original mem- 
ber of Presbytery and became its stated clerk ; was Moderator 
of the first meeting of the Synod of Philadelphia in 1717 *, was 
Moderator of the Synod at the time the Rev. Robert Cross 
his copastor brought in the famous protest, by which the 
Presbytery of New Brunswick was excluded; remained with 
the majority when the minority withdrew ; and lived to the 
advanced age of seventy-two years. Mr. Makemie expressed 
his great attachment to him, by the legacies of his will. 
Whether the church, of which Mr. Andrews was long pastor, 
was organized at time he began to preach in Philadelphia, or a 
few years afterwards, has been a matter of discussion. It is 
not necessary to decide the matter here. The churches of the 
Eastern Shore, at least some of them, are senior sisters. Mr. 
Andrews was preaching in Philadelphia at the time Mr. Ma- 
kemie obtained his qualifications from the Court of Accomack. 
The church at Snow Hill was able to sustain a preacher when 
that of Philadelphia was not yet gathered. There can be no 
question of the talents and acquirements of Mr. Andrews. 
His long residence in Philadelphia, of itself speaks volumes for 
him. His education had been in New England, where Inde- 
pendency predominated. There were many elements of Presby- 
tery in the churches of his fathers. The orthodoxy of New Eng- 
land was then entirely unquestioned, and of the strictest sort. 
The points of agreement between Makemie and Andrews were 
many; the subjects of difi'erenee few. Makemie had been the 
Evangelist of the Eastern Shore ; Andrews the forming pastor 
in Philadelphia. Makemie had been accustomed to meet oppo- 
sition, and, victorious or conquered, to hold unchanged his 
principles of faith and practice and forms of worship, he must 
gain the victory or be defeated. Andrews was a common friend 
chosen by warring elements, and was accustomed to consider 
how much could be yielded with a safe faith, and what could 
be done to harmonize professing christians who agree on great 
principles. Makemie fell in earlier life than Andrews ; but 
Andrews might have wished to fall earlier than Makemie, 
could he have anticipated the cloud that would hang upon his 
age. Both orthodox in faith, Makemie was Presbyterian, by 



„^,.,.,glc 



MAKEMIE'S CREED. 01 

education, ex animo; Andrews probably by position and expe- 
diency. Andrews closed his ministry and his life in 1746. 

Rev. Francis Makemie held a peculiar position. He wEts 
the firat in a long and rapidly increasing series of ministers 
that resulted in the Genera! Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church in North America. He was first of a church, whose 
past history is full of events that have moulded rising genera- 
tions. No civil State, or religious denomination, south of the 
Hudson, or perhaps in the Union, has done more for the ad- 
vance of civil liberty, freedom of conscience and the public 
welfare. All these things give force to the inquiry — what was 
his creed? That he was Presbyterian in creed, and in church 
forms and church government, has never been doubted. The 
records of civil and ecclesiastical courts establish that fact. 
But how did he understand the Confession of Faith ? Strictly 
or in latitude of meaning? In absence of direct testimony the 
appeal is to the circumstances of the case. During his trial in 
New York in 1707 he said — "As to our doctrines, my Lord, 
we have a Confession of Faith known to the Christian world, 
and I challenge the clergy of York to show us any false or 
pernicious doctrine therein." This Confession was the Scotch 
edition of the "Westminster Confession, which was in use in 
Ireland. But how did ho understand it? This question is 
answered by the following circumstances. 

1st. The Presbyterian Church in Ireland was gathered by 
such men as John Livingston and Robert Blair, — men that 
acted a conspicuous part at the Kirk of Shotts in 1630. Seven 
hundred persons were hopefully converted at one meeting. 
And these two preachers were suspended by the prelates, for 
being there. The Irish Church took its form and fashion 
from Scotch materials, after the model of the Scotch Kirk, and 
its prototype in Geneva. What construction the Scotch put 
on their Confession then is not doubted. 

2d. In 1643 the Solemn League and Covenant, was, with 
due forms, taken to some extent in England. It was pressed 
in Scotland, and those, that declined taking it, in that country, 
were considered enemies of civil and religions liberty. Expe- 
rience proved the suspicion not to be gronndlcss. Ireland 
by a particular clause was included in the league; and the 
Presbyterians of Ulster took the covenant joyfully. In 1644, 
it was offered to the congregations in Down, Antrim, Derry, 
Donegal, Tyrone, and Fermanaugh, by commissioners sent 
from Scotland for the purpose. It was received by the con- 
gi'egations with ceremony and grea.t solemnity. It produced 
the same effects in Ireland as in Scotland. It drew the line 
between the friends and enemies of civil and religious liberty. 

3d. The first Presbytery in Ireland was formed on the 10th 



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62 SKETCHES OF VIBGIKIA. 

of June 1642, and consisted of five ministers. It was not slow 
to act. In 1654, when the Presbytery consisted of about 
twenty-four members, a resolution respecting ministers' coming 
from abroad was passed, declaring — that they must come well 
recommended for learning, piety, ai^d prudence. Another re- 
solution declared, — that young men from Scotland, received on 
trials for the ministry, should be particularly tried, so that 
they might not be received on slight testimonials, or small 
qu^ifications. Another resolution declared, — that previously 
to ordination, the candidates, having gone through their trials 
should declare their adkerenee to the Solemn League and 
Covenant. 

4th, In 1664, four ministers of the Presbytery of Lagan, 
the original Presbytery having been divided into five, were pat 
in confinement, by Leslie, Bishop of Raphoe, for their adhe- 
rence to Presbyterial doctrine and practice. Their confinement 
lasted six years. Their names were John Hart, Thomas Drum- 
mond, William Somple, and Adam White; one of these, Mr. 
Drummond, was Makemie's pastor. 

5th. In 1681, Mr. Makemie was licensed by the Presbytery 
of Lagan, and soon after ordained to come to America in 
answer to two applications for ministerial help. About the 
same time four ministers of this Presbytery were put in con- 
finement for holding a fast, according to the resolution of Pres- 
bytery, on account of the state of the country then sufi'ering 
under great grievances from the monarch and the prelates. 

6th. The trials and sufferings of the Scotch and Irish 
Church, were not on account of their doctrinal creed. They 
might have been as Galvinistic in their doctrines of belief as they 
pleased, if they had yielded to the king and the prelates, and 
admitted diocesan bishops. The difficulties with the Indepen- 
dents, in the time of Cromwell, would have been avoided by 
giving up their ehurch sessions, or elders. Rather than sub- 
mit to these things, they fied from Scotland to Ireland, and from 
Ireland to Scotland, going and returning, as the difficulties 
lessened in one, or hope brightened in the other. At last they 
turned to America, and emigrated in crowds. They brought 
their religion and their principles of liberty along with them, 
and ranked among the firmest advocates and sufferers, in the 
American Revolution. 

It is not unfair to conclude that a man trained in these 
circumstances, understood the Confession in the sense of the 
Scotch Church. In action, there was, of necessity, some 
modification in Ireland, and more in America, arising from the 
sparseness of the population, and the feebleness of the congre- 
gations. It can scarcely be supposed that a church, which, 
during the fifty years of its existence suffered from two oppo- 



"•— 8'^ 



MAKEMIE'S TRIAL IN NEW YORK. gg 

site reasons — that she conceded too little and too mueli — and 
amidst trouble and wounds was spreading her wings for a west- 
ward flight, should ordain a forerunner who was not supposed 
to be ex animo a Presbyterian. Makemie's trials proved his 
spirit. He suffered confinement like his pastor and his co-pres- 
bjtera. In magnanimity and boldness he was akin with Living- 
ston and Blair, and the host of Scotch ministers, who laid down 
their lives in the Grass Market in Edinborough, in defence 
of what Americans hold most dear. It is not to be supposed 
that Mabemie thought less of Presbyterian forms in America 
than in Ireland, or would be more ready to give them up, when 
the difficulties were no greater, and the reasons for adherence 
no less ; more especially, when the yielding of them on the one 
hand for Independency would not render him less obnoxious to 
the laws of the province, or on the other, for prelacy, add any 
thing to his usefulness. 

The fruits of Makemie's labours are seen, in tho places 
where ho expended his strength. Snow Hill and Rehoboth 
are churches still. Accomack has its church. Elizabeth 
always feeble, has had some witnesses ; and Norfolk now 
flourishes. Urbana never had a church, but on the opposite 
side of the Rappahannoc, Waddel passed some years of his 
most successful labours. 

The landing place of the Pilgrims cannot be seen at Ply- 
mouth. Jamestown in Virginia has passed to a single church 
in ruins and a grave yard. But the religious principles of 
the Pilgrims have spread far and wide; and the political prin- 
ciples of Virginia have influenced the nation. The facts and 
principles that sustained Makemie in Somerset and Accomack 
have been felt through all the South and West. He stands 
first in tho list of names that shine as a galaxy in the Eccle- 
siastical horizon ; and as a defender of civil liberty and equal 
rights in America he had no superior. 



CHAPTER m. 

THE CONPIKEMENT AHD TRIAL OF KBV. FRASCI3 MAKEMIE FOR 
PREACHING A SERMON IK REW YORK, 1707. 

The prosecution of the Rev. Francis Mabemie, for preaching a 
sermon, in the incipient city of New York, is a singular fact in 
history. It embraces the principles and laws on which he was 
called before County Courts, Deputies and Councils in Vir- 



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64 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

ginia and Maryland, and also some peculiar to New Tork. A 
statement is here presented, that the public may have a better 
understanding of the arbitrary nature of all religious eStablieh- 
ments, by contemplating the difBculties that embarrassed dis- 
sentera from the Church of England ; and that a more just 
eatimate may be formed of the man who stands first on the list 
of the ministers of the Preabyterian Church in tlje United 
States of America. The facts and arguments, with the excep- 
tion of Lord Cornbury's statement, are taken from a pamphlet 
published at the time, and republished, in New York, in the 
year 1755, Mr. Makemie is auppoaed to he Author or Editor, 
in part ; or that it was drawn up under his inapoetion. 

In the month of January, 1707, the Rev, Francis Makemie, 
and Rev, John Hampton, on a tour to New England, tarried a 
few days in New York. Lord Cornbury, the Deputy Governor, 
hearing of theae strangcra, the one from Accomack, Virginia, 
and the other from Somcraet, Maryland, entertained them at 
the castle. No preparation had then been made for either of 
the gentlemen to preach. There was then no regular Presby- 
terian congregation in the city. After dining with the Gov- 
ernor, Mr. Makemie was invited by aome of the citizens to 
preach on the ensuing Sabbath. He consented. Application, 
without hia approbation or knowledge, waa made to the Gov- 
ernor, for permiaaion for him to preach in the Dutch Church, 
and waa refused. The Governor declared himaelf inyeated 
with powor to decide who should be permitted to preach in the 
city or province. 

On Sabbath, the 19th of the month, Mr. Makemie preached 
in the dwelling house of William Jackson on Pearl Street, in 
an open public manner ; and baptized a child. Mr. Hampton, 
on the same day, preached, at Newtown on Long Island, to a 
regular congregation, whoae houae had been admitted to record, 
according to the requirementa of the Act of Toleration. Mr. 
Makemie remained in New York, on Monday, went on Tues- 
day to Newtown, intending to preach there on Wednesday. 
Immediately on hia arrival, Thomas Cardale, High Sheriff, and 
Stephen Luff, Under Sheriff of Queens County, arreated Messrs. 
Makemie and Hampton, on a warrant signed by Lord Corn- 
bury, charging them with having — " taken it upon them to 
preach in a private house, without having obtained any license 
for BO dong, which ia directly contrary to the known lawa of 
England: — and being likewiae informed that they are gone 
into Long laland with intent there to apread their pernicious 
doctrine and principles to the great diaturbance of the Church 
by law establiahed, and of the Government of this province"^ 
and directing the Sheriff to bring the bodies of "Makennan" 
and Hampton to fort Anne. 



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MAKEMIE'S TRIAL IN KEU 'iCrk (55 

On account of the lateness of the hoiu, nhen tho ^locess 
was served, the prisoners were permitted, on then piiole, to 
lodge that night at the bouse of two neigbbouts fuendlyto 
them; on the next day, Wednesday, they were cariifil lound 
by Jamaica, seven or eight miles out of the way to New York,, 
as if to make a show of them ; and being detained there that 
night, they were on Thursday, about noon, taken to fort Anne, 
and, about tbi-ee or four o'clock in the afternoon, brought be- 
fore Lord Oornhury, in the Council chamber. 

Lord Oombury's statement oiight first to be perused. It 
was obtained from the office in Albany by the Rev. R, Webster. 
It is as follows — 

" To the Right Honorable Lords Commissioners for Trade 
and Commerce. On the 17th of January, 1705, 6 (6, 7) a 
man of this town, one Jackson, cajne to acquaint me that two 
ministers were come to town and desired to know when they 
might speak with me. I ordered my man to tell Jackson they 
should be welcome to come and dine with me. They came and 
I found one is named Francis Makenzie a Presbyterian preacher 
settled in Virginia; the other is John Hampton a young Pres- 
byterian minister lately come to settle in Maryland, They 
pretended they were going to Boston and did not say one 
syllable about preaching here. They applied themselves to 
the Dutch minister and to the Elders of the French church for 
leave to preach in their churches ; they were willing if they 
could get my consent. On the Monday following I waa 
informed that M. had preached at the house of Jackson' a shoe- 
maker in this town, and that Hampton had preached on Long 
Island, and that Makenzie was gone there with intent to preneh 
in all the towns, having spread a Report that they had a com- 
mission from the Queen to preach all along this continent. I 
was informed the same day that .they had preached in seve- 
ral places in New Jersey, and had ordained some young men, 
after their manner, who had preached among the Dissenters 
there without it. When .as^ed, they said they had no occasion 
to ask leave of any Governor, they had the Queen's authority 
for what they did. These reports .with the information I had 
of their behaviour on Long Island induced me to send an order 
to the Sheriff of Queens county to bi'ing them to this place. 
He did so on the 23d of January in the Evening. The Attorney 
General was with me. I a^ked M. how he came to preach in 
this Government without acquainting me with it. He told me 
he bad qualified himself according to law in Virginia, and 
having done so would preach in any part of the Queen's domi- 
nions. He told me he understood the law as well as any man, 
and was satisfied he had not offended against any law; that the 
penal laws did not extend to, and were not in force in America. 



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gg SKETCHES OP VIRGIMA. 

I told him the Queen was graciously pleased to grant liberty of 
conscience to all her subjects, except Papists; that he might be 
a papist for all I knew, and that therefore it was necessary he 
should have satisfied the GoTcrnment what he was before he ven- 
tured to preach. lie told me he would qualify himself in any 
manner and would settle in this province. I told him whenever 
any of the people in either of the provinces under my Govern- 
ment had desired leave to call a minister of their own persuar-. 
sion, they had never been denied; but that I should ho very 
cautious how I allowed a man so prone to bid defiiance to 
government, as I found he was. He said ho had done nothing 
he could not answer. So I ordered the High Sheriff of the city 
to take them into custody and I directed the Attorney General 
to proceed against them. He preferred an indictment against 
M. for preaching in the city without qualifying himself as the 
Act of Toleration directs. The Grand Jury found the Bill, but 
the petit jury acquitted him ; so he is gone towards New Eng- 
land uttering many severe threats against me. As I hope I 
have done nothing in this matter but what I was obliged in 
duty to do, especially as I think it very plain by the Act of 
Toleration, that it was not intended to tolerate or allow stroll- 
ing preachers, so I entreat your Lordships protection against 
this malicious man, who is well known in Virginia and Mary- 
land to be a disturber of the peace and quiet of all the places 
Le comes into. He is a Jack of all trades. He is a preacher, 
a doctor of physic, a merchant, an attorney, a counsellor at 
Law, and, which is worst of all, a disturber of Governments. 
I should have sent your Lordships, this account sooner but that 
I was willing to see the issue of the trial. 
"1 am my Lords 

" Your Lordships most oh. Hum. Servt. 

" CORNBUEY. 
"New York Oct. Uth, 1706," (7.) 

*' The brief narrative and genuine history of the several 
steps of sufferings by the confinement of Francis Makemie and 
John Hampton" — goes on to say, that when the ministers 
appeared before Lord Cornhury in the council chamber — Hia 
Lordship inquired "How dare you to take it upon you to 
preach in my government without my license ? 

Makemio replied — " We have liberty from an act of parlia- 
ment made in the first year of the reign of King William and 
Qneen Mary, which gave us liberty, with which law we have 
complied, 

V. " None shall preach in my government without my 
license. 

M. " If the law for liberty had directed us to any particu- 



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MAKEMIE'S TRIAL IN NEW YORK. g>T 

lar persona in authority for license, we would readily have 
observed the same; but we cannot find any directions in the 
act of parliament, therefore we would not take notice thereof. 

G. " That law does not extend to the American plantations, 
but only to England, 

M. " My Lord I humbly conceive that it is not a limited nor 
local act; and am well assured it extends to other plantations of 
the Queen's dominions, which is evident from certificates from 
courts of record of Virginia and Maryland, certifying we have 
complied with the law." These certificates were produced and 
read by Lord Cornbury, who was pleased to say they did not 
extend to New York. 

0. " I know it is local and limited, for I was at the making 
thereof. 

M. "Your Excellency might be at the making thereof, but 
we are assured there is no such limiting clause therein as is in 
local acts, and desire that the iaw may he produced to deter- 
mine the point. 

0. (Turning to the attorney, Mr. Eckely) "Is it not so, 
Mr. Attorney? 

Attornet/ — "Yes, it is local, my Lord." And producing an 
argument he went on to say — " that all the penal laws were 
local and limited, and did not extend to the plantations; and 
the Act of Toleration being made to take off the edge of the 
penal laws, therefore the Act of Toleration does not extend to 
any plantations. 

M. " I desire the law may be produced ; for I am morally 
persuaded there is no limitation or restriction in the law to 
England, Wales and Berwick on Tweed; for it extends to sun- 
dry plantations of the Queen's dominions, as Barbadoes, Vir- 
ginia, and Maryland, which is evident from certificates pro- 
duced, which we could not have obtained if the act of parliament 
had not extended to the plantations. I presume New York is 
a part of her Majesty's dominions also; and sundry ministers 
on the east end of Long Island have complied with the law, 
and qualified themselves at court by complying with the direc- 
tions of said law, and have no license from your Lordship. 

0. "Yes, New York is of her Majesty's dominions; but 
the Act of Toleration does not extend to the plantations by its 
own intrinsic virtue, or any intention of the legislators, bnt 
only by her Majesty's instructions signified unto me, and that 
is from her prerogative and clemency, and the courts which 
have qualified these men are in error, and I will check them 
for it. 

M. " If the law extends to the plantations any manner of 
way, whether by the Queen's prerogative clemency or other- 
wise, our certificates were demonstration that we had complied 
therewith. 



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g8 SKETCirES OF VIRGINIA. 

■Q. " These certificates were only for Virginiaf and Mary- 
land ; they did not extend to New York. 

M. "We preeume, my Lord, our certificates do extend as 
far as the law extends; ,for we are directed by the act of par- 
liament to qualify ourselves in the places where we live, which 
vre have done ; and the same law directs us to taks certificates 
o/o-wr g-Mwij^cafion, which we have also done; and these cer- 
tificates are not to certify to such as behold us taking our 
qualifications, being performed in the face of the country at a 
public court; but our certificates must be to satisfy others 
abroad in the world, who saw it not, or heard any thing of it, 
otherwise it were needless. And that law which obliges us to 
take a certificate must allow said certificate to have a credit 
and a reputation in her Majesty's dominions; otherwise it is 
to no purpose. 

0. " That act of parliament was made against strolling 
preachers, and you are such and shall not preach in my 
government. 

M. " There is not one word my Lord, mentioned in any 
part of the law against travelling or strolling preachers, as your 
Excellency is pleased to call them; and we are to judge that 
to be the true end of the law which is specified in the preamble 
thereof, which is — ' for the satisfying scrupulous consciences, 
and uniting the subjects of England in interest and affection.' 
And it is well known to fjl, my Lord, that Quakers, who have 
liberty by this law, have few or no fixed teachers, but are 
chiefly taught by such as travel, and it is known to all, that 
Buch are sent forth by the yearly meeting at London, and travel 
and teach over the plantations, and are not molested. 

O. " I have troubled some of them, and will trouble them 
more. 

M. " We hear, my Lord, one of them was prosecuted at 
Jamaica, bat it was not for travelling and teaching, but for 
particulars in teaching for which be suffered. 

C. " You shall not spread your pernicious doctrines here. 

M. " As to our doctrines, my Lord, we have our Confession 
of Faith, which is known to the Christian world, and I chal- 
lenge all the clergy of York to show ua any false or pernicious 
doctrines therein ; yea, with those exceptions specified in the 
law, we are able to make it appear that they are, in all doctri- 
nal articles of faith, agreetible to the established doctrines of the 
Church of England. 

0. " There is one thing wanting in your certificates, and 
that is signing the articles of the Church of England. 

M. " That is the clerk's omission, my Lord, for which we 
are no way accountable, by not being full and more particular; 
but if wo had not complied with the whole law, in all parts 



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MAKEMIE'S TRIAL IN NEW YORK. gg 

thereof, we should not have had certificates pursuant to said 
act of parliament. And your Lordship may be assured that 
we have done nothing in complying with said law but what ■We 
are still ready to perform, if your Lordship require rt, and that 
ten times over. And as to the articles of religion, I have a 
copy in my pocket, and am ready at all times to sign, with 
those exceptions specified by law. 

0. " You preached in a private house not certified accord- 
ing to act of parliament. 

M. " There were endeavours used for my preaching in a 
more public place, and (though without my knowledge) your 
Lordship's permission was demanded for my preaching in the 
Dutch church, and being denied, we were under a necessity of 
assembling for public worship in a private house, which we did 
in as public a manner as possible with open doors; and we are 
directed to certify the same to the next Quarter Sessions, 
which cannot be done until the Quarter Sessions come in course, 
for the law binds no man to impossibilities ; and if we do not 
certify to the next Quarter Sessions we shall be culpable, but 
not till then. For it is evident, my Lord, that this act of par- 
liament was made and passed the Royal assent May 24th, and 
it. being some time before tho Quarter Sessions came in course, 
and all ministers in England continued to preach without one 
day's cessation or forbearance; and we hope the practice of 
England should bo a precedent for America, 

O. " None shall preach in my government without my 
license, as the Queen has signified to me by her royal instruc- 
tions. 

M. " Whatever direction the Queen's instructions may be 
to your Lordship, they can bo no rule or law to us, nor any 
particular person who never saw, and perhaps never shall sco 
them, ^or promulgation is the life of the law. 

C. " You must give bond and security for your good heha^ 
viour, and also bond and security to preach no more in my 
government. 

M. " As to our behaviour, though we have no way broke it, 
endeavouring always so to live, as to ' keep a conscience void 
of offence towards God and man,' yet if your Lordship requirea 
it, we would give security for our behaviour ; but to give bond 
and security to preach no more in your Excellency's govern- 
ment, if invited and desired by any people, we neither can nor 
dare do. 

€'. " Then you must go to goal. 

M. " We are neither ashamed nor afraid of what we havo 
done ; and we have complied, and are ready still to comply, 
with the act of parliatment, which we hope will protect us at 
last. And it will be unaccountable in England, to hear that 



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70 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

Jews, vrho openly blaspheme the name of the Lord Jesus Christ 
and disown the whole Christian religion, — the Quakers who dis- 
own the fundamental doctrines of the Church of Engla"nd, and 
both the sacraments, — the Lutherans, and all others are tole- 
rated in jour Lordship's government, and only we, who have 
complied and are still ready to comply with the Act of Tolera- 
tion, and are nearest to and likest to the Church of England 
of any dissenters, should he hindered, and that only in the 
government of New York and the Jerseys. This will appear 
strange indeed. 

0. " You must hlame the Queen for that. 

M. "We do not, neither have we any reason to blame her 
Majesty, for she molests none, neither countenances nor en- 
courages any who do; and has given frequent assurances, and 
of late, in her gracious speech to parliament, that she would 
inviolably maintain the toleration." 

Here Lord Combury began writing precepts for discharging 
the prisoners from the custody of the sheriff of Queen's county, 
and for their commitment in New York, Mr. Hampton, who 
had hitherto remained silent, demanded a license to preach, 
according to Act of Toleration; Lord Cornbury absolutely de- 
nied it. Mr. Makemie then moved that the law be produced 
to determine the point whether it were local and limited or not. 
He said he doubted not the Attorney was ablo soon to produce 
the law; and further, he offered to pay the Attorney for a 
copy of that paragraph which contains the limiting clause. 

0. "You, sir, know law? 

M. "I do not, my Lord, pretend to know law; but I pre- 
tend to know this particular law, haying had sundry disputes 
thereon." He here refers to his appearance before the courts 
of Maryland and Virginia. The mittimus being made out, the 
high sheriff of York city and county, Ebenezer Wilson, took 
them to his dwelling house, as the place of their confinement. 
On Friday the 26th, after sundry demands, by the prisoners, 
he gave them a copy of their commitment, viz. 

" You are hereby required and commanded to take into your 
custody the bodies of Francis Makemie and John Hampton, 
and them safely keep, till further orders ; and for so doing this 
shall be your warrant. 

Given under my hand and seal this 23 day of January 
1706, 7. 

CoRNBURY (seal) 

To Ebenezer Wilson, Esq. High Sheriff of New York. 

A true copy — Ebenezer Wilson." 

This was made by the supreme authority, and not by the 
proper officers appointed for the commitment of offenders: — 
there is no mention of the Queen's authority or name : — there. 



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MAKEMIE'S TRIAL IM NEW YORK. 11 

is no crime alleged : — and ttey were to be discharged hj the 
Governor and not by "due course of law." Tinding them- 
selves imprisoned they sent the following petition by the hands 
of the High Sheriff, viz: 

" To his Excellency, Edward Viscount Combury, Captain 
General and Governor in Chief of the Province of New York 
and New Jersey, and all the tracts of land depending thereon 
in America and Admiral of the same — the humble petition of 
Francis Makemie and John Hampton most humbly sheweth : 

"That whereas your Excellency has been pleased to commit 
ns to prison by a precept wherein there is no crime alleged we 
your Lordships most humble petitioners and prisoners, most 
humbly pray we may be permitted to know our crime. And 
your Excellencys most humble petitioners and prisoners fur- 
ther pray, as we are strangers on our journey to New Eng- 
land, above four hundred miles from our habitation, we may 
bo allowed a speody trial, according to law, which we humbly 
conceive to be the undoubted right and privilege of every Eng- 
lish subject. And your Excellencys most humble petitioners 
and afQicted prisoners shall as in duty bound, always pray. 
Francis Makemie. 
John Hampton." 

To this petition, a verbal answer was returned, after some 
days, — "that Lord Cornbury did admire they should petition 
to know their crime, he having so often told them, — and that 
they might have a trial if they took the right way." What 
this "right way" was they could not ascertain though they 
made application both to the Sheriff and Attorney. They had 
no alternative, and therefore resolved to wait with patience till 
the arrival of the Chief Justice, Hon. Roger Mompeseon, Esq., 
who resided in another province, and could not sign a Habeas 
Corpus, until he should come into the government of New York. 
In the meantime the Quarter Sessions of the city and county 
of New York came on, they petitioned Lord Cornbury, that in 
the custody of the Sheriff they might be permitted to apply for 
license, as the law directs — "which," — say they — "we are 
again ready to do, we being resolved to reside in your Lord- 
ships government." This being rejected by Cornbury, they 
next addressed the Quarter Sessions, then sitting on the 5th 
of February, and requested, that, as thoir certificates from the 
courts in Virginia and Maryland were not admitted by Lord 
Combury as extending to his government, — they might be per- 
mitted in custody of the Sheriff to appear at their bar and be 
qualified again. Their petition was presented, handed about, 
but not read in open court. The Attorney General laid hold 
of it and was putting it in his pocket telling the court it was a 
libel on Lord Cornbury, — and that it was none of their busi- 



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72 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

nes3 to administer the qualifications, — althougli the Act of 
Toleration declares expressly that it is the duty of Quarter 
Sessions 80 to do. The magistrates were probably' not in 
possession of the law. 

At the same time application was made accordiDg to the 
Toleration Act, for licensing the house of William Jackson, 
where Makemie had preached, as tho place of public worship^ 
for those who chose to Assemble under the Toleration Act ; 
this was also refused, after being under consideration two days, 
and the law being presented for their inspection ; although, a 
short time before, a Quaker meeting house had been licensed 
on application of two men, upon the same act of Parliament. 

By the Act of Toleration, when application was made to the 
Quarter Sessions, or other constituted authorities, the court 
was required to make register of the same ; and an application, 
according to law, was a legal qualification in the eyo of the 
law. 

Chief Justice Mompesson arrived at New York some days 
before the March term ; and to him, through their lawyer Mr. 
Reigniere, the prisoners presented their petition for a writ of 
Habeas Corpus. This petition was granted, after some days, 
and a writ of Habeas Corpus issued March 1T06, T- . This writ 
demanding "the day and cause of their caption and detention," 
and neither having been expressed in the mittimus, the Gover- 
nor made out a new mittimus dated "this 8th day of March 
A. D. 1706, (7)" in which their crimes are stated "for preaching 
in this province without qualifying themselves — and without my 
license first obtained" — and put it into the hands of the Sheriff 
on the same day he received the writ of Habeas Corpus, Satur- 
day, March 8th, 1706, 7. On Monday afternoon the Sheriff 
told him ho had another mittimus, wherein a supposed crime 
was specified — and also the clause — "till they shall be dis- 
charged by due course of law," — and they must find securities. 
By this new mittimus, their imprisonment of six weeks and 
four days was admitted to be false imprisonment. The Sheriff, 
in presence of Mr. Beigniere their lawyer, and Dr. Wm. John- 
stone and Wm. Jackson, refused to execute the writ of Habeas 
Corpus until the prisoners paid him twelve pieces of Eight for 
their commitment, and as many more for the return of the 
writ; and refused to give a receipt for the money when paid. 
They were then conducted to the Supreme Court ; and on the 
new mittimus, gave bonds with two securities. Dr. Johnstone, 
Gentleman, aiid Mr. Jackson, Cordwainer, to appear the nest 
day, and not depart without leave of the court. 

In the return, made by the Sheriff, of the writ of Habeas 
Corpus, he gives the two mittimuses, of Lord Cornbury, in full. 
By the Second Mittimus, they were arrested not in the Queen's 



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MAKEMIE'S TRIAL IN NEW YORK, "Jg 

name, but by Corabury's own authority ; were accused of two 
crimes — of not qualifying according to law — and of proacliing 
in New York without license from the Governor: ■whereas they 
had been qualified in Maryland and Virginia, and offered them- 
selves to qualify in New York, both before Combury and the 
Quarter Sessions. 

On Tuesday March 11th, the Supreme Court was in form, 
Messrs. Makemie and Hampton made their appearance ; on the 
Attorney Greneral's motion, they were required to appear the 
last day of the term. Mr. iteigniere, their attorney, moved 
that the writ of habeas corpus and all the proceedings of the 
Judges' Chamber might be made matter of record ; the Attor- 
ney General opposed the record on the ground that the thing 
had not been done in open court. On the next day the Judge 
delivered to the Court a record of the proceedings in his 
chamber. 

The grand jury were sworn the first day of the term, this 
matter was given them in charge, with little business beside, 
and after various meetings and consultations, the Attorney hav- 
ing dropped the name of John Hampton from the prosecution, 
they brought in their bill against Mr. Makemie on Friday 
afternoon, their vote being taken, one by one, as they came in 
from dinner. Some of the grand jury were justices of the 
peace, who at the Quarter Sessions had refused to have the peti- 
tions of the prisoners read, or to pay any attention to the 
applications for licensing a place of public worship. Four wit- 
nesses were examined, one of them Lord Cornbury's coachman, 
by name of Harris, and gave evidence that they heard no un- 
sound doctrine, or any thing against the government; one of 
the evidences handed to the jury the act of assembly of New 
York for liberty of conscience for all, except Papists. The bill 
charges Mr. Makemie with having preached in New York, to an 
assembly of more than five persons, without having obtained 
permission, and without qualification; and also that he used 
other rites and ceremonies than those found in the book of 
common prayer. The date of the offence was put, in the bill, 
January 22d, whereas it took place on the 20th of that month. 
The bill being brought in the last day of the court, the trial 
was postpoaed till the nest term, in June, Mr. Makemie on 
the bail, previously given, of X40 for himself, and ^20 for 
Mr. Johnstone, gentleman, and ^£20 for Mr, Jackson, cord- 
wainer, was permitted to return to Virginia. While the prepa- 
rations for trial were going on, an order was given to Major 
Sandford, of East Jersey, to examine upon their oaths certain 
persons, to discover what discourse they had with some of their 
friends at the house of Mr. Jasper Crane of Newark ; these 
10 



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74 SKETCHES OF VIBGIKIA. 

persona were examined, but nothing found to suit tiie purpose, 
either of finding out a crime, or magnifying tlieir faults. 

In this stage of the business, we may suppose Lord Cornbury 
■was willing, and expected, the matter should rest; Hampton 
was dropped from prosecution, having been punished by above 
six weeks confinement for offending the deputy; — and Mabemie, 
the chief offender, was let out on bail, which ho might forfeit, 
and thus be kept from New York, and the odium of a trial 
avoided. But Makemie was not the man to forfeit his bonds, 
or avoid a trial where the honour of the gospel was concerned. 
If Lord Cornbury had been excited against him, his spirit had 
been equally aroused to resist the persecution of the tyrannical 
deputy, and vindicate the right of Presbyterians in the in- 
cipient city of New York. 

On his way home to Accomac, he attended the meeting of 
the Presbytery in Philadelphia, which commenced its sessions 
March 22, (Saturday) 1707. "Mr. Francis Makemie and 
Mr. John A¥ilson are appointed to preach upon Tuesday, upon 
the subjects appointed them at the last Presbytery, on Ileb, i. 
1st and 2d, by way of exercise and addition. March 25th, 
(Tuesday) — This day Mr. Francis Makemie and Mr. John Wil- 
son delivered their discourses according to appointment." On 
Wednesday he was directed to write to Scotland for the pur- 
pose of obtaining Mr. Alexander Coldin as minister for the 
people about Lewistown. On the same day the following 
interesting overtures were passed; interesting in themselves, 
and particularly as the last important presbyterial act per- 
formed by Makemie ; viz. " First — That every minister in 
their respective congregations, read and comment upon a chap- 
ter of the Bible every Lord's day, as discretion and circum- 
stances of time, place, &c. will admit. Second over. — That it 
be recommended to every minister of the Presbytery to set on 
foot and encourage private Christian societies. Third over, — 
That every minister of the Presbytery supply neighbouring 
desolate places where a minister is wanting, and opportunity of 
doing good offers." The next meeting of Presbytery was after 
he had made his will. The supply of desolate places with the 
gospel was the object of his ministerial life. 

Mr. Makemie returned from Aecomac "with his man," to 
New York, in time to meet the Court on the first day of its 
sessions ; the defendant's appearance was entered, and he was 
" ordered to plead to-morrow." 

Wednesday/ June 4th 1707. 
The defendant plead not guilty of any crime by preliehing a 
sermon at York. Lord Cornbury being in the Jerseys, the 
Attorney moved that a copy of the Queen's instructions to the 



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MAKEMIE'S TRIAL IN NEW YORK. 75 

Governor be received as evidence at the trial. Mr. Makemie 
objected — that there was time to get the original ; or the Attor- 
ney might produce a certified copy. But finding that the trial 
■would be put off another term unleaa the Attorney 'a copy were 
admitted, it was agreed that it should be received as if the 
original were present: Mr. Makemie observing — "he could not 
but wonder of what service these instructions, which were no 
law, could be to Mr. Attorney, seeing the presentment run 
upon statutes and act of parliament, and they expected to have 
a trial before a court who were judges of law and not of pri- 
vate instructions." 

On Friday June 6th, 1707 the Petit jury was called: the de- 
fendant said he was under great disadvantage, being a stranger 
and not knowing either names or faces of the persons summoned 
as a jury ; that he knew he had not the privilege of peremptory 
challenge ; — ^but that he was informed that one of them — Mr. 
Elias Neace, in discourse with Mr. Anthony Young had pre- 
judged the cause, by condemning him for preaching a sermon, 
and justifying Lord Cornbury's proceedings against him; and 
this being proved by the testimony of Mr. Young, Mr. Neace 
was set aside. Mr. Makemie farther said, " he was amazed to 
find that one so lately dragooned out of France for his reli- 
gion, and delivered out of the galley, so soon prove a persecu- 
tor of the same religion for preaching a sermon in this city. 
The names of the jury are worthy of remembrance for the ver- 
dict they had the courage to render in face of the Governor 
and his attorney and the Justices of the Quarter Sessions: 
they were — John Shepherd, foreman, Thomas Ives, Joseph 
Wright, Thomas Wooden, Joseph Robinson, Bartholomew La^ 
rouex, Andrew Lauron, Humphrey Perkins, William Horswell, 
Thomas Carrell, Thomas Bayeux, and Charles Cromline. 

Mr. Attorney produced a copy of the Queen's instructions 
signed by Lord Cornbury, which was allowed ; these instruc- 
tions were found to be the same as those given by King Wil- 
liam to a former Governor; in the produced copy they were in 
two sentences; in the former instructions they were in two sen- 
tences but a great distance from each other ; let. " You are 
to permit a liberty of conscience to all persons except Papists, 
eo that tJiey he content with a quiet and peaceable enjoyment of 
it, not giving offence or scandal to the government- 2d. You 
are not to permit any minister coming from England to preach 
in your government, without a certificate, from the Right Reve- 
rend the Bishop of London; nor any other minister coming 
from any other part or place without first obtaining leave from 
the G-overnor." 

The Attorney ordered four of Mr. Makemio's hearers to he 
called— Capt. John Theobalds, Mr. John Vanhorne, Mr. Wil- 



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76 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

liam Jackson, and Mr. Anthony Young ; the defendant told the 
Court the swearing of these witnesses was unnecessary — " I 
own the matter of fact as to preaching, and more than these 
gentlemen could declare on oath ; for I have done nothing 
therein, of which I am ashamed, or afraid; but will answer it 
not only hefore this bar, but before the tribunal of God's final 
judgement." 

Attorney — " You own that you preached a sermon, and bap- 
tized a child at Mr. William Jackson's?" 

Makemie — "I did." 

A, "How many hearers had you?" 

M. " I have other work to do, Mr, Attorney, tKan number 
my auditory when I am about to preach to them." 

A. " Were there above five hearing you ?" 

M. " Yes, and five to that." 

A. " Did you use the rites and ceremonies enjoined by, 
and prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer by the Church 
of England?" 

M. *' No : I never did, nor ever will, till I am better satis- 
fied in my conscience." 

A~ " Did you ask leave, or acquaint my Lord Cornbury 
with your preaching at York, when you dined with him at the 
fort ?" 

M. " I did not know of my preaching at York when I 
dined with his Excellency; no, not for some days after. For 
when we came to York we had not the least intention or de- 
sign of preaching there, but stopped at York purely to pay our 
respects to the Governor, which we did; hut being afterwards 
called and invited to preach, as I was a minister of the gospel 
I durst not deny preaching, and I hope I never shall when it is 
wanting and desired." 

A. " Did you acquaint Lord Cornbury with the place of 
your preaching?" 

M. " As soon as I determined to preach leave was asked 
but not by me ; for it was the people's business and not mine, 
to provide a place for me to preach in. And I would have 
been admitted to preach in the Dutch Church, but they were 
afraid of offending Lord Cornbury. And Anthony Young 
went to the Governor to have his leave, or permission, for 
my preaching in the Dutch Church, though al! this was done 
without so much as my knowledge. But my Lord opposing 
and denying it, I was under the necessity of preaching where 
I did, in a private house, though in a public manner with open 
doors." 

The Attorney then entered into a full statement of the 
Statutes of Henry Eighth establishing the supremacy— from 
thence ho asserted the Queen's supremacy in Ecclesiastical 



MAKEMIE'S TRIAL IN NEW YORK. "J^ 

affairs and over Ecclesiastical persona, — that this supremacy 
had been delegated to the Governor and expressed in her 
majesty's instructions. He produced the Statutes of Eliza- 
beth and Charles 2d for Uniformity — and concluded by saying 
"the matter of fact is plainly confessed — and I have proved it 
to be repugnant to the Queen's instructions and sundry acts of 
Parliament, and doubt not the jury will find for the Queen." 

Mr. James Eeigniere pleaded for the defendant — That the 
indictment charged three separate facts ^s crimes ; first — that 
a pretended minister endeavouring to subvert the Queen's 
supremacy, did privately and imlawfuUy preach at Wm, Jack- 
son's house, Tvithout license ; Second, — that he did unlawfully 
use other rites and ceremonies than are in the book of Common 
Prayer; — and thirdly — that he was not qualified hy law to 
preach — and had held an unlawful assembly. He denied that 
the defendant had preached privately : and also that he had 
preached unlawfully, — because he had violated no law forbid- 
ding the preaching to above five. lie said the colony was 
governed Ist by the Common law of England : 2d, By express 
htatutes mentioning the Plantations: 3d, By laws of the 
colony : and that he had never read that preaching -without 
license to above five is a crime; and it is not alleged to be 
against a Statute for the Provinces; it must then, to he a 
crime, he against a law of the colony ; — let it bo produced — 
whore there is no law there can be no transgression. He 
argued that the Statutes of Elizabeth and James and Charles 
were either aimed at Popish recusants or restricted to Eng- 
land, Wales and Berwick on the Tweed. Besides there is no 
Established church in New York ; and liberty of conscience is 
allowed hy law of the Province — " That no person or persons 
who profess faith in God by Jesus Christ his only Son, shall at 
any time he any way molested, for any difference of opinion or 
matter of religious concernment, who do not under that pre- 
tence disturb tho civil peace of the province." — "And all such 
persons may freely meet at convenient places within this pro- 
vince and there worship according to their respective persua- 
sions." From this act the papists were excepted. 

As to the third charge — he argued that as the penal statutes 
did not extend hither, there was no need of Toleration. — That 
the penal laws extend equally to all plantations alike, and if 
the penal laws extended to the plantations, then the crown 
would not tolerate the governments of Boston, Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, and others, which in their church affairs differ so 
much from the Church of England. But these are allowed the 
Liberty they always used in tke church. " As therefore it does 
not appear by the common law of England, or any law of the 
province that his preaching is unlawful; — but on the contrary 



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78 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

there is an express law of the province in favour of it, I humbly 
conceive that my client ia not guilty of any offence against the 
law and I hope and expect the jury will acquit him." ' 

Mr. William Nicholl next pleaded for defendant and said that 
as the attorney had brought history from the reign of Henry 
8th ho would bring some from the Bible, and would begin with 
the Acts of the Apostles, and show that preaching the gospel 
was never in itself, or by the common law, found to be a crime. 
The Apostle preached a new doctrine to the Athenians and waa 
not condemned or imprisoned for it : it was no crime at Corinth ; 
but when hia preaching bore on the gains of the silversmiths at 
Ephesus, they made an uproar rushing into the theatre. It was 
no offence by the common law, but made so by the 5th of Richard 
2d — 2d of Henry 4th — 2d of Henry 5th ; — but all these Statutes 
were repealed by 1st of Edward 6th — and the acts of Elizabeth. 
The four acts against Conventicles are all local and in express 
words limited to England, Wales and Berwick on Tweed, "And 
this is further manifest from the constitutions of the plantations 
being, as it were, settled by national consent, for those whose 
thoughts in religious affairs could not square with the public 
establishment in church government, discipline, and ceremo- 
nies; as New England for Independents and Presbyterians; 
Rhode Island and New Jersey, and we may say New York for 
the several sorts of Dissenters in General ; Pennsylvania for the 
Quakers, and Maryland for papists in particular. As to the 
Queen's instructions they are not, and cannot have the force of 
law. And it is already evidently proved that the Acts of the 
Assembly of New York allow of Liberty of Conscience with 
freedom of public worship to all but Papists." He said that 
this prosecution, (viz. on the authority of the Queen's preroga- 
tive and instructions) being the first in the plantations was made 
the more remarkable. 

Mr. David Jamieson appeared next to plead for the defen- 
dant. He said he did not call in question the Queen's preroga- 
tive, but could not see that the Queen's instructions were a law 
to any body else but his Lordship, who ia directed bj them and 
accountable to the Queen if he does not obey them ; tbey are 
private directions to himself, and can be no law to others ; pro- 
mulgation gives the finishing stroke to a law. He argued that 
the Statutes of Elizabeth and Charles against Conventicles were 
limited because in New York there was no established Religion 
for the whole province — On the East end of Long Island, there 
were, and always had been. Independent ministers, and the 
Dutch and the French have their own ministers. Part of 
enactments are in express words limited; and the 18th of 
Charles 2d for suppressing Conventicles, makes the third de- 
fault banishment for seven years to the plantations (New Eng- 



"•— 8'^ 



MAKEMIE'S TRIAL IN NEW YORK. 1Q 

land and Virginia excepted.) Mr. Makemie has not offended 
against the Act of Toleration; for Toleration is an exception 
from some restraint; and since the penal laws are not in force 
here neither is the Act of Toleration. There is no estahlished 
church here — and we have liberty of conscience by act of 
Assembly made in the beginning of the reign of William and 
Mary, during the (government of Colonel Fletcher, This Pro- 
vince has not been more than about forty years in the possession 
of the crown of England, and is made up chiefly of foreigrtera 
and dissenters, and persecution would tend to disunite us all. 
And as this prosecution is the first of this nature known in the 
province, so it ia hoped it may he the last. 

Mr. Makemie then obtained permission to speak; and was 
expressing great astonishment that the Attorney should con- 
strue the Act of Toleration aa applying to the province of 
New York, when he had produced an argument to prove that 
it was local, when Lord Cornbury was examining defendant for 
commitment. 

Judge Mompemon. — " Gentlemen, do not trouhle the Court 
with what passed between you before my Lord, or at any other 
time, but speak directly to tho point." 

M. "May it please your Honour, I hope to make it appear 
that it is to the point ; and what was Mr. Attorney's argument 
then, is now mine. For whatever opinion I was of, while an 
absolute stranger to New York and its constitution, now, since 
I have informed myself thoroughly with its constitution, I am 
entirely of Mr. Attorney's opinion, and hope he will be of the 
same still. I allow of the Queen's supremacy, and in all the 
Attorney has said, I cannot learn one argument or word from 
all the quoted statutes, that preaching a sermon is the least 
contempt or overthrow of the supremacy; and I hope it is not 
unknown to any, that the oath of supremacy has been abolished 
by a law ever since the Revolution. And I cannot learn from 
any law yet produced, that Lord Cornbury has any power or 
directions to grant Jicense to any dissenters, or that any of 
them are under any obligations to take license from his Lord- 
ship before they preach, or after." He then discussed the 
Queen's instructions to Lord Cornbury, at large, and with 
great force, to show that they applied only to members of the 
Church of England coming from England or other places. He 
also plead that the penal laws did not and could not extend to 
New York, where there is no law in favour of the Church of 
England, and no restriction on the liberty of dissenters. He 
concluded by saying — "And if Jews, who openly .blaspheme 
the Lord Jesus — Quakers, and Lutherans, and all others, or 
most persuasions, are allowed even in this government, it is 
matter of wonder why we only should not be allowed of, but 



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80 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

put to molestation, as we now are bj present prosecution. Is 
it because wo are Protestants ? Is it because we are nearest 
alike the established church of England of any dissenters? Is 
it because iro are the most considerable body of Protestants in 
the Queen's dominions? Is it because we have now, since the 
union, a national establishment in Great Britain as nearly rela- 
ted and annexed to the crown of England as the Church of 
England themselves? Sure, such a proceeding, when known, 
will and must be a prodigy in England." 

Attorney — " It is impossible for any man to answer all that 
has been offered, where so much has been said; and by so 
many." 

Makemie — "I verily believe it is impossible for the Attorney 
to answer what has been said ; it is a great truth which he has 
uttered." 

The Attorney then proceeded to argue that the penal laws, 
at least some of them were coextensive with the Queen's do- 
minions. He said the kings and queens of England command 
their governors to grant licenses; and that it had been cus- 
tomary to take licenses from the governors. 

Mr. Makemie replied at large; and concluded by saying, — 
"And whereas Mr. Attorney affirms that giving and taking 
license was very common and universal,— I am well assured 
there never was, neither is, to this day, any such practice in 
any plantations of America ; and there are but few persons as 
yet in York government that have license; — for beside the two 
Dutch ministers who dlEFcr upon Long Island — and it is said 
these licenses arc the cause of their difference — there is but 
one English non-conformist minister in all the government, who 
has taken a license; — and it is certain that Sir. Dubois, and 
sundry others of the Dutch churches have no license, neither 
will they submit to any such as are granted." 

The Attorney then moved that the jury bring in a special 
verdict. The judges inclined that way too. The Attorney 
said, " The matter of fact is plainly confessed by the defen- 
dant, as yon have heard, and you are to bring it in specially, 
for the jury are not judges of law." 

Mr. Makemie — " May it please your honours — I am a stran- 
ger, who lives four hundred miles from this place, and it is 
known to the whole country what intolerable troubJe I have 
been put to already, and we cannot consent to a special verdict, 
for that would only increase my trouble, multiply my charges, 
and give me further delay. Besides it is a known maxim in 
law — that strangers are always to be favoured with expedition 
in justice. This seems no way to admit of delay; and if this 
should be allowed of, no man's innocence would be able to pro- 
tect him; for if I should be cleared I should suffer more attaint 



"•— rfl^ 



MAKEMIE'S TRiAL IN NEW YORK. 81 

tlian if I -were guilty of many penal laws in England. And as 
to the jury's judging of the law, and confessing the fact, I caij- 
not see one point of law to be judged. It is true I have 
confessed preaching a sermon at the house of Mr. William 
Jackson, — but have not owned it to be a crime, or repugnant 
to any law, or inconsistent with any of the Queen's instructions ; 
nor hath the attorney made any thing of this nature to ap- 
pear, — for all those ancient statutes of Henry VIII. tend only 
to throw off the authority, supremacy, and jurisdiction of the 
Popes and See of Rome, and invest the kings and queens of 
England with that usurped authority, and to bring ecclesiasti- 
cal persons under the civil jurisdiction of England, who in 
times of Popery were made accountable only to the See of 
Rorae, — therefore they do not touch, neither are any way ap- 
plieahle to this case." 

Attorney/ — " These gentlemen acknowledge, and say, that 
the ministers of the Church of England are to take license, 
and are obliged so to do ; and if so the Dissenters should also — 
otherwise they must expect more favours and liberty than the 
ministers of the Church of England." 

Makemie — " It is the constitution of the Church of England, 
ttat the ministers, notwithstanding their ordination, do not 
preach, or officiate as ministers until they procure a license 
from their Bishop ; and they voluntarily bring themselves under 
oath of canonical obedience. But finally there is a great deal 
of reason why ministers of the Church of England submit to 
license ; but not so with us. I'or it is only bare liberty which 
Dissenters have; hut the others have not only liherty, but a 
considerable maintenance also, without which I never knew any 
of them value liherty only. And Dissenters having liberty 
only, without any maintenance from Government, are not at 
all under obligations, neither ia it required of them to take 
license." 

The Chief Justice then charged the jury — " Gentlemen ; you 
have heard a great deal on both sides, and Mr. Attorney says, 
the fact ia confessed by the defendant; — and I would have you 
to bring it in specially, for there are some points which I am 
not now prepared to answer; how far instructions may go, in 
having the force of law, especially when not published or made 
known ; — and one objection made hj Mr. Makemie — that is, 
the oath of supremacy of England is abolished ; and how far 
it will go in this matter, I confess I am not prepared to answer. 
If you will take upon you to judge of law, you may; or bring 
in the fact specially. This is the first instance that I can learn 
that there has been a trial or prosecution of this nature in 
America." 

The Jury asked for the Act of Assembly of New Tork ; and 
11 



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g2 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

the defendant desired that the jiivj might have a copy of the 
Queen's instructions, which the Attorney opposed and denied, 
A constable was sworn to attend the jury, who withdrew and 
in a short time returned again ; and being called, found the 
defendant Not G-uilty. 

The Court required the reasons for the verdict. The Ctief 
Justice said, they might give reasons for their verdict, or not, 
as they chose. The foreman said the defendant had not trans- 
gressed any law. Another of the jury said, they believed in 
their consciences they had done tho defendant justice. And so 
the verdict was confirmed. 

Mr. Reigniere moved that the defendant be discharged ; the 
Chief Justice referred it till to-morrow morning. Saturday, 
June Tth, 1707. "Ordered that the defendant be discharged, 
paying fees." 

Mr. Makemie objected to paying such severe fees — but at 
length agreed to pay all just and legal fees to the Court and 
ofScors thereof, who acted indifferently as to this matter; but 
said it was unreasonable he should pay his prosecutors what 
they pleased- 
It was affirmed that it was the practice ; and no argument 
■would be received. Makemie prayed that the bill might be 
taxed in open Court. This the Chief Justice declined ; and it 
was referred to Robert Milward, Esq., one of the Assistant 
Judges, who was to give notice to Mr. Makemie or his attorney 
of the time and place. But no notice was given — and two new 
items added. The full amount was paid ; and a receipt refused 
the defendant, though the money was paid in presence of two 



The amount of expenses paid by Mr. Makemie in conse- 
quence of this trial was 83?. 7s. 6d. ; of this the Attorney 
General took 12;. ISa. M.; the Secretary 5?. 12s. Qd.; the 
High Sheriff, for commitment to his house, for Habeas Corpus, 
and returns and fees after trial, took 9?. lis. ; the Judges, 
under various pretexts, 4Z, 6s. This is without a parallel in 
the history of the colony ; that the High Sheriff and Attorney 
General should tako fees from a defendant who was cleared by 
the jury. 

Soon after his liberation, Mr, Makemie preached again in 
the church allowed to the French; his sermon was printed; 
great excitement followed; he was accused of being the author 
of a pamphlet which was spread abroad soon after his arrival 
in the province ; and the Governor issued new process, and 
employed his officers, all day of a Sabbath, to find and arrest 
him again, and bring him to a confinement, and another trial. 
He escaped their hands, and fled out of the province ; and thus 
gratified his persecutors by leaving York. 



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MAKEMIE'S LETTER TO LORD CORNBrRY. §3 

The following letter 13 the only one from the pen of Jlake- 
mie known to be in existence. It was directed to Lord Corn- 
bury ; and bears date, Boston, July 28tli, 1707 : 

"May it please your Lordship ; I most humbly beg leave to 
represent to your Excellency my just astonishment at the 
information received from sundry hands, since my arrival in 
these colonies ; and after so long and so expensive a confine- 
ffient — m deliberate and fair a trial, before Judges of your 
Lordship's appointment, and by a jury chosen by your own 
Sheriff on purpose to try the matter — I have been legally 
cleared, and found guilty of no crime for preaching a sermon 
at New York ; though my innocence should have protected me 
from unspeakable and intolerable expense, yet I am informed, 
may it please your Excellency, there are orders and directions 
given to sundry officers in the Jerseys for apprehending me, 
and a design of giving me fresh trouble at New York. 

"If I were assured of the true cause of your Lordship's 
repeated resentments against me, I doubt not but my innocence 
would not only effectually justify me, but remove those unjust 
impressions imposed on your Lordship by some persons about 
you. 

" As to my preaching — being found at the trial to be against 
no law, nor any ways inconsistent with her Majesty's instruc- 
tions produced there ; and considering the solemn obligations I 
am under both to God and the souls of men, to embrace all 
opportunities of exercising those ministerial gifts vouchsafed to 
me from heaven — to whom I do appeal — I have no other end, 
besides the glory of God and the eternal good of precious 
souls; I must assure myself your Lordship insists not on this 
now m a crime, especially in New York government, where all 
Protestsints are upon an equal level of liberty, and where there 
exists no legal Establishment for any particular persuasion. 

"I bear that I am charged with the Jersey paper called 
Forget and Forgive. Though the proving a negative be an 
hard task, and not an usual requisition or undertaking, yet why 
should there be any doubt about the thing itself; the matter it 
contains being altogether foreign from me, and no way con- 
cerning me ; the time of its publication, being so soon spread 
abroad after my arrival, I am well assured none dare legally 
accuse me, while the real authors are smiling at your Lordship's 
ruistake and imposition. Your informers deserve to be stigma- 
tized with the severest marks of your Lordship's displeasure : 
and the authors will find a time to confront my sworn accusers 
of perjury ; and besides that I never saw it until about the last 
of February. 

" We have suffered greatly in our reputations, and particu- 
larly by being branded with the character of Jesuits; though 



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84 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

my universal known reputation, both in Europe and America, 
makes me easy under such invidious imputations, I have been 
represented to your Lordship as being factious, both' in the 
government of Virginia and Maryland. I have peaceably lived 
in Virginia ; I have brought from Maryland a certificate of my 
past reputation, signed by some men of the best quality in the 
most contiguoaa county, ready to be produced at tbe trial, if 
there had been occasion for it. A copy of -which I shall pre- 
sume to enclose for your Lordship's perusal and satisfaction. 

"I beg leave to represent to your Lordship my just concern 
at the sundry precepts for apprehending me, both in York and 
the Jerseys, as one of the greatest criminals ; whereby I am 
prevented in performing my ministerial duties to many, in your 
Lordship's government of my own persuasion, who desire it. 

"I shall patiently expect your Lordship's commands and 
directions, in giving mo an opportunity for vindicating myself 
in what is charged against me, and being always ready to com- 
ply with any qualifications enjoined and required by law. 
" I beg leave of your Lordship, to subscribe myself, 
Your Excellency's moat humble and 
Most obedient servant, 

Frahcis Makemie." 



THE SCOTCH IRISH. 

The congregations gathered by Makemie, in Maryland, flour- 
ished after his death; and the Presbytery, formed principally 
by his agency, increased greatly, and stretched first northward, 
and then southward, and at last westward, under the auspices 
of numerous Synods, and the General Assembly of the Presby- 
terian Church. For about thirty years after the death of 
Makemie, the number and inSuence of Presbyterians in Vir- 
ginia were small. Not one fiourishing congregation could be 
found, nor one active minister lived, in her borders. Then 
commenced a tide of emigration from his father land, the pro- 
vince of Ulster, Ireland, that spread over a beautiful section of 
Virginia, and filled up her wild borders with a peculiar race. 
The influence of that race of men on Virginia, in making her 
what she is, invests its history with an interest perpetually in- 
creasing, as the results of the meeting, — the collision, — and the 
intermingling of the Old English and Scotch Irish members of 



,,^,.,.,j>k' 



THE SCOTCH IRISH. 85 

the British family, in the wilda of America, are manifested to 
tlie world. A sketch of the Old English stock is given in the 
first chapter. That race had a character peculiar and imposing. 
The Scotch Irish had a character equally as peculiar, and, though 
less imposing, more effective of religious eminence, and literary 
excellence, and not a whit behind in political aspirations, and 
self-denying labours in the cause of liberty. 

A true estimate of Makemie, whose sufferings and labours 
and success, occupy the two preceding chapters, cannot be 
formed by considering him individually, or his actions in Vir- 
ginia, and other provinces, apart from that race that gave him 
birth, and from the circumstances that moulded that race and 
made him what he was. Looking at him as he appears in Vir- 
ginia, aside from his education, ho appears to be the most sin- 
gular man of his day ; his course cannot he well understood. 
That he had principles of religion and morality of great energy 
and unchangeable power, is evident. And it is equally evident 
that they were not, what was anciently termed malignancy, 
or in more modern times, radicalism, or personal ambition, or 
enthusiasm, or bigotry, or Jesuitical adherence to party. The 
current of his life flowed like a pure stream from an abiding 
equable fountain. To find that fountain we must cross the 
ocean, and search the records of his race in the province of 
Ulster, Ireland. 

For a detailed account of the Scotch Irish, — their origin, — 
their principles of religion, — their church forms and govern- 
ment, — their awakenings — their suffering s— their abortive, yet 
almost romantic, effort at emigration to America, in the Eagle 
Wing, — their political opinions, — their expectations in emi- 
grating to America, — their influence in Ireland, — and the for- 
mation of their religious and civil character, — the reader is 
referred to the Sketches of North Carolina, published the latter 
part of 1846, by Carter, New York, The recent appearance of 
that volume, and the fulness of detail in chapters 5th, 6th, 7th, 
8th and 9th, render the attempt at further delineation unneces- 
sary. One powerful, and proximate, cause of emigration, omit- 
ted in that volume, will be given in this, — The Siege of Lon- 
donderry and its consequences. 

The two distinct families of the British Empire met in Vir- 
ginia, in circumstances well calculated to stimulate to vehement 
exercise the principles of both, in civil and religious matters. 
Their mutual action and reaction improved both parties ; and 
Virginia is, now, what neither, singly, could have made her. 
Both had fixed principles of civil and religious liberty; but 
their views of liberty in the State, and in the Church, were some- 
what different both in theory and practice. The scions of the Old 
English stock, in the " ancient dominion," considered, the en- 



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86 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

joyment of religious ordinances established, maintained, and 
defended, by the State, undisturbed and unawed by any foreign 

Eower, to be religious liberty, the liberty of the majority, the 
berty of an independent State. 
The Scotch Irishman, on the frontier, thought freedom of 
choice in regard to doctrines of belief, — forms of worship, — and 
ordinances of religion, — and the undisputed and undisturbed 
exercise of this choice, confirmed to every member of society, 
and defended by law, made religious liberty. 

The civil liberty of the English scion was the liberty of Eng- 
lishmen, of the national church, in England, — the liberty of 
King, Lords and Commons, with different grades in society, 
acting independently of all foreign powers. The Scotch Irish- 
man thought freedom of person, — the right of possession of pro- 
perty in fee simple, — and an open road to civil honours, secured 
to the poorest and feeblest member of society, constituted civil 
liberty. 

When these races came In collision, and their first meeting 
was a collision, there was exasperation and persecution ; the 
strong arm of the law avenged the complaining Establishment 
on the sturdy defender of Calvinistic Presbytery, Eut when 
the soft hand of the seaboard grasped, in friendship, the toil 
hardened hand of the frontier, the "ancient dominion" gave 
refinement of manners, and received back religious freedom, on 
the only true and firm foundation, the Being, Attributes and 
Grovcrnment of God, as revealed in the Gospel of his Son, our 
Lord Jesus Christ. And the blending powers gave being and 
life to the civil liberty of Virginia, tho mother of Presidents 
and of States. 



CHAPTER V. 

SIEGE OF LONDONDERRY: ITS COSNESION WITH THE VALLEY 
OF VIRGINIA. 

The Siege of Londonderry, a small, badly fortified city, on 
the West bank of the Foyle, in the province of Ulster, Ireland, 
forms an important chapter in the history of tho Protestant 
succession in England. It is particularly interesting to multi- 
tudes in the United States, whose ancestors sustained the siege, 
shared in the joy of the victory, but not in the advantages, and 
finally became exiles, to the wilds of America, to enjoy a Pro- 
testantism too pure for England, or the nations of Europe. It 
is an unquestionable fact of history, though it may be slow in 



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SIEGE OF LOKDONDERRY. gijr 

finding its place in volumes written by English hands for Eiig- 
lish eyos, tkat the shutting the gates of Dcrry, Friday, Dec. 
Vtb, 1688, by the appeentiob boys, followed by the distresa'- 
ing siege of eight -weary months, in which the Irish forces of 
James II, assisted by troops from France, heaped upon the 
inhabitants, and the soldiers gathered within the narrow walls, 
all that can be endured by mortal famished man, — coding, as 
the siege finally did, in the disgraceful departure of the popish 
forces, — turned the scale in favour of William of Nassau and 
secured to him the crown of England, and to the country at 
large the succession of Protestant Kings and Queens that have 
filled the throne to this day. 

Had the gates of Derry remained open, or had the siege 
terminated in the early capitulation of the city, the forces from 
France and Ireland would have gone to Scotland to act in con- 
cert with the famous Claver'se in favour of James. Who can 
calculate the effects of that union of forces? Even supposing 
the hour of Claver'se had come, and he must fall in some inde- 
cisive victory, James might have defended hia crown against 
his son in law, the Prince of Orange, if not to victory, at least 
to a prolonged and sanguinary contest. James had the rare 
fortune to turn all favourable circumstances and events against 
himself, and a singular inability to turn adversity to his favour. 
But the Scotch and Irish and French forces united under able 
leaders would have tasked both the courage and ability of Wil- 
liam and hia followers. Londonderry broke up all arrange- 
ments. Her siege consumed the money, the provisiona, and 
the men that were to vindicate the rights of James. Claver'se 
waited, and in despair gained his last victory, and died an igno- 
bly glorious death. Scotland was lost to James. Ireland, then 
the field of contest, was abandoned after the battle of the Boyne. 
James felt his crown was lost. But had Derry been possessed 
in time, the battle of the Eoyne could not have been fought; 
the decisive battle would have been elsewhere. It is a matter 
of surprise, and scarcely to be accounted for, that a place so 
badly fortified as Derry could have held out so long. An ex- 
perienced commander, exclaimed at a glance, — " It is impossible 
a military man ehould have attempted its defence : or that such 
an one should have failed in its reduction." 

William of Orange landed in England on the 5th of Novem- 
ber, 1688. That may be considered as the first act of hostility. 
James, in the distraction of hia councils, summoned his forces 
from Ireland. He, supposed that England or Scotland must be 
the battle ground." Lord Mountjoy who had possession of 
Derry, with a regiment of disciplined aoldiers, left this little 
town, in the extreme north of Ireland, vacant, and hastened to 



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88 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

the aid of Jamea. The aged Earl of Antrim was ordered to 
occupy it with his regiment of Papists, loyal in principle, but 
less disciplined and incomparably less trustworthy than the 
forces of Mountjoy. The Papists of Ireland had never been 
reconciled to the Protestant emigration that occupied so large a 
portion of the province of Ulster. They were continually 
fomenting quarrels and making inroads. James I, the Charleses, 
as well as Cromwell had found it necessary to pacify Ireland 
with an armed force. James II. had no better experience of 
the friendship of the Papists for the English Church; or for 
himself till he made it evident he designed re-estahlishing the 
Roman Catholic forms and ceremonies. When the Prince of 
Orange took arms against James, the Papists in Ireland rallied 
in his defence. France sent money and an armed force to Ire- 
land. In the course of the military movements that succeeded, 
Derry became the theatre of events great in their consequences 
to the king and the people, the Church and the State- 
In the great emigration from England and Scotland promoted 
by James I. tho northern part of the province was given to 
the citizens of London on condition they would fortify London- 
derry and Coleraine. The country prospered in the hands of 
the Protestants who had resorted thither from London and other 
parts of the kingdom. With the increase of wealth, industry 
and population, there were no symptoms of increased friendship 
between the native Irish who were Papists and the immigrants 
who were Protestants. On the 3d of December, 1688, a letter 
was found in Cumber, county Down, informing Earl Mount 
Alexander, that on the succeeding Sabbath, the 9th of the 
month, the Irish throughout the Island, were to massacre the 
Protestants, men, women, and children ; and that a Captain's 
commission would be the reward of him that killed the Earl, 
whom the writer as a personal friend urged to bo on his guard. 
The Earl spread the alarm by sending co'pies of the letter 
through the country as far as Dublin. In the progress of 
the news it was found that other gentlemen had received 
similar warning. Expresses were sent to all the Protest- 
ant towns. The news reached Derry, on Thursday the 6th, 
while the place was yet vacant of any military force. The 
alarm here, as every where else, was great. Many circum- 
stances concurred in producing belief in the rumoured conspi- 
racy, — such as the massacre in 1641, which had not been gene- 
ral for want of power and concert, — the sermons and addresses 
of the priests at the mass houses, — the directions known to be 
given to the Irish every where to procure themselves good arms, 
— the busy preparation of skeins, or long knives by tho black- 
Bmiths throughout the kingdom, — and the repeated declarations 



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SIEGE OF LONDONDERRy. gg 

amongst the Papists that some great event was about to tate 
place advantageous to their cause. Every where the Protestants 
wero aroused. 

The messenger that brought the news to Derry, reported 
the forces of the Ear! of Antrim to he near the city ; that the 
advanced guard was within three or four miles when he passed. 
The city was filled with consternation at the double danger. 
The Rev. James G-ordoii, Presbyterian minister of Clondomet, 
near Derry, being in the town, and consulted by Alderman 
Tompkins, advised to shut the gates and exclude the soldiery; 
as the walls of the town were sufBcient protection against 
forces unprovided with artillery. The aged and pious Bishop 
Hopkins, being also in town, was consulted by Alderman Nor- 
man, and gave his opinion against shutting the gates, as such 
a measure would irritate the soldiers of Antrim, and the in- 
habitants were not prepared for a siege. The terrified inhabi- 
tants assembled in groups; and here and there is heard a 
threat from the young men, the apprentices, — for Derry was 
extensively engaged in the manufacture of linen, — to shut the 
gates. The men in authority were engaged in discouraging 
any outbreak of passion; and wero miserably hesitating be- 
tween submission and resistance. Two companies of the 
advancing forces having reached the river, the commanding 
officers were ferried over the Foyle, and called for a confer- 
ence with the city authorities, to adjust the manner of admis- 
sion and the disposition of the forces. The Deputy Mayor, 
John Buchanan, was for giving them an immediate and honour- 
able reception; Horace Kennedy, one of the Sheriffs, was for 
shutting the gates; the others were hesitating. The young 
men wei'e assembled waiting the result and a signal from Ken- 
nedy. The discussion was prolonged. The soldiers, anxious 
to get to their expected quarters, without orders, began to 
cross the river and to approach the ferry gate. The young 
men took the alarm. Some ran to the guard, seized the keys, 
and hasting to the gates, shut them in the face of the soldiers. 
The other gates were speedily shut and secured. The names 
of the apprentices that led the way in this exploit, were Henry 
Campsie, William Crookshanks, Robert Sherrard, Daniel Sher- 
rard, Alexander Irwin, James Stewart, Robert Morrison, 
Alexander Coningharo, William Cairns, and Samuel Harvey. 
From the gates the young men hastened to the magazine, 
where their leader, Henry Campsie, is wounded by the guard, 
a reputed Papist. The sight of blood aggravated the populace. 
All the efforts of the Deputy Mayor, the Bishop, and the offi- 
cers of Antrim, who were in the town, could not prevail on the 
people to open the gates. " The dull heads of the men of Lon- 
donderry" — saya Makenzie — "could not comprehend how it 
12 



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90 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

coulJ lie a great crime to shut the gates against those whom 
they helieved had been sent to cut their throats." Arehbishop 
King observes — *' No man could blame the youthful hei'oes for 
their decision on the occasion ; they were startled even at the 
external appearance of the pack of ruffians now approaching 
the city, attended by crowds of ferocious women and armed 
boys ; many of the captains -and other officers of the regiment 
were well known there, having been confined in the goal for 
thefts and robberies." 

The soldiers become impatient waiting at the gates, and 
clamour for admittance. The discussion is still going on be- 
tween the ofScera and the leaders of the people. One James. 
Morrison mounted the walls, and bid the soldiers "begone." 
As they refused to leave the gates, he turned around and cried 
out, — "bring about a great gun here." Immediately the sol- 
diers fled, and re-crossed the river, to the main body. On 
Saturday Uie 8th, the Bishop left the place for his castle of 
Raphoe, and the greater part of the Papists departed from the 
city. Many of the Protestants in the surrounding country 
came within the walls for protection ; and the inhabitants be- 
came more unanimous in the defence of the place. 

The dreaded Sunday passed. There was no massacre. Ifc 
will probably remain a mystery for ever to what extent a mas- 
sacre was intended, whether for the wholo Protestant popula- 
tion, or some neighbourhoods ; and also whether the conspiracy 
failed from want of concert, or from the alarm that had aroused 
the whole country. But with the day, the fears of the Pro- 
testants of Derry did not pass. They kept the city closed and 
guarded. The forces of Antrim commenced the siege. News 
that the Prince of Denmark, the Duke of Ormond, and many 
of the nobility, had joined the Prince of Orange, encouraged 
the inhabitants of Derry to maintain their rights and defend 
their lives. Tho soldiers watched an opportunity to enter the 
town ; and the inhabitants were on the alert to prevent sur- 
prise. The number of men in the city able to bear arms was 
small, not exceeding three hundred. About the same number 
might have been in the suburbs. The space included by the 
walls was small, of an oval form, its greatest diameter being 
about two thousand feet, tho shortest about six hundred, 
situated on rising ground in the bend of the river on the west 
bank of the Foyle. 

Tho Protestants and Papists, in the North of Ireland, 
passed the winter in military preparations and skirmishes, 
ranged as they now were, tho one for King William, was pro- 
claimed in January 168S), and the other for James, who had 
8ed to France. The forces of James gradually got the better 
of the Protestants, and wrested from them one town after 



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SIEGE OP LONDONDERRY. 91 

another, till few places besides Derry wore left iit their pos- 

James, assisted by the troops and money of Lewis XIV, 
landed in Ireland the 12th of March 1689. After a short 
stay in Dublin, he marched with twelve thousand men, and a 
train of artillery, intending to overrun the province of Ulster, 
cross to Scotland, unite with Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, 
and make a descent on England. By the 18th of the month 
he appeared before Derry. All other places submitted, except 
Inneskilien. The Protestant forces were dispersed, or gathered 
within the ramparts of these two places. The inhabitants of 
the country fled, in great numbers, at the approach of James ; 
and when ho commenced the regular siege and destructive 
bombardment of the city, there were crowded in the narrow 
space of the oblong walls of Derry, about twenty thousand 
people, men, women, and children, besides seven thousand 
three hundred soldiers armed for defence, but illy provided 
with artillery or ammunition. On the fate of Derry Lung the 
fate of Ulster, and of Ireland. James is contending for his 
crown; the Protestants for religion and the blessings of a 
government of law ; and neither is aware of the fuU importance 
of the struggle that is going on around the walls of that little 
city. 

Colonel Lundy who commanded the forces within the city, 
in council with some of his officers, drew articles of capitulation, 
agreeably to a promise he had sent the king; and James wait- 
ed, on horseback, through a whole drizzly day, without eating, 
to receive the articles, and make his repast within the walls. 
Many of the principal men were in favour of surrender ; but 
the great body of the people were opposed, and under the gui- 
dance of Captain Adam Murray, a gallant Presbyterian gentle- 
man, expressed their feelings so strongly, that Lundy first 
secreted himself, and then escaped from the city in disguise of 
a pedlar of matches. Major Henry Baker, and the Rev. George 
Walker, an Episcopal clergyman, from the county of Tyroncj 
advanced in years, a strenuous defender of the Protestant 
cause, who had taken refuge in Derry, were chosen governors. 
The armed forces were divided into eight regiments, with pro- 
per officers; Baker and Walker each retaining the command of 
one. James, wearied with the life in camp, returned to Dub- 
lin. By his inconsistent course he fixed the wavering Protes- 
tants in favour of his rival, and scarce made an attempt to gain 
the affections of those whom he subdued. 

As Derry was the only remaining obstacle in Ireland, its 
reduction became an object of immediate importance. On the 
18th of June, Count De Rosen entered the camp, with fifteen 
hundred men, to take the command and press the siege to a 



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92 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

conclusion. The friends in Scotland were anxiously waiting the 
arrival of the Trench forces, and the supply of money. The 
eiege therefore became more close, the assaults more frequent, 
the bombardment more severe. The besieged endured wounds, 
famine, pestilence, and all the miseries of a population crowded 
into a small area, and all exposed to the fire of the enemy. 
Their sufferings increased with the heat of summer. They 
were aggravated by the want of pure water. The wells were 
drawn low by the multitude, and the water became impure 
from the shaldng of the foundations of the city, by the dis- 
charge of cannon from the walls, and from the camp of the 
enemy. The water from the clouds was tainted with brimstone 
from the showers of balls and shells that fell upon their roofs 
without intermission. 

About the middle of June, Walker says in his journal — 
"I'over, dysentery and other diseases became very general, 
and a great mortality existed among the garrison and inhabi- 
tants of the city. In one day no less than fifteen commissioned 
of&cers died." The havoc among the besieged was immense. 
It is stated on good authority that upwards of twenty-seven 
thousand persona were shut in the city at the commencement 
of the siege. Of these, it is agreed, that about one-third 
perished ; more than a thousand per month, or two hundred and 
fifty per week, or about thirty-five or six every day. 

" On the 9th of July" — says Walker — "the allowance was a 
pound of tallow dignified by the name of French butter, to 
every soldier in the garrison. They mixed it with meal, gin- 
ger, pepper and anisseed, and made excellent pancakes," — 
" Charming meat" — says Captain Ash — "for during the pre- 
ceding fortnight, horsefiesh was eaten; and at this time the 
carcase of a dog was reckoned good meat. The famine became 
more severe and was aggravated by disease. Oatmeal, which 
"before the siege, was sold for four pence the peck, could not be 
bought for less than six shillings. Butter sold for fivopence 
the ounce. Other food was proportionably dear. Captain Aah 
mentions a poor famished man that dressed his dog to_ satisfy 
the cravings of his stomach. An equally hungry creditor en- 
ters and demands a debt, just as the feast was prepared. The 
debtor was unable to pay; the creditor was inexorable; and 
the dainty morsel was resigned to satisfy the claim. 

On the 27th of July the market prices were, according to 
Walker's diary — Horseflesh one shilling and eight pence per 
pound ; a quarter of a dog four shillings and six pence ; a dog's 
head two shillings and six pence; a eat four shillings and six 
pence; a rat one shilling; a mouse six pence; a pound of tal- 
low four shillings; a pound of salted hides one shilling; a 
quart of horse blood one shilling; a horse pudding six pence; 



SIEGE OP LONDONDEKRY. 93 

a quart of meal, when found, one shilling. A small fluke, a 
little fish, taken in the river could not be purchased for money, 
and could be got only in exchange for meal. "Mr. James 
Cunningham showed them" — says Walker — "where was a con- 
siderable qnantity of starch, which they mixed with tallow, and 
fried as pancakes. This food proved a providential remedy for 
the dysentery which prevailed in the city, from excessive fatigue, 
mental anxiety, and unwholesome food." 

On Sabbath, the last day of June, Governor Henry Baker 
died. His prudence, resolution, gentlemanly behaviour, pa- 
tience and freedom from jealousy, rendered his loss to the gar- 
rison irreparable. Some days before his death, a council, in 
his sick room, united with him in appointing Col. Mitchelburn 
as his successor. There had been formerly a difi^erence be- 
tween these two men ; this settlement of it proclaims at once 
the honourable standing of Mitohelburn, and the nobleness of 
Baker. 

A graphic description of the actors and events of the eight 
months, appeared in a historical drama published soon after the 
siege. One scene characterizes the good humour of the heroic 
defenders of Derry amidst their severest sufferings. Mitchelburn 
is represented as giving a dinner to Governor Walker and four 
distinguished ladies. He thus addresses his guests at table, — 
" Gentlemen and Ladies — the first dish you see, in slices, is the 
liver of one of the enemy's horses that was killed the other day : 
it is very good meat, with pepper and salt, eaten cold. I have 
seven of these livers boiled, and after they are pickled they eat 
very well. This other is horse's blood fried with French butter, 
otherwise tallow, and thickened with oat meal. The third dish 
is what we call in French, ragout de chien, — in English, a ragout 
of the haunch of my dog ; it does not eat so well boiled as roasted ; 
but it eats best when baked. I have a horse's head in the oven, 
very well seasoned, but it will not bo eatable till night." 

On the day Governor Baker died, Mareschal de Rosen sent a 
declaration into Derry, that unless the place were surrendered 
that day, he would drive all the Protestants from Inneskillen to 
Charlemont, under the walls, and then make a general assault. 
On the next day he issued the following order — "As I have 
certain inforiBation that a considerable number of the wives and 
children of the rebels in Londonderry, have retired to Belfast and 
the neighbouring places, and as the hardness of their husbands 
and fathers deserves the severest chastisement, I write this letter 
to acquaint you, that you are instantly to make an exact search 
in Belfast and its neighbourhood, after such subjects as are 
rebellious to the King, whether men women boys or girls, with- 
out exception, and whether they are protected or unprotected, 
to arrest them and collect them together, that they may be 



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94 SKETCHES or VIRGINIA. 

conducted to this camp and driven under the walls of London- 
derry, where they shall be allowed to starve, in sight of the 
rebels within the town, unless they choose to open their ports to 
them." On the next dayf the second of July, he drove about 
three thousand men, women and children, without respect to age 
or condition, sickness or health, to the walls of Derry, and there 
left them exposed, having first plundered them of food and 
clothing. On the next day he drove about a thousand more to 
join the naked starving company. Cries and lamentations re- 
sound from the wails, and from this wretched multitude. On 
the one side were the horrors of a siege, on the other naked- 
ness, and famine in the open air and upon the wet ground. Yet 
no voice from the common people proposed a surrender. The 
magistrates erected a gallows on a prominent part of the walls, 
and sent to De Rosen for a priest to come and confess the pri- 
soners, some of whom were officers of distinction, in preparation 
for death, as unless the multitude around the walls were sent 
away speedily, these prisoners should be hanged upon the gal- 
lows in sight of their friends in the camp. The distressed 
people around the walls exhorted the townsmen to hold out, and 
not he moved by their sufferings. The of&cers in Be Eoson's 
camp exclaimed against the barbarity exercised upon the people 
under the walls and the ignominious death that awaited their 
friends, prisoners in the city. On the fourth of July, De Rosen 
gave permission for the unhappy people under the walls to re- 
turn to their homes, having kept some of them two, and others 
three days, without food. Hundreds were left dead under the 
walls, from the three days' famine and exposure; hundreds 

Eerished from hunger and fatigue before they reached their 
omes ; and multitudes more were soon laid in their graves from 
the exposures of this dreadful pilgrimage, and the privations 
tbey suffered after their return to their homes plundered of 
every comfort, and many burned to the ground by the soldiery 
and the Rapparees. De Rosen plead as his excuse for this 
barbarity, the usages of the Continental commanders with whom 
be had served. 

The women often took part in the battles that were waged 
almost daily around the ramparts. On the 4th of June this 
record was made — " the fair sex shared the glory of the defence 
of Londonderry on this occasion, for when the men, to whom 
they had, for the whole time, intrepidly carried ammunition, 
match, bread and drink, began to fall back, they rushed forward 
in a considerable number and beat back the grenadiers with 
stones as they attempted to climb up the trenches; and alto- 
gether they stemmed the torrent of war, till a reinforcement 
rushed from the city and repelled the assailants." The courage 
and endurance of the females never failed, in the sad offices of 

™=..— glc 



SIEGE OP LONDONDERRY. 95 

dressing tlie wounded and watching tlie sick, under the pressure 
of hunger and amidst scenes shoeking to delicacy. They en- 
couraged the men to maintain the siege and die honourably 
fighting rather than fall into the hands of the besieging papists. 

About the middle of June the ■fleet, sent under the command 
of Major General Kirke, for the relief of the city, came in sight. 
The famished inhabitants rang the bells for joy. In consterna- 
tion they saw it speedily depart. In a few days Kirke catoe in 
sight again, but did nothing effectual towards supplying the 
perishing inhabitants from the transports laden with provisions 
sent expressly for their relief. Messenger after messenger was 
sent from the town, and promise after promise of speedy assist- 
ance was sent back. The fleet again disappeared, and again 
returned to the sight of the famished inhabitants and mocked 
their hopes with the heavily laden transports. The Gfeneral 
suffered in his reputation for these manceuvres, and made no 
satisfactory statement, further than his fears that his fleet could 
not encounter the fortifications, nor break the boom thrown 
across the harbour. 

On the 16th of July, while the horrors of the siege were 
accumulating on Derry, Claver'se, the firm ally of James in 
Scotland, noted in the history of the sufferings of the Cove- 
nanters, impatient of waiting longer for the French and Irish 
forces detained at Derry, and irritated by the advance of the 
forces of King William into Scotland, gives battle at Killikran- 
kie. Bushing on with his usual impetuosity he routed the op- 
posing flanks, and pressing on to cut off their retreat through a 
narrow pass, he outrode his troops. Wheeling and raising his 
right hand above his head, to beckon his men, he received a 
fatal wound through the opening in his armour, and fell about 
the setting of the sun. His men gathered around him, carried 
him to his quarters, dressed his wound, and tried to cheer his 
spirits. The route of William's forces was complete. On the 
next day, having received a detad of the victory and dictated a 
letter to James, entreating a reinforcement, and stating that his 
wound was severe, but, be was told, not mortal, this scourge of 
the Covenanters passed to his last account. With him perished 
the fruits of his victory, and all the hopes of James in Scotland. 
The Siege of Derry must continue tili the causo of James was 
ruined. 

At last, when the last rations in Derry were dealt out to the 
famished inhabitants, — a half a pint of meal per man, when all 
were in dismay and certain expectation of death, their relief 
came. The ships were once more in sight. The starving in- 
habitants and unconquered soldiers gloated upon the distant 
fleet that tantalized their misery. But the fleet now came into 
the harbour. The Rev. James Gordon of Clondomat, near 



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96 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

Derry, who advised to the shutting of the gates, was compelled 
to leave his congregation by the barbarity of the besieging 
forces, and fled to Scotland. Hearing of the delay of Kirke, 
and the assigned reasons, he took a boat at Greenock, crossed 
over Loch Foyle, and got on board the fleet, and endeavoured 
by arguments and reproaches to stimulate the oiEcers and men 
to afford the necessary relief. Kirke had a private interview 
■with him, and for a time seemed doubtful whether to consider 
him a friend or a rash disorganizer. Gordon gave Kirke a plan 
of the harbonr from bis own knowledge, and finally persuaded 
him that the relief of the city was in his power. Kirke never 
mentioned this interview in any of his accounts of the siege. 
There is, however, no doubt of its having taken place. 

About six o'clock in the afternoon of the Sabbath, July 28th, 
a moderate gale springing up, from the Northwest, the Dart- 
mouth weighed anchor and stood towards Culmore. The fort 
immediately opened a brisk cannonade. Captain Leake fired 
neither great nor small shot, till be came on the wind of the 
castle ; then he began to batter the walls, and sheltered the 
transports, casting anchor within musket shot of the fort. The 
Mountjoy passed the fort accompanied by the long boat of the 
Swallow prepared to cut the boom. She sailed on through a 
well directed fire from both sides of the river, and striking 
against the boom is repelled and runs aground. Her gallant 
commander is killed at the same moment by a musket ball. 
Favoured by the rising tide, and rebounding from a broadside 
discharged for the purpose, the Mountjoy soon floated again ; 
and the boatswain's mate of the Swallow having cut the boom, 
the vessel once more in motion, by its weight breaks through 
that formidable barrier. The Phognix followed by the Mount- 
joy, and towed all the way by tho Swallow's boats, reached the 
quay about ten o'clock in the evening, to the inexpressible joy 
of the famished garrison, who had been watching with intense 
interest every turn and pause in their progress up the river. 
In two days the Siege of Derry was raised, and the cause of 
James was hopeless. 

De Rosen despaired of bringing the city to a surrender and 
withdrew his army. The besiegers lost about nine thousand 
men around the walla of Derry, and about a hundred of 
the best oflieers perished. The joy of the besieged know 
no bounds. Public thanksgivings to Almighty God were 
rendered by the people at large, and private rejoicings filled 
every house, that the hand of the destroyer was stayed. The 
news of the relief of Derry reached William at Hampton Court, 
on the 4tb of August, by a messenger despatched by Kirke the 
morning after the vessels reached the quay ; and to him it was 
the happy assurance that his crown was safe, and the war in 



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SIEGE OP' LONDONDERRY. 97 

fact decided. Scotland rejoiced in the happy termination of 
that siege, which had been the indirect means of the downfall 
of one who had hunted his fellow Protestants like a remorseless 
hloodhound. The whole land echoed the praises of the brave 
defenders of Derry : and William loaded some of the leading 
men with rich presents. But many of the greatest labourers 
shared the smallest permanent advantages. 

Of the commanding officers in the Siege of Derry, such as 
colonels and field officers, the majority were of the Church of 
England. Of the captains and inferior officers the majority 
were ■ Presbyterians ; and of the soldiers and the inhabitants, 
there were fifteen Presbyterians to one Episcopalian. And 
yet, after this important siege, while the Episcopal Church was 
established in England, and the Presbyterians in Scotland, in 
Ireland, — where there was a mixture of Presbyterians and 
Episcopalians, — the Presbyterians, by whose bravery and suf- 
ferings the kingdom had been secured to the Prince of Orange, 
■were compelled, after the Government was settled, to pay their 
tithes to the established church, and maintain their own minis- 
ters, and also to suffer other disabilities consequent on an Es- 
tablishment. The soldiers in this siege were never paid the 
common wages of soldiers, for their sufferings from disease and 
famine, and their exposure to the worst forms of death. After 
two and thirty. years of fruitless negotiations, there remained 
due to the eight regiments upwards of ^T4,000 sterling, not a 
farthing of which was ever paid. 

The endurance of such multiplied sufferings by the people of 
Derry, in a place so small and rendered offensive by the putrid 
corpses of the multitudes that perished, for whom only the 
slightest burial could be obtained, and that slight burial torn 
Tip by dogs and the shot and shells from the enemy's camp, is 
marvellous ; and that in the midst of their sufferings they 
should answer the summons to surrender, by the resolution — 
" that no man on the pain of death should speak of surrender- 
ing the city," cannot be accounted for except that in their 
strong adherence to strong principles, the Almighty Grod held 
them up. That the feeble looking walls, which to human ap- 
pearance might so easily have been battered down, remained 
unshaken ; and the town which lay so fair to the shot of the 
enemy, should have escaped destruction, is wonderful. When 
De Rosen first beheld the place, he expreB8edib.is utter con- 
tempt, and declared "he would makeliis men bring it to him 
stone by stone" — and impiously swore, "by the belly -of God," 
that he would demolish it and bury the defenders in its ruins. 
But the threatened walls stand yet. 

After Ireland was subdued to the government of William, 

and the prospects of the Presbyterians not much improved even 

13 



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98 SKETCHES OF TIRGINIA. 

by the Toleration Act, reports full of hope from America, 
reached the people of Ulster, and lured them once more to try 
the Atlantic. More than half a century had passed siilce the 
Magle Wing had sailed and been driven hack. Once more 
emigrants venture out, and the smiles of Providence are on 
their voyage. A part of the work for which they had been 
detained in Ireland was fully accomplished; and now they 
were sent to act an important part in the wilds of America. 
Ship load after ship load sailed for America from Ulster. And 
not a few from Derry sought the provinces in the new world. 
For half a century the emigration filled the frontiers of Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia. One lady, whose ashes repose in the 
oldest burying ground in the Valley of the Shenandoah, that of 
the Opeckon church, and whose descendants in Virginia, Ken- 
tucky, Indiana, and Tennessee, are reckoned by scores and by 
hundreds, used to speak with tears of that memorable siege, 
and lament in bitterness " two fair brothers," whose death filled 
up in part the measure of Bufferings at Derry. Devotedly 
pious herself, she is honoured by the fact, that a large propor- 
tion of her descendants have professed the religion of their 
mother, Mary Gamble Glass, the wife of Samuel Glass, and 
Bister of the Gambles that settled in Augusta. And in Augusta 
those brothers reared families worthy of their ancestry; their 
names are not unknown in Virginia and the South, The 
names of the '■^Apprentices" are familiar names in the Valley of 
the Shenandoah. 

The principles in exercise at Derry, were the principles to fit 
men for subduing a wilderness, and building a State, where 
there should be no king, no state religion. 

Note. — For a more extended history of the Siege of Derry — consult Gra- 
ham's History of the Siege— and Eeed's History of the Presbyterian Church 
in Ireland. 



CHAPTER VI. 

PRESBYTERIAN COLONIES IN VIEGIKU. 

For some years after the death of Makemie there was no 
congregation or colony of Presbyterians in Virginia. There 
were families of Scotch and Scotch Irish scattered through 
the province engaged in trade. Their influence in the 
colony was small. There were some families that had con- 
nected themselves with the Presbyterian church in the time 
of Makemie, but not in neighbourhoods sufficient to sustain 



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PRESBYTERIAN COLONIES IN VIRGINIA. 99 

a pastor. Tlie colony of persecuted French Huguenots that 
had been invited to Virginia, and seated on the James River 
a little above Kichmond, and protected in their worship, 
had voluntarily scattered and become intermingled with the 
English population in the neighbouring eounties. The fairest 
opportunity was given to the Established Church to show her 
power and usefulness. Could she have possessed a sufficient 
number of pioue men devoted to the work of the ministry, such 
as Elair attempted to provide by the College of William and 
Mary, she would now be the prominent and popular church, 
below the head of tide water in Virginia. 

_ The majority of the numerous Presbyterian families, in Vir 
ginia, are descendants of emigrants from Presbyterian coun- 
tries in Europe. Poverty and intolerance drove them from 
their mother country, and the necessity of providing a frontier 
line of brave people west of the Blue Mountains, compelled 
Virginia to relax her rigor and open her borders. There was 
never a large colony of Scotch in Virginia, though multitudes 
of Scotch families have been scattered through the land. The 
Presbyterians in Ulster province, Ireland, found their situation 
less agreeable than they had reason to expect, under William 
and Mary, and Anne, and George 1st, and G-eorge 2d. The 
Episcopal Church was favoured in England, the Presbyterian 
in Scotland ; in Ireland the Presbyterians of Ulster were taxed' 
to support the Established Church of England, which was not 
more numerous or loyal. From the time of the Eagle Wing to 
the siege of Derry, the emigration to America had been small. 
In the early part of the Eighteenth Century the emigration 
began, and like the mighty rivers in the new world, went on in 
a widening and deepening current, to pour into the vast forests 
of America, multitudes of hardy enterprising people. All the 
colonies from New York southward were enriched by ship loads 
of these people that came with little money, but with strong 
hands and stout hearts, and divine principles, to improve their 
own condition, and bless the province that gave them a home. 
A few congregations were formed in the New England States ; 
one in New Hampshire at Londonderry in 1719 ; — another at 
Pelham, Massachusetts, and a small one in Boston about 1727. 
Pennsylvania offered the greatest attractions; and the banks of 
the Delaware gave the first rest to these pilgrims of "the green 
isle." The beautiful unoccupied regions in Pennsylvania, east 
of the mountains, were soon filled with thriving congregations. 
Holmes tells us, that in 1729 — " there arrived in Pennsylvania 
from Europe, 6208 persons, for the purpose of settling in that 
colony." Of these more than five thousand were from Ireland. 
Mr. Samuel Blair writing about the congregation of New Lon- 
donderry, in Fagg's Manor, states — " The congregation has not 



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100 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

been erected above fourteen or fifteen years from this time, 
(1740) ; the place is a new settlement, generally settled With 
people from Ireland, as all our congregations in Pennsjlvania, 
except two or three, chiefly are made up of people from that 
kingdom." This congregation therefore must have been settled 
previously to the year 1726. 

After the choice locations in Pennsylvania and Maryland 
were filled up, the emigrants crossed the Potomac, and stretched 
rapidly to the Catawba, along the frontiers iu Virginia and 
North Carolina. Great efforts were made by the civil authori- 
ties, in Virginia, to induce these adventurous people to tako 
their residence in the vast wilderness of the *' Ancient Domi- 
nion," The protection of the frontiers was an object of legis- 
lation at an early period. In 1664, in order to prevent those 
murders, which the weakness of remote settlements invited 
from the savages, it was ordered — "that noe person shall here- 
after seate above the plantations already seated, but with 
forcoable hands well armed, at bis first setting down." In the 
year 1679, the Legislature determined to build four houses for 
garrisons, on — " the heads of the ffower greate rivers, — att the 
head of Potomack river, Mcapico near Occoquon, — att the head 
of Rappahannock, — att the head of the Mattapony at or above 
the Indian townes, — att the head of James Kiver, on the 
South side, above Capt. William Bird's; — and that every forty 
tithables within this colony be assessed and obleged to fitt out 
and sett forth one able and sufficient man and horse with furni- 
ture well and completely aimied with a ease of good pistols, 
carbine or short gunn, and a sword," This law was found inade- 
quate, and was soon repealed, and the defence of tho country 
committed to a company of Eangers, The same year encour- 
agement was given to individuals to plant villages; — "Major 
Lawrence Smith will settle or seate, at or near the place on 
the Rappahannock River, where the ffort was built the yeare 
1676, and have in readiness upon all occasions, at beate of 
drum, ffifty able men well armed, in defence of the inhabitants 
of Eappahannoc." The conditions was that he should " seate" 
two hundred men, besides the fifty soldiers, within the space of 
ono milo along the bank of the river, and one fourth of a miie 
back from the river's edge, over whom he should exercise mili- 
tary authority. For these things he was to have about four- 
te*n thousand acres of land lying along the river five and a half 
miles in length, and four miles in breadth. An agreement waa 
made by William Bird for a military colony, at the falls on 
James River, in consideration of a tract of land lying each 
side of the falls, about five miles in length and four in breadth. 
In 1701, large bodies of land, from ten to thirty thousand 
acres with exemption from taxes for twenty years, to compa- 



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PRE8BTTEBIAK COLONIES IK VIRGINIA. JOJ 

uies settling on the frontiers, — on conditions, that there should 
be, in two years, on the land, one able bodied well armed man 
ready for defence, for every five hundred acres ; and that thesfe 
should live in a Tillage of two hundred acres area, in the form of 
a square or parallelogram, laid off in lota near the centre of the 
tract ; and that a fort should be built in the centre of the town. 
In 1705 it waa enacted that every person, male or female, 
coming into the colony, for the purpose of making settlement, 
be entitled to fifty acres of land : families to have fifty acres 
for each member; no persons possessing less than five tithable 
servants or slaves, were permitted to take more than five hun- 
dred acres; and no persons whatever were to take up more 
than four thousand acres in one patent. These laws did not 
produce the effect designed. Villages did not spring up along 
the frontier as had been expected. 

The settlements in the Valley of Virginia were not made in 
consequence of these laws, whose provisions were offensive. 
They were effected principally by the labours of three indi- 
viduals to whom Crovernor &ooch made grants of extensive 
tracts of land, on condition that within a given time a certain 
number of permanent settlers should be located on the grants ; 
Burden in Rockbridge County, Beverly in Augusta, and the 
Vanmeters on Opeckon in Frederick. Great efforts were 
made by these gentlemen to persuade emigrants from Europe 
and also from Pennsylvania and New Jersey, to take their resi- 
dence in the Valley of the Shenandoah. Advertisements, de- 
scribing in glowing terms the beauty and fertility of the valley, 
and offering a home to the poor emigrant on easy terms, were 
sent abroad in every direction, and attracted the attention of 
the hard working tenants in England, Ireland and Germany, 
to whom the offer of a farm in fee simple was the offer of wealth. 

Joist Hite having obtained the grant of the Vanmeters, came 
in the year 1732, with sixteen families from Pennsylvania, and 
fixed his residence on the Opeckon, a few miles south of the 
present town of Winchester, on the Great Valley route, at a 
place now in possession of the Barton family. His three sons 
in law. Bowman Chrisman and Froman went a few miles further 
south. Peter Stephens took his residence where Step hen sburg, 
Newtown, now is. The other families were scattered on Cedar 
Creek and Crooked Run. This was the first regular settlement 
west of the Blue Ridge in Virginia. From this time the emi- 
gration to the Valley of the Shenandoah, and to the region at 
the eastern base of the Blue Ridge, was rapid. 

Michael Woods, from Ireland came in the year 1734 and 
settled at Henderson's quarter near Wood's Gap, in Albemarle. 
Three sons and three sons in law came with him and settled 
near. One of the sons in law, William Wallace, took his resi- 



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102 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

dence on Mechuma river, in Albemarle, and his descendants oc- 
cupy in part the possessions of their ancestor. These wore the 
founders of Mountain Plain Congregation. 

In the same year Richard Morgan led a company to the 
neighbourhood of Shephendown on the Cohongoroton or Poto- 
mac, in Jefferson County. Among the families that camo with 
him we find the names of Harper, Stroop, Forrester, Friend, 
Swearingen, Forman, Lucas, Lemon, Mercer, Stockton, Buckles, 
Taylor, and Wright. 

About the year 1*?35 William Hoge removed from Pennsyl- 
vania and settled on the Opeekon, about three miles south of 
Winchester. Opeekon meeting house stands upon his track of 
land. The families of Glass, Vance, Allen, Colvin, White, and 
others soon joined him and formed the Opeekon Congregation, 
the oldest Congregation West of the Blue Ridge. 

About this time a settlement was made on Cub Creek in 
Charlotte County, and one on Buffalo Creek in Prince Edward, 
by the influence of Mr. Caldwell ; the former w'as then in Lu- 
nenberg and the latter in Amelia. This was followed in quick 
aucceasioii by settlements at Concord and Hat Creek in Camp- 
bell County; and Eockfish, in Nelson County, then a part of 
Albemarle. 

About the year 1T38 the Congregations of Tinkling Spring, 
Stone Church and Mossy Creek, in Augusta County; al! form- 
ing the Congregation of the Triple Forks of Shenandoah took 
their beginning. 

Soon after, the Congregation of Timber Ridge, Forks of 
James in Rockbridge, and the Congregation of Back Creek io 
Berkeley County, were commenced. 

On the South Branch of Potomac, in Hardy County, settle- 
ments commenced about the year 1735; and soon after on the 
Cacopon, in Hardy and Hampshire Counties. 

Cedar Creek, in Frederick County was first occupied by the 
sons in law of Joist Hite in 1732. But about the time that 
Opeekon was settled numerous families came to the creek, and 
formed a Congregation. Cedar Creek and Opeekon have al- 
ways been united in their pastoral relations. 

In about ten or twelve years from the settlement of Opeekon, 
which was 1735, Presbyterian Congregations of Irish origin, 
more or less direct, had been settled, at Falling Waters, in 
Berkeley; Elk Branch and BuU Skin in Jefferson; Peeked 
Mountain in Rockingham ; North Mountain and the Pastures 
in Augusta; New Providence in Rockbridge; and Roanoke in 
Botetourt ; all in the Valley of Virginia. The Congregations 
East of the Eidgo were greatly enlarged; though the fertile 
Valley allured the greater number of Emigrants. 

"The people of Potomokc in Virginia" mentioned in the 



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PEESBTTERIAN COLONIES IK VIRGimA. 



103 



minutes of the Synod of Philadelphia for the year 1719, must 
have had their residence somewhere East of the Blue Eidgo. 
And though reported as having been "put in Church order,''' 
no other mention is made of them on the recorda of Synod, 
nor can any certain information he gathered respecting them. 
It is supposed they had their residence in Fauquier or Loudon. 
The tamiliea that formi^ the greater part of the Settlements, 
moved in companies, and fixed their residences in neighbour- 
hood, for the purpose of defence against the dangers of the 
wilderness, gratifying their social feelings, and enjoying the 
privileges of religious worship. The number of emigrants be- 
came so large, and their desire for the ordinances of religion 
was so strong, that the subject was brought before the Synod of 
Philadelphia in the year 1738. On Friday, May 26th—" Upon 
the supplication of John Caldwell, in behalf of himself and 
many families of our persuasion, who are about to settle in the 
back parts of Virginia, desiring that some members of the Synod 
may be appointed to wait on that Government to solicit their 
favour in behalf of our interest in that place: — overtured. That 
according to the purport of the supplication, the Synod appoint 
two of their number to go and wait upon the Governour and 
Council of Virginia, with suitable instructions in order to pro- 
cure the favour and countenance of the Government of that 
province to the laying a foundation of our interest in the back 
parts thereof, where considerable numbers of families of our 
persuasion are settling, and that something be allowed out of 
our fund to bear the charges of said brethren, who shall be 
appointed, and that also provision be made for supplying the 
congregations of said brethren during their absence from them 
while prosecuting that affair: and that Messrs. Robert Cross, 
Anderson, Conn and Orme, prosecute said affau-; and that 
Messrs. Thompson Dickinson and Pemberton prepare instruc- 
tions for the said brethren, and write a letter in the name of 
the Synod to said Government, to be brought in and approved 

by the Synod and it is further overtured that these brethren 

be allowed a discretionary power of using what money they have 
occasion for, to bear their expenses in a manner suitable to this 
design being accountable to the Synod for their conduct in this 
whole affair. Approved nemine contra die ente." 

On Tuesday 30th, the following letter was presented and 
approved — "To the Honourable William Gooch Esquire, 
Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Virginia, the humble 
address of the Presbyterian ministers convened in Synod, May 
80th, 1738, May it please your Honour, we take leave to ad- 
dress you in behalf of a considerable number of our brethren 
who are meditating a settlement in the remote parts of your 



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104 SKETCHES or VIRGINU. 

G-overnment, and are of the same persuasion as the Church of 
Scotland. We thought it our duty to acquaint jaur Honour 
■with this design, and to ask your favour in allowing them the 
liberty of their consciences, and of worshipping God in a way 
agreeable to the principles of their EducE^tion. Your Honour is 
sensible that those of our professiou in Europe have been re- 
markable for their inviolable attachment to the house of Hano- 
ver, and have upon all occasions manifested an unspotted 
fidelity to our gracious Sovereign, King George, and we doubt 
not but these our brethren will carry the same loyal principles 
to the most distant settlements, where their lot may be cast, 
which will ever influence them to the most dutiful auhmission to 
the G-overnment which is placed over them. This we trust will 
recommend them to your Honours countenance and protection, 
and merit the free enjoyment of their civil and religious liber- 
ties. We pray for the divine blessing upon your persona and 
Government, and beg leave to subscribe ourselves your Honours 
most humble and obedient servants." 

The nest year, Monday the 28th of May, — "Mr, Anderson 
reports that in compliance with an order of Synod, last year, 
he had waited upon the Governor of Virginia, with the Synod's 
address, and received a favourable answer, the substance of 
which is contained in a letter from the Governor to the Mode- 
rator of the Synod, which is as follows : — Sir : By the hands of 
Mr. Anderson, I received an address signed by you, in the 
name of your brethren of the Synod of Philadelphia. And as 
I have been always inclined to favour the people who have 
lately removed from other provinces to settle on the western 
side of our great mountains: So you may be assured that no 
interruption shall be given to any minister of your profession, 
who shall come among them, so as they conform themselves to 
the rules prescribed by the Act of Toleration in England, by 
taking the oaths enjoined thereby, and registering the place of 
their meeting, and behave themselves peaceably towards the 
government. This you may plcaso to communicate to the 
Synod as an answer to theirs. 

Your most humble servant, 

William Goocn. 

"Mr. Anderson reports that his journey to Virginia cost 
fifteen pounds, — which the Synod allows out of the fund." 

Tho John Caldwell named in this transaction was grandfather 
to the Hon. John Caldwell Calhoun of South Carolina. The 
colony he was the means of introducing laid the foundation of 
Cub Creek — in Charlotte, — Buffaloe, and Walker's Church in 



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PRESBYTERIAN COLONIES IN VIRGINIA. JQ5 

Prince Edward,— and Hat Creek and Concord in Campbell. 
He himself settled at Cub Greek; the greater part of the fami- 
lies that formed that settlement, ultimately removed to WeBt 
Virginia, now Kentucky. 

Mr. Anderson visited' the Presbyterian settlements that were 
then formed in Frederick Augusta and Nelson. 

The reasons that actuated Govenior Gooch to promise pro- 
tection, in the exercise of their religious forms, in a State whose 
laws for uniformity were precise and enforced with rigour, were 
two : 1st, he wished a frontier line at a greater distance from 
Williamsburg ; if possible. West of the great Mountains ;— 2d, 
he know these people to be firm, enterprising, hardy, brave, 
good citizens and soldiers. To foi-m a complete line of defence 
against the savage inroads, he welcomed those Presbyterian 
emigrants, — the Quakers, — and colonies from the different 
German States to the beautiful and luxuriant prairies of the 
Great Valley of the Shenandoah, on the head waters of the 
James, and along the Ro&noke. At so great a distance from 
the older settlements, he anticipated no danger on^rouble to the 
established church of the Colony, perhaps he never seriously 
considered the subject in the probable inSuence of the necessary 
collision of religious opinions. 

Allured by the advantages offered in the colonies, multitudes 
of enterprising men were ready to leave their mother country. 
In that age of the world it was a hard necessity, that compelled 
men to abandon their birthplace, and traverse the ocean and 
seek a home in a distant wilderness. But the hope of inde- 
pendence cheered that necessity, and some prospect of more 
freedom in religion gladdened their hearts. The banks of the 
Delaware became the landing place of the voluntary exiles. 
After a short stay with their friends and countrymen .jn Penn- 
sylvania, the families removed to the inviting Valley of Vir-*" 
ginia, or the more distant banks of the Catawba in the Caro- 
linas. Wlien the most inviting regions in this southern direction 
were occupied, the succeeding immigrants crossed the Allegha- 
nies, and soon filled West Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Ten- 

The Scotch Irish Presbyterians, and the Germans, that first 
came to America, generally sought a home with the Quakers, 
in the land of Penn. About the same time families from each 
of these races of people wero enticed, by the prospective com- 
fort and wealth of Western Virginia, to build their cabins west 
of the Blue Eidge, in the "ancient Dominion." These have 
formed the mass of community, the middle class, the yeomanry, 
that body that ministers the strength and wealth and energy of 
the State, that drops some of its members to the lowest condi- 
tion of society, and elevates others to the pinnacle, that moves 
14 



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log SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

on in the happy meiJium of wealth and poverty, the storeLouse 
of enterprise, and the treasury of men in the day of emer- 
gency. 

From necessity the families were located in neighbourhoods. 
And to this day, the Presbyterians, the Quakers, the Germans, 
both Lutheran and Reformed, have preserved their identity; 
though each from their proximity has exercised a silent influ- 
ence over the others. In some parts of the Valley, large bodies 
of these different people, fully able to maintain their forms of 
religious worship, and their habits and manners and language, 
have found themselves in the vicinity of each other ; and have 
maintained their own peculiarities, somewhat improved by their 
new situation. In other places the companies were small and 
became intermingled, and connected by marriage, and lost all 
their peculiaritiea, leaving nothing to designate their origin 
but their names. 

In the southern part of the Valley of Virginia and in the 
Mesopotamia of North Carolina, and Jarge districts of South 
Carolina, the Scotch Irish had the pre-eminence both in time 
and numbers. In other sections, the other races had the 
ascendency. All have exerted an influence in forming the 
society that enjoys the personal freedom and religious liberty, 
for which they laboured and endured, and by united efforts 
gained. 

These sketches must of necessity be confined to the Presby- 
terian part of community, and treat of their location,— their 
progress, — their religious exercises, — the efforts for education 
and general literature, — their emigration westward, and their 
influence on society at large. 

The political creed of the Presbyterian race has been given 
in the Sketches of North Carolina, chapter 9th, and need not 
be repeated here. Their religioua creed is learned from the 
Confession of Faith, which gives in detail their doctrines of 
religion in regard to faith and practice, their principles of 
morals, their forma of worship, their church order and discip- 
line. This Confession has been called the Scotch Confession, 
or more properly the Westminster Confession. In the inter- 
pretation of the doctrines of their Confession there was great 
unanimity. Understanding their creed according to the accus- 
tomed use of words, and the grammatical construction of sen- 
tences, they received and professed, as their common faith, 
those doctrines called the doctrines of the Reformation, in the 
sense in which they believed the Reformers themselves under- 
stood them, and wished others to understand them. To use a 
common phrase — their faith was Calvinistic. There were no 
professed Arminians or Antinomians amongst them. In their 
church government and forms of worship they were Presbyte- 
rians after the Scotch, or Greneva model. 



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PRESBYTERIAN COLONIES, IN VIRGINIA. JOf 

But on tbe subject of "experience of religion" thero soon 
sprung up a great division. Respecting man's fallen nature, — 
the extent and influence of depravity and original sin, — tKe 
necessity of the influences of the Holy Spirit, in conversion to 
God, and in devotional exercises,— ^the imputation of Adam's 
guilt and of Christ's righteousness, — justification by faith, and 
the ahsoluto necessity of the new birth, — on all these, there 
was perhaps little diversity of opinion. But whether true spi- 
ritual exercises implied or admitted great excitement, — whether 
conversion was a rapid or very gradual work, — whether evi- 
dences of grace were decisive, or necessarily obscure, — whether 
true revivals were attended with great alarms, deep convictions, 
great distress and strong hopes and fears, — whether a colle- 
giate course of education was a necessary preparation for 
the ministry of the gospel, — and whether personal experience 
of religion should form part of the examination of candidates 
for the ministry, — on all these subjects there were formed two 
parties, which debated, with due vehemence, the proper exer- 
cises of a Christian man, and of a Christian minister. The 
excitement of these discussions, about the time of the Presbyte- 
rian emigration to Virginia, distracted, and' finally divided the 
Synod of Philadelphia, which embraced all the churches, of the 
Presbyterian faitb, north of South Carolina. 

The Presbyterian Church in Ireland, of which the Presbyte- 
rian Church in America is a scion, is the fruit of a great awa- 
kening, an account of which may be seen in the Sketches of 
North Carolina, chap. 6th, taken mostly from Reed's History 
of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, Times of great excite- 
ment were not unfrequent in Ireland, The first great awaken- 
ing in the Presbyterian churches of America commenced about 
the year 1732, in Freehold, New Jersey, under the preaching* 
of Rev. John Tennent, son of William Tennent of the "Log 
College" on the Neshaminy. He died the same year, and his 
brother William succeeded as pastor. The good seed sown by 
the deceased pastor sprung up to eternal life under the water- 
ing of his brother, and the increase of the Spirit of God, The 
religious excitement in Freehold continued more than ten years, 
and was remarkably free from acts and doings that were ob- 
jectionable. 

The Rev, Jonathan Edwards gives an account of a great 
awakening under his ministry in Northampton about the year 
1734, which spread into many of the neighbouring towns, ten 
in Massachusetts, and seventeen in Connecticut. He, makes 
mention of the work of grace in New Jersey. 

About the year 1739 the awakening became very extensive 
in New Jersey, under the preaching of the Tennents, Rowland, 
Dickenson and Frclinghuysen. The next year it was exten- 



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j^Qg SKETCHES IN VIRGINIA. 

sively experienced in New Londonderry, under the preaeliing 
of the Rev. Samuel Blair. It soon spread over a large part of 
the Presbyterian popnlation in Pennsylvania. The public mind 
■n-as highly excited on the subject of religion, and most deeply 
agitated by earnest inquiries about the true exercises of Chris- 
tian people. The awakening was general in most of the Con- 
m-egationa in New Jersey; and prevailed extensively in New 
England. Edwards's works, Prince's Christian History, and 
Gillie's Collections, which are taken very much from Prince's 
History, give glowing accounts of the excitements and hopeful 
conversions, that attended the preaching of the word. The 
awakening extended to Virginia : and there it commenced with- 
out the ordinary means, preaching the word publicly. Under 
the preaching of the word it became more extended ; and the 
effects are felt at this time all over Virginia and Kentucky and 
Tennessee, North and South Carolina. 

As the awakening in Virginia, that accompanied the preach- 
ing of the gospel, was more immediately connected with the 
work of grace in Pennsylvania and Delaware, some extracts 
will he given from an account, drawn up by the Kev. Samuel 
Blair, of the work as it appeared in New Londonderry. There 
it resulted in reformation of life and manners ; and a creditable 
profession of religion by a number in his Congregation ; and 
also in drawing the attention, of surrounding Congregations, to 
personal religion. The man that had the greatest religious 
influence on Virginia, Samuel Davies, was trained in the Con- 
gregation of Mr. Blair; and during this work of grace, he 
entered Virginia with the spirit of that awakening. Extracts 
from Mr. Blair's account will be read with interest by admirers 
of Davies. 

Extracts from Mr. Blair's Narrative. 

"It was in the Spring Anno Domini 1740 when the God of 
Salvation was pleased to visit us with the blessed effusions of 
his Holy Spirit in an eminent manner. The very first open and 
public appearance of this gracious visitation in these parts was 
in the Congregation God has committed to my charge. The 
Congregation has not been erected above fourteen or fifteen 
years from this time : the place is a new settlement, generally 
settled with people from Ireland, as all our Congregations in 
Pennsylvania, except two or tiireo are, chiefly, made up of 
people from that kingdom. I am the first minister they have 
ever had settled in the place. Having been regularly liberated 
from my former charge in East Jersey, above an hundred miles 
north eastward from hence; (thoKev. Presbytery of New Bruns- 
wick, of which I had the comfort of being a member, judging it 
to be my duty, for sundry reasons, to remove from thence) at the 



EXTRACTS PROM MB. BLAIR'S NARRATIVE. 109 

earnest invitation of the people here, I came to them in the 
beginning of Nov. 1739, — accepted a call from them that win- 
ter, — and waa formally installed and settled amongst them as 
their minister, in April following. There were some hopefully 
pious people here at my first coming, which was a great en- 
couragement and comfort to me." The state of the Congrega- 
tions generally, and of the neighbouring Congregations, was 
mournful. Religious experience was confined to a few; such a 
thing as a general attention to personal religion was unknown, 
though attendance on public worship was reckoned essential to 
the well being of society; formality had taken the place of 
spirituality, and the mass of the people were satisfied with the 
rind without ever tasting the rich meat of gospel ordinances. 
A consequent dissoluteness of manners was creeping in as vital 
religion was dying out; outward observances were usurping the 
place of spiritual religion. "It was thought" — says Mr. Blair — 
"that if there was any need of a heart distressing sight of the 
soul's danger, and fear of divine wrath, it was only needful for 
the grosser sort of sinners; and for any others to he deeply 
exercised this way, (as there might sometimes be some rare in- 
stances observable) this was generally looked upon to be a great 
evil and temptation that had befallen some persons. The com- 
mon name for such soul concerns were, melancholy, trouble of 
mind, or despair. These terms were in common, so far as I have 
been acquainted, indifi'erently used as synonymous ; and trouble 
of JMi'W was looked upon as a great evil, which all persons that 
made any sober profession and practice of religion ought care- 
fully to avoid. There was scarcely any suspicion at all, in 
general, of any danger of depending upon self righteousness, 
and not upon the righteousness of Christ alone, for salvation- 
Papists and Quakers would be readily acknowledged guilty of 
this crime, but hardly any professed Presbyterians. The ne- 
cessity of being -first in Christ by a vital union, and in a justified 
state, before our religious services can be well pleasing and 
acceptable to God, was very little understood or thought of; 
hut the common notion seemed to be, that if people were aiming 
to be in the way of duty as well as they could, as they imagined, 
there was no reason to be much afraid. According to these 
principles, and this ignorance of some of the most soul concern- 
ing truths of the gospel, people were very generally through 
the land careless at heart, and stupidly indiiferent about the 
great concerns of eternity. There was very little appearance 
of any hearty engagedness in religion ; and indeed, the wise for 
the most part, were in a great degree asleep with the foolish. 
'Twas sad to see with what a careless behaviour the public ordi- 
nances were attended, and how people were given to unsuitable 
worldly discourse on the Lord's holy day. In public companies, 



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110 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

especially at weddings, a vain and frothy lightness was apparent 
in the deportment of many professors; and in some places very 
extravagant follies, as horse running, fiddling and dancing, 
pretty much obtained." 

"Thus," — continues Mr. Elair — "religion lay as it were 
dying, and ready to expire its last breath of life in this part of 
the visible church. I had some view and sense of the deplora- 
ble condition of the land in general; and accordingly the scope 
of my preaching through that first winter after I came here 
was mainly calculated for persons in a natural unregenerate 
estate. I endeavoured, as the Lord enabled me, to open up 
and prove from his word, the truths, which I judged most neces- 
sary for such as were in that state, to know and believe, in 
order to their conviction and conversion. I endeavoured to deal 
Bearchingly and solemnly with them, and, through the blessing 
of God, I had knowledge of four or five brought under deep 
convictions that winter." 

Mr. Blair made a journey to East Jersey in March I'iiO. 
A neighbouring minister, whose name he does not give — sup- 
posed to be either Mr. Craighead, afterwards famed in North 
Carolina, or Mr. Gillespie, — " who appeared to be earnest for 
the awakening and conversion of secure sinners," preached the 
next Sabbath in his charge, from the words in Luke xiii, 7th. 
Then said he to the dresser of his vineyard, behold, these 
three years I come seeking fi-uit on this fig tree, and find none, 
cut it down, why cumbereth it the ground — Under that sermon 
great feeling was expressed, — " Some burst out with an audible 
noise into bitter crying; a thing not known in these parts." 
The news of this appearance of deep concern met Mr. Blair a 
hundred miles from home, and rejoiced his heart. Hastening 
home he preached from Matthew vi. 33d, Seek ye first the 
kingdom of God and his righteousness ; and while he was 
pressing the unconverted with reasons why they should seek 
the kingdom and righteousness of God, he offered as one 
reason — "that they had neglected too — too long — to do so 
already" — many could not contain themselves but burst out 
into the most bitter mourning. Checking this outburst of 
feeling he finished his discourse- 
One young man came to converse with him on his soul's con- 
cerns, who had been a light merry youth. He said he had 
heard the sermon from Luke — cut it down — without concern- 
On the next day — " ho went to his labour which was grubbing, 
in order to clear somo new ground; the first grub he set about 
was a pretty large one, with a high top, and when he had cut 
the roots, as it fell down, those words camo instantly to his 
remembrance, and as a spear to his heart, — Cut it down, why 
cumbereth it the ground — So thought he must I be cut down 



"•— 8'^ 



EXTRACTS FROM MR. BLAIR'S NARRATIVE. Ill 

by the jnatice of God, for the hurning of hell, unless I get into 
another state than I am now in. He thus came into very great 
and abiding distress, which, to all appearance, has had a happy 
issne, his conversation being to this day as becomes the gospel 
of Christ." 

Mr. Blair goes on to say — "I think there was scarcely a 
sermon, or lecture preached here through that whole summer, 
but there was manifest evidence of impressions on the hearers, 
and many times the impressions were very great and general; 
several would be overcome and fainting; others deeply sobbing 
hardly able to contain, others crying in a most dolorous man- 
ner, many others more silently weeping, and a solemn concern 
appearing in the countenances of many others. And some- 
times the soul exercises of somo, though comparatively but few, 
would so far affect their bodies as to occasion some strange, 
unusual bodily motions. I had opportunities of speaking par- 
ticularly with a great many of those who afforded such out- 
ward tokens of inward soul concern in the time of public 
worship and hearing of the word; indeed many came to me of 
themselves in their distress, for private instruction and counsel; 
and I found, so far as I can remember, that, with far the greater 
part, their apparent concern in public was not just a transient 
qualm of conscience, or merely a floating commotion of the 
affections; but a rational fixed conviction of their dangerous 
perishing estate. They could generally offer, as a convictive 
evidence of their being in an unconverted miserable estate, — 
that they were utter strangers to those dispositions, exercises, 
and experiences of soul in religion, which they heard laid down 
from God's word as the inseparable characters of the truly 
regenerate people of God ; even such as before had something 
of the form of religion; and I think the greater number were 
of this sort, and several had been pretty exact and punctual in 
the performance of outward duties. They saw that true prac- 
tical religion was quite another thing, than they Lad conceived 
it to be, or had any true experience of. 

"In this congregation, I believe there were very few that 
were not stirred up to some solemn thoughtfulness and concern 
more than usual about their souls. Those awakened were 
much given to reading in the Holy Scriptures and other good 
books. Excellent books, that had lain by much neglected, 
were then much perused, and lent from one to another, and it 
was a peculiar satisfaction to people to find how exactly the 
doctrines they heard daily preached, harmonize with the doc- 
trines maintained and taught by great and godly men in other 
parte and former times." 

" There was an earnest desire in people after opportunities 
for public worship and hearing of the word. I appointed in 



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112 



SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 



the spring to preach every Friday through the summer when I 
was at home ; and those meetings were well attended, and at 
several of them the power of the Lord was remarkably -with us. 
The main scope of my preaching, through that summer, was 
laying open the deplorable state of man by nature since the 
fallj.— our ruined and exposed case by the breach of the first 
covenant, — and the awful condition of such as were not in 
Christ, — giving the marks and characters of such as were in 
that condition ; — and moreover laying open the way of recovery 
in the new covenant, through a Mediator, — with the naturo and 
necessity of faith in Christ, the Mediator. I laboured much on 
the last mentioned heads, that people might have right appre- 
hensions of the gospel method of life and salvation. I treated 
much on the way of a sinner's closing with Christ by faith, — 
and obtaining a right peace to an awakened wounded con- 
science, — showing that persons were not to take peace to them- 
selves on account of their repentings, sorrows, prayers, and 
reformations, — nor to make these things the ground of their 
adventuring themselves upon Christ, and his righteousness, and 
of their expectations of life in him ; — and that neither were 
they to obtain or seek peace in extraordinary ways, by visions, 
dreams, or immediate inspirations ; — but by an understanding 
view and believing persuasion of the way of life, as revealed in 
the gospel, through the suretyship, obedionce, and sufferings of 
Jesus Christ, — with a view of the suitableness and sufficiency 
of that mediatory righteousness of Christ for the justification 
and life of law condemned sinners;— and thereupon freely 
accepting him for their Saviour, heartily consenting to, and 
being well pleased with, that way of salvation ;— and venturing 
their all upon hia mediation, from the warrant and encourage- 
ment afforded of God thereunto in his word, by his free offer, 
authoritative command, and sure promise to those that so be- 
lieve. I endeavoured to show them the fruits and evidences of 
a true faith." 

After some time, many professed faith in Christ, and expressed 
a hope that their sins were forgiven. The evidences they gave 
of true conversion, are stated by Mr. Blair. "It was very 
agreeable to hear their accounts, how that, when they were in 
the deepest perplexity and darkness, distress and difficulty, 
seeking God as poor condemned hell deserving sinners, the 
sense of the recovering grace, through a Redeemer, has been 
opened to their understandings, with a surprising beauty and 
glory, so that they were enabled to believe in Christ, with joy 
unspeakable and full of glory. It appeared that most gene- 
rally the Holy Spirit improved for this purpose, and made use 
of some one particular passage or another of the holy Scripture, 
that came to their remembrance in their distress, some gospel 



EXTRACTS FROM MR. BLAIR'S NARRATIVE. Hg 

offer or promise, or some declaration of Grod directly referring 
to the recoveryaod salvation of undone sinners, by the new 
covenant. But with some it waa otherwise, they had not any 
one particular place of Scripture more than another, in their 
view at the time." 

"Much of their exercise was in self-abasing, self-loathing, 
and admiring the astonishing condescension and grace of God 
towards such vile and despicable creatures, that had been so 
full of enmity and disaffection to him ; — then they freely and 
sweetly, and with all their hearts, chose the ways of his com- 
mandments : — their inflamed desire was to live to him forever, 
according to his will and the glory of his name. There wove 
others that had not had such remarkable relief and comfort, 
who yet I could not but think were savingly renewed, and 
brought truly to accept of, and rest upon, Jesus Christ, though 
not with such a degree of liveliness and liberty, strength and 
joy; and some of these continued for a considerable time after, 
for the most part under a very distressing suspicion and jea- 
lousy of their case." 

"I was all along very cautious of expressing to people my 
judgment of the goodness of their state, excepting where I had 
pretty clear evidences from them, of their being savingly 
changed, and yet they continued in deep distress, casting off 
all their evidences ; — sometimes, in such cases I have thought it 
needful to use greater freedom that way than ordinary; — but 
otherwise I judged that it could be of little use, and might 
readily be hurtful," 

"There wore some, who Laving very little knowledge or 
capacity, had a very obscure and improper way of representing 
their case. In relating how they had been exercised, they 
would chiefly speak of such things as were only the effects of 
their soul's exercises upon their bodies, from time to time; and 
some things that were just imaginary, which obliged me to be 
at much pains in my inquiries, before I could get just ideas of 
their case. I would ask them, what were the thoughts, the 
views, and apprehensions of their minds, and exercises of their 
affections at auch times, when they felt, perhaps a quivering 
come over them, as they had been saying, — or a faintness, — or 
thought they saw their hearts full of some nauseous filthiness, — 
or when they felt a heavy weight and load at their hearts, — or 
felt the weight taken off and a pleasant warmness rising from their 
hearts, — as they would probably express themselves, — which 
might be the occasion or causes of these things they spoke of; 
and then when with some difficulty, I could get them to under- 
stand me, some of them would give a pretty rational account of 
solemn spiritual exercises. And upon a thorough careful exam- 
15 



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j-]^4 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

ination this way, I could not but conceive good hopes of some 
such persons." 

"But there were, moreover, several others, who seemed to 
think concerning themselves, that they were under some good 
■work, of whom yet I could have no reasonable ground to think, 
that they were under any hopeful work of the Spirit of God. 
As near as I could judge of their case from all my acquaintance 
and conversations with them, it was much to this purpose : — 
they believed there was a good work going on, that people were 
convinced and brought into a converted state, and they desired 
to be converted too; — they saw others weeping and fainting, 
and heard people mourning and lamenting, and they thought, 
if they could be like those it would be very hopeful with them ; — 
hence they endeavoured just to get themselves affected by ser- 
mons, and if they could come to weeping, or get their passions 
BO raised as to incline them to vent themselves by cries, now 
they hoped they were got under convictions, and were in a very 
hopeful way; — and afterwards they would speak of their being 
in trouble, and aim at complaining of themselves, but seemed as 
if they knew not well how to do it, nor what to say against 
themselves, and thus they would be looking and expecting to 
get some texts of Scripture applied to them for their comfort; — 
and when any Scripture text, which they thought was suitable 
for that purpose, came to their minds, they were in hopes it 
was brought to them by the Spirit of God, that they might take 
comfort from it. I endeavoured to correct and guard against 
al! such mistakes, so far as I discovered them in the course of 
my ministry ; and to open up the nature of a true conviction by 
the Spirit of God, and of a saving conversion." 

His account of those who appeared to be converts in this 
great awakening, given about four years after it seemed to 
come to a close, is interesting to us in forming our judgment of 
the work. After stating that those who had been slightly con- 
cerned, lost all their concern ; and some, who appeared to have 
been deeply interested, gave up all attention to religion; and 
some, who were much concerned, appeared to have settled 
down on a false hope, he goes on to say — "There is a consider- 
able number who afford all the evidence that can reasonably be 
expected and required, for our satisfaction in the case, of their 
having been the subjects of a thorough saving change. Their 
walk is habitually tender and conscientious; their carriage to- 
ward their neighbour just and kind, and they appear to have 
an agreeable peculiar love for one another, and for all in whom 
appears the image of God." "Indeed the liveliness of their 
affections in the ways of religion is much abated, in general, 
and they are in some measure humbly sensible of this, and 
grieved for it, and are carefully endeavouring to live unto God, 



EXTRACTS FROM MR. BLAIR'S NARRATIVE. J^g 

mueh grieved with their imperfoctiona, and the plagues they 
find in their own hearts; and frequently they meet with some 
delightful enlivening of soul : and particularly our sacramental 
solemnities for communicating in the Lord's Supper, have gene- 
rally been very blessed seasons of enlivening and enlargement 
to the people of God." He also tells us that great harmony 
prevailed in his congregation, and few opposers to the work 
appeared amongst them, and few left his congregation to join 
with those ministers who opposed the work. 

Mr. Blair closes his narrative of the awakening in his charge 
in the following manner — "This blessed shower of divine in- 
fluence spreadvery much through this province that summer, 
and was likewise considerable in some places tordering upon 
it. The accounts of some ministers sometimes distinguished 
by their searching, awakening doctrine, and solemn, pathetic 
manner of address — and the news of the effects of their preach- 
ing upon their hearers, seemed in some measure to awaken 
people through the country to consider their careless and for- 
mal way of going on in religion, and very much excited their 
desires to hear those ministers. There were several vacant- 
congregations without any settled pastors, which earnestly 
begged for their visits, and several ministers who did not ap- 
pear heartily to put to their shoulders to help in carrying on 
the same work, yet then yielded to the pressing importunities 
of their people in inviting these brethren to preach in their 
pulpits,_ so that they were very much called abroad and em- 
ployed in incessant labours, and the Lord wrought with them 
mightily ; very great assemblies would ordinarily meet to hear 
them upon any day of the week, and oftentimes a surprising 
power, accompanying their preaching, was visible among the 
multitudes of their hearers. It was a very comfortable enliven- 
ing time to God's people, and great numbers of secure, careless 
professors, and many loose irreligious persons, through the 
land, weredeeply convinced of their miserable perishing estate, 
and there is abundant reason to believe, and be satisfied, that 
many of them were in the issue, savingly converted to God. I 
myself had occasion to converse with a great many up and 
down, who have given a most agreeable account of very pre- 
cious and clear experiences of the grace of God, several even 
in Baltimore, a county in the province of Maryland, who were 
brought up almost in a state of heathenism, almost without any 
knowledge of the true doctrines of Christianity, afford very 
satisfactory evidence of being brought to a saving acquaintance 
with Christ Jesus." 

" Knowing I must not -speak wickedly even for God, nor 
talk deceitfully for Him ; upon the whole I must say it is be- 
yond all reasonable contradiction, that God has carried on a 



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316 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

great and glorious work of his special grace among ns." 
Tliis account is dated — New Londonderry, in Pennsylvania, 
August 6th, 1744. 

Mr. Blair mentions the itinerating practised by some heartily 
engaged in the revival. This led to great complaints, and to 
extravagances that increased the complaints against the itine- 
rants and those who justified their course ; and ultimately led 
to doubts about the revival itself, and to disputes about the 
exercises of religion characteristic of conversion. The account 
given by Mr. Blair, respecting his congregation, will, in the 
general, exhibit the state of things in many other congregations 
in Pennsylvania, in Delaware, and also those in New Jersey, 
and some parts of New York, And the same complaints 
against itinerants, and extravagances came from different quar- 
ters. It would be grateful, if the limits of these sketches 
would permit, to give at least a general view of the great ex- 
citement on religion, throughout the Philadelphia Synod, par- 
ticularly its appearance in the different congregations. Mtieh 
practical wisdom could be gathered from the sayings and 
doings of the actors in those interesting scenes. 

A vehement dispute also arose about the proper qnalificationa 
for a candidate for the gospel ministry. Ministers and churches 
took sides, with some asperity of feeling. The line of separa- 
tion was nearly the same as on the question about experience 
of religion and the exercises of awakened sinners and converts. 
Each party charged extreme views upon tho other, and in a 
measure drove each other into extremes, using unkind expres- 
sions and unjustifiable means, and defending unwarrantable 
positions. 

The discussion of these subjects became ho warm that Minis- 
ters and Elders and Congregations were alienated, and the 
Synod in 1741 was rent asunder, in circumstances of great ex- 
citement. This division continued about seventeen years. The 
party that retained the name of the Synod of Philadelphia, was 
familiarly called the " Old Side ;" and the Synod of New York 
formed by the other party, the "New Side." The feelings of 
the two parties, at length became calm, the matters in dispute 
were amicably adjusted, and the Synods united under the name 
of the Synod of New York and Philadelphia. 

There is no evidence that tho parties disagreed on important 
doctrines, Mr, John Davenport was guilty of most extravagant 
conduct, perhaps tho most objectionable known during the ex- 
citement. An opponent, tho Rev. Mr. Fish, of Connecticut, 
makes a statement respecting this singular man, — in the midst 
of hia irregularities "the good things about him was that 
he was a fast friend of the doctrines of grace; fully declaring 
the total depravity, the deplorable wretchedness and danger, 



DAVENPORT'S CONDUCT. 117 

atid utter inability of man hy the fall. He preaebed with 
great earnestness the doctrines of man's dependence on the 
sovereign mercy of God; of regeneration; of justification by 
faith, &c. The things that were evidently and dreadfully wrong 
about him were, that he not only gave full liberty to noise and 
outcries but promoted them with all his power. When these 
things prevailed among the people, accompanied with bodily 
agitations, the good man pronounced them tokens of the pre- 
sence of God. Those who passed from great distress to great 
joy, he declared, after asking them a few questions, to be con- 
verts. He was a great favourer of visions, trances, imagina- 
tions, and powerful impressions in others, and made auch inward 
feelings the rule of his own conduct in many respects. The 
worst thing, however, was his bold and daring enterprise of 
going through the country to examine all the ministers in pri- 
vate, and then publicly declare his judgment of their spiritual 
state." 

Novelty of doctrine does not appear to have been the sin of 
that generation of Presbyterians, Novelty of methods to pro- 
mote revivals excited fears in the pious; and the breaking 
through acknowledged rules disturbed society. These errors 
brought a glorious awakening into disrepute, and gave opportu- 
nity to all, who were not friendly to spiritual religion, to oppose 
a genuine work of God. The extreme of one side was formality 
in religion ; of the other, extravagant bodily exercises. 

The emigrants to Virginia, though, in many cases, but a 
short time from their mother country, remained long enough in 
Pennsylvania and Delaware to become parties in the division ; 
and in their choice of residence were in a measure governed by 
their religious associations and belief respecting this awakening. 
Neighbouring ministers in Virginia attached themselves to the 
difi'erent Synods, and their congregations sympathised with 
their pastors; and while the two Synods continued separate, 
were tossed with the violence of the storm that rent the congi'e- 
gations in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. In some cases, traces 
of this division can be seen to this day ; in most cases, however, 
the difference of sentiment in their ancestors is known to their 
descendants only as a matter of history. 

The Presbyterian congregations in Virginia reared theia, 
cabins on the frontiers under great excitement. They were 
strangers in a strange land; they were exposed to the mur- 
derous incursions of the savages incensed against the white man 
by a century of provocations; they were in search of a home 
in the wilderness, where every man's cabin might stand upon 
his own acres held in fee simple; they were, under a strong 
religious feeling, searching for the truth in principle, and in 
some good degree guiding their practice by their principles; 



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118 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

they expected the undisturbed exercise of their forms of religion 
according to the promise of the Governor of Virginia; they 
expected more freedom in political matters, than was tojoyed 
in Ireland, not having fully fashioned in their own minds what 
tha-t freedom was, except no Peers of the realm, no Diocesan 
Bishops were to make part of their community; they expected 
equal enjoyment of civil rights, and the protection of the laws 
with advantages to all according to their merits, and promotion 
to the most worthy. And in less than half a century, this 
excitement, and these principles, in the wilderness, moulded a 
nature made firm by resistance to oppression, and hard to 
roughness by toil, in their father land, into a form and shape 
and temper such as Ireland and Scotland had never seen. The 
children realized, in their manhood, al! their fathers panted for 
when they crossed the ocean, freedom in person, — freedom in 
property, — freedom in knowledge and religion. They possessed 
a land of rivers, plains, and mountains, which princes never 
traversed but in exile, were protected by equal laws and gov- 
erned by rulers of their own choice- 
Presbyterian ministers followed the steps of those colonies, 
first on short visits, then to become resident pastors of the 
infant congregations. 

1st. James Gelston was sent from the Presbytery of Done- 
gall in the year 1737, to visit the people on Opeckon. We do 
not hear of his making a second visit. The preaching place 
was near where Opeckon meeting house now stands. 

2d. Mr. James Anderson was sent a special delegate from 
the Synod of Philadelphia in 1738, with a message to Governor 
Goocb. He visited the different colonies of Presbyterians in 
Virginia. He preached his first sermon in Augusta, supposed 
to be the first ever preached there, in the house of Mr. John 
Lewis near Staunton. 

3d. A Mr. Dunlap, a probationer of the Presbytery of New 
York, spent about three mouths in the neighbourhood of 
Staunton, in the year 1739. 

4th. Mr. John Thompson of the Presbytery of Donegall 
visited Virginia in the year 1739, and spent some time in the 
Opeckon neighbourhood, — in the neighbourhood of Staunton, — 
on Rockfish in Nelson, — on Cub Creek, — at Buffaloe, — and in 
Campbell county. "He took up voluntary collections for 
preachers of tbe gospel" — says the manuscript history of Lex- 
ington Presbytery — " and in doing justice to his memory it is 
proper to observe, that he was active in promoting the Presby- 
terian cause in Virginia." He was a man of great vigour and 
took an active part in the affairs of the church. Through his 
instrumentality Messrs. Black and Craig were sent by Presby- 
tery, the one to the Triple Forks, and the other to Rockfish. 



THE CHURCH IN HANOVER COUNTY. Jjg 

He lived for a short time at Buffaloe, to wtich place Mr. 
Saiikey, his son in law, removed with his congregation, and 
continued their pastor for many years. He removed to North 
Carolina, and there died in the bounds of Centre congregation. 
^ 5th. Mr. John Craig visited Augusta, in 17S9, as proba- 
tioner, from Doncgall Presbytery, and ultimately became pastor 
of the Triple Forks, or Tinkling Spring and Augusta. 

Cth. About the same time Mr. Black took his residence on 
Eockfish in Nelson. 

7th. The next of whom we have any knowledge was Wm. 
Robinson. He visited the congregations in the Valley near 
Winchester and above Staunton — went to Carolina, and on his 
return visited Hanover. His visit forms a chapter in Virginia 
Church History. 

8th. The next was Mr. John Roan, whose visit to Hanover 
excited great bitterness in members of the Established Church. 

9th. Mr. John Blair visited the Valley and places east of 
the Ridge in 1745, and again in 1746 ; and during his last 
visit organized ■ the congregations of North Mountain, New 
Providence, Timber Ridge, and Forks of James. 

After this, visits were frequent; and the congregations made 
efforts for stated ministers. The Governor of Virginia assured 
the Synod that ministers and congregations should enjoy all 
the privileges of the Act of Toleration. But in time there was 
a difficulty about the construction of that law; and also whether 
the common sense of men, and the law itself were to be the 
interpreters, or tho caprice of rulers and the majority, when 
the minority claimed privileges under the law, and the majority 
denied them. In another form it was the old question — whe- 
ther the minority had any rights of conscience. The people in 
Hanover said they had rights under the law of God, and by the 
Toleration Act : Davies maintained their position with ultimate 
triumph. 



CHAPTER VII. 

KISE 01" THE PRBSBYTEHIAN CnURCH IN HASOVER COUNTT, 
VIRGINIA; AND WILLIAM 1 



AYhile the settlements of the Scotch Irish were multiplying, in 
the Valley of the Shenandoah, and along the eastern base of 
the Blue Ridge, and on the waters of the Roanoke, forming a 
frontier line in defence of the "Ancient Dominion," and plant- 



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J20 SKETCHES Of VIRGINIA. 

ing the germs of many Presbyterian congregations, which flour- 
ished in after days, events of singular interest began to show 
themselves in Hanover County, and in some neighbourhooda of 
the adjacent Counties, whose inhabitants were of true English 
descent, and in connection with the established church. 

The history of the world shows, that there are times, when 
the public mind is readily turned to religion ; and if, in such 
times, the gospel be presented in its purity and simplicity, the 
concerns of the soul become the all absorbing subject. One of 
these happy times of spiritual sunshine was enjoyed in Hanover 
in common with many other parts of the world, both in Europe 
and America. Reports of the religious exercises and excite- 
ments that prevailed in New Jersey, New England, and Penn- 
sylvania, and some parts of Maryland, spread through Virginia. 
The coming in of the Presbyterian colonies gave interest to 
these reports, and reflecting men began to inquire respecting 
the nature of these things and their consequent importance. 
That some families, in Hanover and Louisa, were aroused to 
inquire for their salvation, by means not afi'orded in the parish 
churches, is a matter of undoubted history. The first human 
agency known to have had effect upon them, next after the 
reports concerning the revivals in the States to the North, was 
that of religious books, followed by discussions on the weighty 
truths contained. A few leaves of Boston's Fourfold State, in 
possession of a Scotch woman, fell into the hands of a gentle- 
man, who in looking over them, felt a deep interest in the truth 
as there exhibited. The title of the book was on one of the 
leaves. He sent to England by the next ship, for the book. 
The perusal of that volume, in connection with the Bible, was 
blessed of God to bring him to a knowledge of himself, — of the 
way of life through Jesus Christ, — and, there ia reason to believe, 
to a saving faith. Another gentleman got possession of Luther 
on the Galatians, Deeply afi'ected with what he read, so dif- 
ferent from what ho had been hearing from the pulpit of the 
parish Church, he never ceased to read and pray till he found 
consolation in believing in Christ Jesus, the Lord his Righteous- 
Rev. Samuel Davies, in his letter to the Bishop of London, 
gays — *'About the year 1743, upon petition of the Presbyte- 
rians in the frontier counties of this colony, the Rev. Mr. Ro- 
binson, who now rests from his labours, and is happily advanced 
beyond the injudicious applauses and censure of mortals, was 
sent by order of Presbytery to officiate for some time among 
them. A little before this, about four or five persons, heads of 
families in Hanover, had dissented from the established church, 
not from any scruples about her ceremonial peculiarities, the 
usual cause of nonconformity, much less about her excellent 



THE CHURCH IN HANOVER COUNTY. 



121 



articles of faith, but from a dislike to the doctrines generally 
delivered from the_ pulpit, as not savouring of experimental 
piety, nor suitably intermingled with the glorious peculiarities 
of the religion of Jesua. These families were wont to meet in 
a private house on Sundays to hear some good booka read, par- 
ticularly Luther'a; whose writings I can aaaure your Lordship 
were the principal cause of their leaving the Church ; which I 
hope is a presumption in their favour. After some time sundry 
others_ came to their eociety, and upon hearing these books, 
grew indifferent about going to church, and chose rather to 
frequent these societica for reading. At length the number 
became too great for a private house to contain them, and they 
agreed to build a meeting house, which they accordingly did. 
Thua far they had proceeded before they had heard a dissenting 
minister at .all. They had not the least thought at this time of 
assuming the denomination of Presbyterian, aa they were 
wholly ignorant of that church." 

The Rev. James Hunt, of Montgomery county, Maryland, 
related to a gentleman, in Albemarle County, Virginia, who 
preserved the narrative, and published it in the 2d vol. of the 
Evangelical and Literary Magazine, edited by the Rev. John 
H. Rice, D.D. — " that in the County of Hanover four gentle- 
men, of whom his father was one, at the same time became con- 
vinced that the Gospel was not preached by the minister of the 
parish church, and that it was inconsistent with their duty to 
attend upon his ministrations. The consequence waa they ab- 
sented themaelves on the same day. They having all been 
remarkably regular in their attendance ; and if I recollect truly, 
having held some office in the parish, their absence waa soon 
noticed, and a summons issued for them to appear before the 
proper ofSeera to answer for their delinquency. As they had 
absented on the aame day, it was their fortune to be called on 
the same day before the aame officers. And here, for the first 
time, each found that three of his neighbours were delinquents 
aa well as himself, and for the very same cause. Seeing no 
reason to change their opinions, or alter the course they had 
adopted, they determined to subject themaelves to the payment 
of the fines impoaed by law, and attended the church no more. 
They agreed to meet every Sabbath, alternately, at each others' 
houses, and spend the time with their families in prayer and 
reading the Scriptures, together with Luther'a Commentary on 
the Galatians, — an old volume which by some means Lad fallen 
into their hands." 

Mr. Samuel Morris, in hta statement made to Rev. Samuel 

Davies, says — "In the year 1740 Mr. "Whitefield had preached 

at Williamsburg, at the invitation of Mr. Elair, our Commissary. 

But we being sixty miles distant from Williamsburg, he left the 

16 



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■^22 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

colony before wc had an opportunity of hearing him. But, in 
the year 1743, a young gentleman from Scotland had got a 
book of hia sermons preached in Glasgow, taken from his'mouth, 
in short hand, which after I had read with great benefit, I in- 
vited my neighbours to come and hear it; and tbe plainness 
and fervency of these discourses being attended with the power 
of the Lord, many were convinced of their undone situation, 
and constrained to seek deliverance with the greatest solicitude, 
A considerable number met to hear these sermons every Sabbath, 
and frequently on week days. The concern of some was so 
passionate and violent, that they could not avoid crying out, 
weeping bitterly, &c. And that, when such indications of reli- 
gious concern were so strange and ridiculous that they could 
not be occasioned by example or sympathy, and tbo affectation 
of them would be so unprofitable an instance of hypocrisy, that 
none could be tempted to it." 

Mr. Hunt's narrative says — " Curiosity prompted the desire 
to bo amongst them, — one and another begged for admission, 
till their houses, on Sabbath, were crowded. And here a new 
scene opened upon their astonished view. Numbers were 
pricked to the heart, — the word became sharp and powerful, — 
*wbat shall we do,' was the general cry. What to do or say 
the principal leaders knew not. They themselves had been 
led by a small still voice, they hardly knew how, to a,n ac- 
quaintance with the truth ; but now the Lord was speaking as 
on Mount Sinai, with a voice of thunder, and sinners, like that 
mountain itself, trembled to the centre. And it was not long 
before they had the happiness to see a goodly little number 
healed by the same word that had wounded them, and brought 
to rejoice understandingly in Christ." 

Mr. Morris says — " My dwelling house was at length too 
small to contain the people, whereupon we determined to build 
a meeting house merely for reading. And having never been 
used to social prayer, none of us durst attempt it." 

Mr. Hunt's narrative says — " And now their numbers became 
too large for any private house to contain them, another step 
is taken, — they build first one, and then another of what they 
called reading houses. Hence the number of attendants and 
the force of divine infiuence much increased." 

Mr. Morris says — "By this single means" — that is read- 
ing — " several were awakened, and their conduct ever since is a 
proof of the continuance and happy issue of their impressions. 
When the report was spread abroad, I was invited to several 
places, to read these sermons, at a considerable distance, and 
by this means the concern was propagated." The phrase 
Morris's Reading House has come down to us, by tradition, 
as connected inseparably with the rise of Presbyterianism in 



' •— '8'^' 



THE CHURCH IN HANOVER COUNTY. jgg 

Hanover; it was applied first to the house erected on Mr. Mor- 
ris's land, and then to another and another as they were 
erected to accommodate the people. The assemhiies held 
regularly in these houses, together with the desertion of the 
parish churches rendered these gentlemen peculiarly obnoxious 
to the laws of the colony; and as the new opinions gained 
adherents in Hanover, it was urged that indulgence but en- 
couraged the evil, and the strong arm of the law was invoked. 
" Our absenting ourselves from the church" — says Mr. Mor- 
ris, — "contrary as was alleged to the laws of the land, was 
taken notice of, and we were called upon hy the court to assign 
our reasons for it, and to declare what denomination we were 
of." Mr. Hunt says — "They were no longer considered as 
individual delinquents whose obstinacy might be sufficiently 
punished hy the civil magistrate; but as a malignant cabal, 
that required the interposition of the executive. They were 
accordingly cited to appear before the Governor and Council, 
The exaction of frequent fines for non attendance at church 
they bore, with patience and fortitude, for the sake of a good 
conscience ; but to bo charged with a crime, of the nature and 
extent and penalty of which they had but indistinct concep- 
tions, spread a gloom over their minds, and filled them with 
anxious forebodings more easily conceived than described. 
They were certainly and obviously a religious society, separate 
and distinct from the only one, the established church, which 
either the government or the people knew in the country, and 
yet they were without a name." Their acquaintance with the 
operation of the Toleration Act of AVilliam and Mary, passed 
1688, and acknowledged on the Virginia statute book in 1699, 
must have been very slight; perhaps they knew neither of the 
Virginia act, or the Act of Toleration, as no circumstance in 
their lives had brought them to view. It is not probable they 
knew any thing of Governor Gooeh's promise made in 1738, 
because none of the Scotch Irish had emigrated to Hanover, 
and these people were descended from members of the English 
church. If they knew of the unlimited toleration granted to 
the German colony on the Rappahannoe, in Madison county; 
or of the favour extended to the French Refugees, at the 
Manatin towns, on the James River above the falls; they 
looked upon these as peculiar cases, and precedents in a gene- 
ral way only, if at all, to people that had no church organiza- 
tion, or even a name. They were frequently called upon to 
appear before the magistrates of the county in explanation and 
defence, and to he fined. At last they were required to appear 
at Williamsburg, and to declare their creed and name before 
the Governor and Council, who assumed the entire control of 
matters pertaining to dissenters. 



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124 SKETCHES OF VIRGINI4. 

Mr. Morris says — in reference to the visit — "as ■we tnow 
but little of ajiy denomination of dissenters, except Quakers, we 
■were at a loss what name to assume. At length recollecting 
that Luther was a noted Reformer, and that hia book had been 
of special service to us, we declared ourselves Lutherans." It 
does not appear that this plea exempted them from fines, for 
absence from church, ■while it shielded them from prosecution 
as disturbers of the public peace. Mr. Hunt, in his narrative, 
gives an interesting account of a visit made, by his father and 
some other gentlemen, to Williamsburg, to have an interview . 
with the Governor and Council. He tolls us that one of the 
company, travelling alone, was overtaken and detained, by a 
violent storm, at the house of a poor man on the road. He 
interested himself in looking over an old volume, which he found 
upon a shelf covered ■with dust. Upon perusing it he was 
amazed to find his own sentiments, as far as he had formed any 
on religious things, drawn out in appropriate language; and as 
far as he read, the whole summary met his approbation. Offer- 
ing to purchase the book, the owner gave it to him. In Wil- 
liamsburg, he examined the old book again, in company with 
his friends; they all agreed that it expressed their views on the 
doctrines of religion. When they appeared before the Gov- 
ernor they presented this old volume as their creed. Grovernor 
Gooch, himself of Scotch origin and education, upon looking at 
the volume, pronounced the men Presbyterians, as the hook 
was the Confession of Faith of the Presbyterian Church of 
Scotland; and that they were not only tolerated but acknow- 
ledged as a part of the established church of the realm. Mr. 
Hunt thought, and used to tell the circumstance with great 
earnestness, that a violent thunder storm shaking the house and 
wrapping all in sheets of fire, had a softening influence on the 
minds of the Governor and Council, inclining them to deal 
gently with their fellow men. AVhen the storm abated, the 
men were dismissed with a gentle caution from the Governor 
not to excite any disturbance in his majesty's colony, nor by 
any irregularities disturb the good order of society in their 
parish. And it is to be remarked that in all the varied forms 
in which these men were had before the civil authorities, they 
were never accused of any other crime than absenting them- 
selves from the parish church, and meeting in private houses 
for public worship, except in one case, and then the accusation 
was found to be false. 

The first minister, not of the Church of England, these people 
heard preach was William ItoMnson, of whom President Da- 
vies says — " That favoured man, Mr. Eobinson, whose success, 
whenever I reflect upon it, astonishes me. Oh, he did much in 
a little time ! — and who would not choose such an expeditious 



"•— 8'^ 



REV. WILLUM ROBINSON. J25 

pilgrimage tliroiigh tte world !" Eqilal to Makcmie in devotion 
to the cause, hia superior, in all probability, in ardour and 
power over men's passions, be stands second in point of time' 
on the list of those whom the Presbyterian Church in Virginia 
delights to honour, as an apostolic missionary, east of the Blue 
Ridge. Makemie'a labours were on the sea shore; RobLuson's 
at the bead of tide-water; we see the fruita of the former in 
the still existing churches of Maryland and in the organization 
of the mother Presbytery of the General Assembly of the Pres- 
byterian Church; and of the latter in the organization of those 
churches in Virginia, and the introduction of that master 
workman that gave character to the Presbytery of Hanover 
and the Synod of Virginia, and left an impress that a century 
of years has not done away. Some account of his life cannot 
be unacceptable. 

Born near Carlyle, England, the son of a Quaker a physi- 
cian of eminence and wealth, Robinson came to the years of 
maturity in expectation of an inheritance from his father and 
an aunt in London. On a visit to this aunt, he became entan- 
gled in the dissipation of the great metropolis, and contracted 
debts which his aunt refused to cancel, and which he had not 
the hardihood to present to his father. Resolved on emigra- 
ting to the colonies, in America, to improve his condition, he 
obtained from his aunt her reluctant consent, and a small sum 
of money to pay his passage. Taking his abode in New Jer- 
sey, he commenced teaching school as an honourable means of 
support and regaining his character. Thus far hia career had 
been that of many other emigrants, who had hoped for that 
competence in America, which the condition of their birth, or 
their misguided actions had rendered hopeless in the land of 
their fathers. But here the similarity in a great measure ends. 
Though disgraced by his youthful irregularities, he was not 
degraded; ardent in bis feelings and generous in his senti- 
ments, he was not reckless; necessarily restrained from higher 
indulgences, he did not, like multitudes, compensate himself in 
those baser gratifications within his reach; far away from the 
inspection or control of relatives, he did not give himself up to 
the habits and appetites that have carried so many emigrants 
to an early and unhonoured grave. 

Dr. Miller, in his Life of Rodgere, gives an interesting ac- 
count -of his conversion, during his residence in Hopewell, 
now Pennington, New Jersey. Riding late one night, while 
the moon and stars were shining with unusual lustre, he felt 
the first deep impression of heavenly things. Multitudes have 
said with the Psalmist, — " When I consider the heavens, the 
work of thy fingers, the moon and stars which tbou hast or- 
daiaed, what is man that thou art mindful of him, and the son 



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126 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

of man that thou visitest Kim." A¥hile admiring the beauty of 
the heavens, Mr. Bohinson said to himself — " How transcend- 
ently glorious must be the Author of all this beauty aild gran- 
deur!" With the suddenness of lightning the inquiry darted 
to his soul, — " but what do I know of this God? — have I ever 
sought hia favour ? — or made him my friend?" This impres- 
sion, liko a voice from heaven ringing in his ears, never left 
him till he found God reconciled to him in Christ Jesus. What 
he felt strongly, his ardent feelings forbid his concealing. 
Longing to make known the grace of that gospel in which he 
believed, he devoted himself to the service of God, in the 
Christian ministry. Being in the bounds of New Brunswick 
Presbytery he put himself under its care, April 1st, 1T40, and 
on 'the 27th of the following May, at Neshaminy, he was 
licensed to preach the gospel. On the 4th of August 1741, he 
was ordained at Hew Brunswick. The nest year he declined 
an invitation to be successor of the Bev. William Tennent at 
Neshaminy, and in November was sent as supply to the people 
of Nottingham, Maryland. 

His race as a preacher was short hut glorious: his vehement 
desires for the salvation of men consumed his body with the 
flames of love ; and the monuments of his usefulness excited the 
astonishment of even Davies, a burning spirit in an exciting ago. 

He was sent, as Evangelist, by the Presbytery of New Cas- 
tle, in the winter of 1742-3, in consequence of the earnest so- 
licitations of the people, to visit the Presbyterian settlements in 
the Valley of the Shenandoah, and on the south side of James 
Kiver, in Virginia; and the numerous settlements in North 
Carolina, on the Haw. On entering Virginia, he was seized 
near Winchester by the sheriff of Orange county, which then 
extended to the north branch of the Potomac, and was sent on 
his way to Williamsburg to answer to the Governor for preach- 
ing without license. Before he had proceeded far the sheriff 
released him to pursue his mission. He passed the winter in 
Carolina, and from the exposnres to which his zeal subjected 
him, he contracted a disease from which he never recovered. 
On his return he preached with great success to the Pres- 
byterian settlements in Charlotte, Prince Edward, Campbell 
and Albemarle. Here he was waited upon by a deputation that 
persuaded him to change his contemplated route to the head of 
the Shenandoah Valley, and turn back to the people of Hano- 
ver. He had proceeded as far as Rockfish Gap before he 
turned his coarse. 

The messengers that waited on him were instructed to hear 
him preach, before they invited him to visit their county, and 
not to give him an invitation unless they thought hia doctrines 
agreed with their views of rehgious truth. Mr. Hunt says — 



"•— gl^ 



REV. WILLIAM ROBINSON. 227 

"already"— that is, previous to Mr. Robinson's arnval— "dif- 
ference of opinion had arisen which tlireatened the most serious 
evils, _ Some of their number, carrying some of the peculiar 
and distinguishing doctrines of the gospel to a licentious ex- 
treme, began to deny, not only the merit of good works, but 
their necessity — not only the efficacy of means, but their expe- 
diency, so that it was made a serious question among them, 
■whether it was right to pray, as prayer could not, as it would 
be impious to desire it shoald, alter the divine purposes." 
When tho delegates heard Mr. Robinson they were divided in 
opinion respecting his doctrines. "One," says Mr. Hunt, 
"thought that he was entirely evangelical: the other thought 
he dwelt too much on the necessity of works, and urged too 
strongly the use of means; and was afraid that thereby he at 
least clouded the doctrines of grace, and threw a veil over the 
glories of divine sovereignty in the salvation of man. But it 
was determined they should give him a cordial invitation in the 
name of the congregations." He at first declined; hut their 
cordial and earnest invitation led him to think the call was from 
God, and after some deliberations in secret, he made arrange- 
ments for a visit to Hanover, 

On the day appointed, Mr. Robinson, after a fatigueing 
journey, protracted through most of tho night preceding, in 
order to prevent a disappointment, arrived, and found a large 
crowd assembled. Saya Mr. Hunt~"their Reading House 
waa soon- filled to ovcrfiowing. But a venerable spreading 
oak embowered with the surrounding shades, gave him and 
the people shelter." Mr. Morris and friends proceeded im- 
mediately on Mr. Robinson's arrival to have an interview 
with him in private. In this they inquired of him his de- 
nomination, his doctrinal and practical views of religion, and 
his method of procedure. He produced his testimonials which 
were full and satisfactory as it regarded his ministerial stand- 
ing; and gave them his creed and views of practical religion. 
"Being satisfied" — says Mr. Morris, — "about the soundness of 
his principles, and being informed that the method of his preach- 
ing was awakening, we were very eager to hear him." In none 
of the few particulars that are left us, of the proceedings of 
Mr, Robinson, does he show himself so worthy of his office as 
Evangelist, as in this interview. The knowledge of human 
nature, of the principles of the gospel, and the practical opera- 
tions of grace in the heart, producing meekness and candour, — 
the giving an answer about his creed to those he came to instruct, 
and a reason of the hope that was in him to these people that 
did not know what they were themselves, — these things exhi- 
bited in this interview, show him to have been a man gifted 
from on high to be a teacher of babes and an instructor of wise 



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128 SKETCHES OF VIEGINia. 

men. It ia doligbtful to soe in this first preacher, that frank- 
ness and candour about doctrines and practice and designs in 
religion, that haa so long characterized the ministry that have 
followed him in succession. May it ever be their glory, that 
no man that hears them often need ask, — and no stranger may 
inquire but once — what are their doctrinal views. 

On Sabbath, July 6th, 1743, the first sermon from a Presby- 
terian minister, was heard in Hanover county, Virginia. The 
text was Luke xiii. 3, — " I tell you, nay : but except ye repent 
ye gkall all likewise perish." What a subject for a warm- 
hearted preacher to pour into the ears and hearts of an excited 
people, assembled, for the first time, to hear an evangelical 
minister proclaim the solemn truths of the gospel. "He con- 
tinued" — says Mr. Morris — "with us preaching, four days suc- 
cessively. The congregation was large the first day, and vastly 
increased the three ensuing. 'Tis hard for the liveliest imagi- 
nation to form an image of the condition of the assembly on 
these glorious days of the Son of Man. Such of us as had been 
hungering for the word before, were lost in agreeable surprise 
and astonishment, and some could not refrain from publicly 
declaring their transports. We were overwhelmed with the 
thoughts of the unexpected goodness of God in allowing us to 
hear the gospel preached in a manner that surpassed our hopes. 
Many, that came through curiosity, were pricked to their heart ; 
and but few of the numerous assembly on these four days ap- 
peared unaffected. They returned alarmed with apprehensions 
of their dangerous condition, convinced of their former entire 
ignorance of religion, and anxiously inquiring what they should 
do to be saved. And there is reason to believe, there was as 
much good done by these four sermons, as hj all the sermons 
preached in these parts before or since." This statement was 
made in the year 1750; by "as much good," the writer pro- 
bably means, as many souls hopefully converted. "Before Mr. 
Kobinson left us," — continues Mr. Morris — "he successfully 
endeavoured to correct some of our mistakes; and to bring us 
to carry on the worship of God more regularly at our meetings. 
After this we met to read good sermons, and began and con- 
cluded with prayer and signing of psalms,, which till then we 
had omitted." What these mistakes were, has been stated, and 
they were such as experienced men would expect to find in a 
community where religious knowledge and experience were 
novelties ; mistakes, of which the proud are tenacious, and from 
which the humble are speedily delivered by faithful teaching. 

After spending four days in preaching publicly, and instruct- 
ing and counselling privately, Mr. Robinson was constrained 
to depart; his previous appointments called him on, and it was 
rumoured that the officers of the law were preparing to arrest 



KEY. WILLIAM ROBINSON. 129 

Ilim as an itinerant. The people, in part to remunerate him for 
fatiguing rides and incessant labours, hut mostly, aa an exprea- 
sion of gratitude, raised a coosiderahle sum of money, and pre- 
sented it to him. This, for various reasons, he refused. They 
pressed the matter : he, believing it to be injudicious to take any 
thing from them in the present condition of things, perseveringly 
refused, 

"In this dilemma" — says Mr. Hunt — "the committee en- 
trusted with it put it into the hands of the gentleman, with whom 
ho was to lodge the last night of his stay in the county, with 
directions to convey it privately into his saddle bags, not doubt- 
ing, but when, after his departure, he should find himself in 
possession of the money, he would appropriate it to his own use. 
This was accordingly done. And in the morning, Mr. Robin- 
son having taken an affectionate leave of his kind friends, his 
saddle bags were handed to him, but he found them much more 
ponderous than when ho came there. Searching for the cause, 
like Joseph's brethren of old, ho found the money in the sack's 
mouth. Pleased with the benevolent artifice, he smiling said — 
' I see you are resolved I shail have your money ; I will take it ; 
but as I have told you before, I do not need it; I have enough, 
nor will I appropriate it to my own use; but there is a young 
man of my acquaintance of promising talents and piety, who is 
now studying with a view to the ministry, hut his circumstances 
are embarrassing, he has not funds to support and carry him on 
without much difSculty ; this money will relieve him from his 
pecuniary difEculties : I will take charge of it and appropriate 
it to his use ; and as soon as he ia licensed we will aend him to 
visit you; it may be, that you may now, by your liberality, be 
educating a minister for yourselves. This money was appro- 
priated by Mr. Robinson to the education of Samuel Davies. 
His promise was kept; he did not live to see the reality of bis 
anticipation ; he died in 1746, and Davies came to Virginia 
in 1747. 

"This is the reason" — said a pious old lady to Dr. Rice — 
"that Mr. Davies came to Hanover; for he often used to say 
that he was inclined to settle in another place ; but that he felt 
under obligations to the people of Hanover," On these facts 
the Editor of the Literary and Evangelical Magazine, the Rev. 
John H. Rice, D.D., remarked — "As far as we can learn this 
is the first money that ever was contributed, in Virginia, for the 
education of poor and pious youth for the ministry of the 
gospel. And really it turned out so well we wonder the people 
have not done much more in the same way." 

Thus ends Mr. Robinson's personal labours in Virginia. One 
short visit to a number of congregations ; to a few, two visits, 
in the same excursion; and he passes from the sight of these 
17 



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I^Q SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA, 

people forever. But hia footsteps were impressed upon a rock. 
In Prince Edward, Charlotte, Campbell, and Hanover, the 
fruits of his labours have been visible for more than a fienturj. 
Ho planted, others watered, God gave the increase. In Caro- 
lina, Mr. Daviea says Mr. Robinson — "underwent great hard- 
ship without much success. But the ease is now happily al- 
tered. A new congregation, I think upon the Pedee river, sent 
a. petition lately to our Presbytery for a minister. Besides this 
I hear of several other places in North Carolina that are ripen- 
ing fast for the gospel. that God would send forth faithful 
labourers into bis harvest." There is no tradition or record, in 
Carolina, of the visit of this man, yet we can scarcely believe 
that his fervent preaching, so effective elsewhere, was lost there. 
In the great day it will be seen where the seed was sown. Some 
one sowed seed there that has been as fruitful in its harvest, as 
the seed sown in Virginia by this favoured man." 

Mr. Robinson's health declined, after this southern visit ; but 
his bow abode in strength, and many arrows from the quiver of 
the Almighty were shot from his withering hands, into the 
hearts of the King's enemies. The accounts we have of him, 
from this visit, until his death, given by Mr. Davies, and Mr. 
Blair, who preached his funeral sermon, and Dr. Miller, in hia 
Life of Rodgers, represent him as hasting with Apostolic speed, 
lighting up the horizon with his torch of fire, and expiring in 
midheaven. Mr. Davies says — "In Maryland also there has 
been a considerable revival (shall I call it?) — or first plantation 
of religion — in Baltimore county, where I am informed Mr. 
Whittlesey is likely to settle. In Kent county, and in Queen 
Anne's, a number of careless sinners have been awakened and 
hopefully brought to Christ. The work was begun and mostly 
carried on by the instrumentality of that favoured man Mr. 
Robinson, whose success, whenever I reflect upon it, astonishes 
me. Oh ! he did much in a little time ; and who would not 
choose such an expeditious pilgrimage through this world. 
There are in these places a considerable congregation, and they 
have made repeated efforts to obtain a settled minister. But 
the most glorious display of Divine grace, in Maryland, has 
been in and about Somerset county. It began, I think in 1745, 
by the ministry of Mr. Robinson, and was afterwards carried 
on by several ministers that preached transiently there. Iwas 
there about two months, when the work was at its height, and I 
never saw such a deep and spreading concern. The assemblies 
were numerous, though ia the extremity of a cold winter, and 
unwearied in attending the word. And froquently there were 
very few among them that did not give some indications of dis- 
tress or joy. Oh ! these were the happiest days that ever my 
eyes saw. Since that, the harvest seems over there, though 



REV. WILLIAM ROBINSON. 131 

consiJerable gleanings, I hear, are still gathered. They have, 
of late, got Mr. Henry for their minister, a young man who I 
trust will be an " extensive blessing to that part of the colony. 
There was also a great stir about religion iti Buckingham, a, 
place on the sea shore, which has sineo spread and issued in a 
hopeful conversion in several instances. They also want- a 
minister." These latter named places were the scenes of the 
labours of that Apostolic missionary, Francis Makemie. Buck- 
ingham, Qow called Berlin, the county seat of Worcester county, 
Lad for a time the labours of one of the Tennents. 

Dr. Hill relates an interesting anecdote of Mr. Robinson 
while in Virginia. On the night before he was to preach in 
Hanover for the first time, Mr. Robinson rode late to reach a 
tavern vrlthin some eight or ten miles of the place of preach- 
ing. — " The tavern keeper was a shrewd, boisterous, profane 
man. When uttering some horrid oaths, Mr. Robinson ven- 
tured to reprove him for his profanity ; and although it was 
done in a mild way, the innkeeper gave him a sarcastic lool:, 
and said — ' Pray, Sir, who are you, to take such authority 
upon yourself?' ' I am a minister of the gospel,' says Mr, Ro- 
binson. ' Then you belie your looks very much,' was the reply. 
It is said Mr. Robinson had had the small pox very seriously, 
which had given him a very rough visage, and deprived of the 
sight of one of his eyes. It was with reference to his forbid- 
ding appearance, that the innkeeper seemed to question his 
ministerial character. 'But' — says Mr. Robinson — 'if you 
wish certainly to know whether I am a minister or not, if you 
will accompany me, you may be convinced by hearing me 
preach.' 'I will,' says the innkeeper, 'if you will preach from 
a text which I shall give you.' 'Let me hear it,' says Mr. Ro- 
binson, ' and if there is nothing unsuitable in it, I will.' The 
waggish innkeeper gave him the passage from the Psalms — 
'For I am fearfully and wonderfully made.' Mr. Robinson 
agreed that it should be one of his texts. The man was at 
Mr. Robinson's meeting, and that text was the theme of one of 
his sermons. Before it was finished, the wicked man was made 
to feel that be was the monster, and that he was fearfully and 
wonderfully made. It is said he became a very pious and use- 
ful member of the church ; and it is thought Mr. Davies alludes 
to this instance when he says, ' I have been the joyful witness 
of the happy eiFects of those four sermons upon sundry thought- 
(less impenitents and sundry abandoned profligates, who have 
ever since given good evidence of a thorongh conversion from 
sin to holiness.' Thus this good man cast the gospel net and 
caught of every sort, gathering whom his Lord called." 

On the 19th of March 1746, he was dismissed from the 
Presbytery of New Brunswick to the Presbytery of New Oas- 



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jg2 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

tie, to tecome the psator of the congregation of St. George's 
in Delaware, Thia church and congregation had been gathered 
in a revival under the preaching of Mr. Whitefield and Mr. Ro- 
binson ; the latter was its first minister and about to bo their 
permanent paator. But in April following his course on earth 
^-as finished. His funeral sermon was preached on the 3d of 
Angust of the same year, by Mr. Samuel Blair. He was a 
martyr to the labours he voluntarily endured for the cause of 
Christ ; having never had his health after his tour through 
Virginia and North Carolina. In pecuniary matters he was 
charitable almost to a fault. Feeling deeply for the misery of 
his race, he was unsparing of his property, or strength, or life, 
in the deliverance of men from the wrath to come. 

He bequeathed his library to the Rev. Samuel Davies, his 
protege and fellow labourer. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

MIKISTEES VISITING HANOVER AFTBlt MR. ROBINSON, AND 
PREVIOUS TO MR. SAMUEL DAVIES. 

The desire of the people of Hanover to hear the Gospel, as 
preached by Mr. Robinson, did not depart with that able Evan- 
gelist. His words continued to ring in their ears, and agitate 
their hearts. The efforts to compel a conformity to the estab- 
lished church, while its ministers preached in a manner so little 
accomodated to their necessities, only made these people long 
for freedom of conscience — and for a living ministry, whose 
doctrines, enforced by their godly lives, might be for their puri- 
fication and life. The voice of all mankind demands that the 
priesthood shall be an example of the moral nature of their 
God. 

The first minister that visited these people after Mr. Robin- 
son, was Mr. John Blair, educated in the famous school of his 
brother Samuel Blair, at New Londonderry, in Faggs Manor, he 
was for a time a Settled pastor in Cumberland County, Penn- 
Bylvania. Ho then succeeded his brother in Fagga Manor ; and 
afterwards was Vice President of _Nassau Hall, and Professor 
of Theology in that institution. Ho ended his- days December 
8th, 1771, at Wallkill, New York. An amiable man, he was well 
qualified for his various stations in life. Going from that ex- 
tensive revival, that agitated, and refreshed, parts of Pennsyl- 
vania, New Jersey, New York and New England, to visit a 



"•— 8'^ 



OTHER MINISTERS VISITING HANOVER. X33 

people awatened by their own reflections, and reading religious 
books, and excited by the preacbing of that ardent man, Mr. 
Robinson, his preaching was imposing and tbe effects encour- 
aging, Mr. Morris, in the statement to Mr. Davies, says, 
" truly ho came to us in the fulness of the Gospel of Christ. 
Former impressions were ripened and now ones made on many 
hearts. One night in particular, a whole housefdl of people 
was quite overcome with the power of the word, particularly of 
one pungent sentence ; and they would hardly sit or stand or 
keep their passions under any proper restraints. So general 
was the concern, during his stay with us, and so ignorant were 
we of the danger of apostasy, that we pleased ourselves with 
the thoughts of more being brought to Christ at that time, than 
now appear to have been, though there is still the greatest 
reason to hope that several bound themselves to the Lord in an 
everlasting covenant never to be forgotten." 

The alarm caused in Hanover by the short visit of Mr, Robin- 
son waa greatly increased by the preaching of Mr. Blair, whose 
amiable deportment, genteel manners, and classical language, 
united with gravity of manners forbid the idea of attaching either 
vulgarity or disorder to the religion he professed and taught. 
No violence or insult was offered him during his short stay. His 
hearers, agitated beyond control, poured forth tears and sighs, 
and often broke out into loud crying. At the time it was im- 
possible to tell how much this expression of feeling was from 
deep sympathy, and how much from the movings of the Hoiy 
Spirit, 

Opposers were roused to anxious inquiry what they would do 
to arrest the propagation of these strange riews and feelings on 
religious things. Absences from the parish charch were more 
strictly observed, and the law was invoked to prevent apostasy 
from the ceremonies of the Church of England, Before his 
return to Pennsylvania, Mr. Blair visited the neighbourhoods 
in the Valley that favoured the Synod of New York, or the 
New Side, as it was called. North Mountain, which included 
Bethel and Hebron, the Pastures, New Providence, Timber 
Kidge, Forks of James or Monmouth, and Opeckon ; and it 
is supposed also the Presbyterian neighbourhooods on Cub Creek 
and Buffaloe, and Hat Creek. 

Some time after Mr. Blair's return to Pennsylvania, the Pres- 
bytery of Newcastle, the nearest Presbytery of the Synod of 
New York, sent Rev. John Koan to pay the people in Virginia 
a visit. A preacher of eminence, he had established a grammar 
school on the Neshaminy a few miles from Philadelphia. Rev. 
Br. Rodgers was for some time a pupil of his. Mr. Roan re- 
mained in Virginia part of tho winter of 1744 and 5, and 
preached with great effect not only in Hanover, but the neigh- 



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134 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

bouring countieB. " He contiDued with us" — sajs Mr. Morris — 
" longer than any of the former, and the happy effects of hia 
ministrations are still apparent. He was instrumentitl in he- 
ginning and promoting the religious concern in several places 
■ where there was little appearance of it before. This together 
with his speaking pretty freely about the degeneracy of the 
clergy in this colony, gave a general alarm, and some measures 
were concerted to suppress us." Mr. Eoan had the warmth and 
deep earnestness of Robinson and Blair, with leas prudence and 
caution ; with the activity of Davies, he had less skill in manag- 
ing an excited multitude. He spoke freely of the parish minis- 
ters, publicly and privately, inveighed against their delinquency 
in morals, and their public ministrations ; and turned the ridi- 
cule and scorn of his hearers against the teachers appointed and 
supported hj law. The parish clergy and their friends were 
excited. Unable to refute the allegations, they appealed to the 
strong arm of the law to protect their privileges, and restrain 
both the speech and actions of their adversaries. 

That there was cause for complaint against the parish min- 
isters in Virginia, in 1744, is unquestionably true ; and it is 
equally true that Mr. Roan exposed their delinquency. How far 
be indulged in the denunciatory spirit that prevailed in Penn- 
sylvania and New Jersey, at that time, and was the ostensible 
cause of dividing the Church, cannot now be determined. But 
the excitement was great. And now commenced in earnest a 
discussion about the rights of citizens in matters of religion, — 
how far conscience was free, — and how far the law of the land, 
that had slumbered, in Virginia, since the daysof Makemie,had 
become a dead letter. 

The multitude crowded to hear Roan, some from curiosity, 
and some from feeling. Opposition was expressed in reproach- 
es, sneers, ridicule, and threats. The preacher's spirit took 
fire, and his invectives were not measured. He saw evidence 
of the power of God in melting the hearts of sinners to the 
obedience of the gospel. Converts multiplied, and the violence 
of opposition increased. Report after report went down to 
"VVilliamshurg that Roan was turning the world upside down. 
Neighbourhood after neighbourhood was calling upon this fiery 
preacher to declare to them the everlasting gospel. Opposers 
were consulting how they might effectually silence him. Mul- 
titudes were responding a hearty amen to his earnest appeals. 
In this state of things charges were made against him of blas- 
phemous words and slanderous speeches. " A perfidious 
wretch" — says Morris — " deposed he heard Mr. Roan utter 
blasphemous expressions in his sermons." 

Governor Gooch had promised protection to the Presbyte- 
rian colonies. He was not forgetful of that promise which had 



"•— 8'^ 



OTHER MINISTERS VISITING HANOVER. J35 

filled the frontier counties with enterprising men that formed a 
line of defence against the savages. But reports reached him 
from Hanover and James City, which were not frontier coun- 
ties, and which contained no Presbyterian colony, such as 
might have been found in Lunenburg, Charlotte, Prince Ed- 
ward, Appomattox, Cumberland, Campbell, Nelson, Albemarle, 
Rockbridge, Botetourt, Augusta, I'rederick, Jefferson, and 
Berkeley. Charges of proseljtisra and blasphemy followed 
these reports, and roused the mild and tolerant Gooch to in- 
quire into the cause of this excitement and disturbance. Re- 
port upon report, charge upon charge, exasperated his excited 
spirit. Witnesses were named, and express words were set 
down. The Governor took up the matter with vehemence, as 
will appear from the following extracts from the records of 
the General Court, preserved in the capitol in Richmond city. 

The General Court, consisting of the Governor and Council, 
commenced their regular sessions April 15th 1745. " Present, 
Wiliiam Gooch Lieutenant Governor, John Robinson, John 
Grymes, John Custis, Philip Lightfoot, Thomas Lee, Lewis 
Burwell, William Fairfax." The grand jury did not appear 
till the fourth day, Thursday April 18th. They were—" Wil- 
liam Beverly, gent, foreman,— Benjamin Cocke, Richard Bland, 
James Skelton, Richard Corbin, Mann Page, Francis Ness, 
Daniel Hornby, George Douglass, Tarlton Fleming, Richard 
Bernard, Ralph Wormley, William Nelson, Edmund Berkley, 
Nathaniel Harrison, John Ravenscroft, James Littlepage, Ni- 
cholas Davies, Charles Ewell, Richard Ambler, Carter Burwell, 
and John Hanner." The Governor delivered them the follow- 
ing charge, which does not appear on the records of the Court, 
but is copied from Burke, voL 3d, p. 119 and onward, who 
copied it from a Williamsburg paper — " Williamsburg, April. 
25th. Thursday last being the fourth day of General Court, 
his Honour the Governor was pleased to deliver the following 
charge to the gentlemen of the grand jury ; which they after- 
wards requested his Honour to permit to be published — 

" G-entlemen of the Grand Jury, Without taking notice of 
the ordinary matters and things, you are called to attend, and 
sworn to make inquisition for, I must on this occasion turn to 
your thoughts and recommend to your present service another 
subject of importance, which I thank God has been unusual, 
but, I hope, will be most effectual, I mean the information I 
have received of certain false teachers that are lately crept into 
this government ; who, without order or license, or producing 
any testimonial of their education or sect, professing themselves 
ministers under the pretended influence of new light, extraordi- 
nary impulse, and such hke satirical (Satanical, qu.?) and enthu- 
siastical knowledge, lead the innocent and ignorant people into 



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J36 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

all kinds of delusion ; and in this frantic and prophane disguise, 
though such is their heterodoxy that they treat all other modes of 
worship with the utmost scorn and contempt, yet as if they had 
bound themselves on oath to do many things against the reli- 
gion of the blessed Jesus, that pillar and stay of the truth and 
reformed church, to the great dishonor of Almighty God, and 
the discomfort of serious Christians, they endeavour to make 
their followers believe that salvation is not to be obtained 
{except, qu.?) in their communion. 

" As this denunciation, if I am rightly advised, in words not 
decent to repeat, has been by one of them publicly affirmed, 
and shows what manner of spirit they all of them are of in a 
country hitherto remarkable for uniformity in worship, and 
where the saving truths of the gospel are constantly inculcated, 
I did promise myself, either that their preaching would be in 
vain, or that an insolence so criminal would not long be con- 
nived at. 

" And therefore, gentlemen, since the workers of a deceitful 
work, blaspheming our sacraments, and reviling our excellent 
liturgy, are said to draw disciples after them, and we know 
not whereunto this separation may grow, but may easily foretel 
into what a distracted condition, by long forbearance, this 
colony will be reduced, we are called upon by the rights of 
society, and what, I am persuaded will be with you as prevail- 
ing an inducement, by the principles of Christianity, to put an 
immediate stop to the devices and intrigues of these associated 
scismatics, who having, no doubt, assumed to themselves the 
apostacy of our weak brethren, we may be assured that there 
is not any thing so absurd but what they will assert and accom- 
modate to their favourite theme, railing against our refigious 
establishment; for which in any other country, the British do- 
minions only excepted, they would be very severely handled. 

" However, not meaning to inflame your resentment, as we 
may without breach of charity pronounce, that 'tis not liberty 
of conscience, but freedom of speech, they so earnestly prose- 
cute ; and we are very sure that they have no manner of pre- 
tence to any shelter under the acts of toleration, because, 
admitting they have had regular ordination, they are by those 
acts obliged, nor can they be ignorant of it, not only to take 
the oaths, and with the test to subscribe, after a deliberate 
reading of them, some of the articles of our religion, before 
they presume to ofSciate. But that in this indulgent grant, 
though not expressed, a covenant is intended, whereby they 
engage to preserve the character of conscientious men, and not 
to use their liberty for a cloak of maliciousness, — to that I say, 
allowing their ordination, yet as they have not, by submitting 
to those essential points, qualified themselves to gather a con- 



"•— rfl^ 



REV, JOHN ROAN. 1^1 



gregatioD, or if tliey iiaii, in speaking aU manner of evil against 
us, have forfeited tiie privilege due to Bueli compliance ; inso-, 
much, that they are entirely without excuse, and their reli- 
gious professions are very justly suspected to be the result of 
Jesuitical policy, which also is an iniquity to be punished by 
the judges. 

" I must, as in duty bound to God and man, charge you in 
tho moat solemn manner, to make strict enquiry after those 
seducers, and if they, or any of tbem, are still in this govern- 
ment, by presentment or indictment to report them to the 
court, that we, who are in authority under the Defender of our 
faith, and the appointed guardians to our constitution and 
state, exercising our power in this respect for the protection of 
the people committed to our care, may show our zeal in the 
maintenance of the true religion ; not as the manner of some 
is, by violent oppression, but in putting to silence by such 
method as our law diroets, the calumnies and invectives of 
these bold accusers, and in dispelling as we are devoutly dis- 
posed, so dreadful and dangerous a combination. 

" In short, gentlemen, we should deviate from the pious 
path we profess to tread in, and should be unjust to God, to 
our king, to our country, to ourselves and to our posterity, not 
to take cognizance of so great a wickedness, whereby the grace 
of oiir Lord Jesus Christ is. turned into lasciviousness." 

In this charge the Governor admits the existence of the Act 
of Toleration, and its applicability to the colony of Virginia, 
and urges that the preachers visiting in Hanover and the sur- 
rounding counties, were liable to the rigour of the law, because 
they had not taken license according to tho provisions of the 
statute. 

The next day the Grand Jury brought in various presentments, 
of which the following is the record on the files of the General 
Court : " April 19th, 1745. The Grand Jury appeared ac- 
cording to tlieir adjournment, and were sent out of court, and 
after some time returned, and presented Daniel AUen and Ran- 
dal Richardson, and John Evans for assault and battery, — true 
bill. They also made several presentments, not drawn into 
form, in the words following, — to wit, — We, the Grand Jury, 
on information of James Axford, do present John Roan for re- 
flecting upon and vilifying the Established Religion, in divers 
sermons, which he preached at the house of Joshua Morris, in 
'the parish and county of James City, on the 7th, 8th, and 9th 
of January last, before a numerous audience, in the words fol- 
lowing, to wit, — ' At ehurch yoiipray to the Devil' — and ' That 
your good works damn you, and carry you to hell,' — ' That all 
your ministers preach false doctrine, and that they, and allwha 
follow them, are going to hell,' — and ' The church is the house 
18 



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138 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA.. 

of the Devil, — that when your niinieters receive their orders they 
swear that it is the spirit of God that moves them to it, but it is 
the spirit of the Devil, and no good can proceed out hf their 
mouth.' 

" On the information of Benjamin Cocke, yte present Thomas 
Watkins, the son of Edward Watkins, of the parish and county 
of Henrico, for reflecting on the Established Religion, on the 
12th of this instant, by saying, — " your churches and chappels 
are no better than the synagogues of Satan." 

" We present Joshua Morris, of the parish and county of 
James city, for permitting John Roan, the aforementioned 
preacher, and very many people, to assemble in an unlawful 
manner at his house, on the 7th, 8th, and 9th of January Jast 
past." 

Mr. Roan returned to Pennsylvania, before the meeting of 
the court, at which this charge had been given. We have no re- 
cord of his visiting the Presbyterian colonies along the frontiers. 
The probability is, however, that he did not neglect them. He 
never afterwards visited Virginia. He lies buried at Derry 
Meeting house, near Dixon's ford, on the Swatara, in Dauphin 
county, Pennsylvania. 

Beneath this stone 

Are deposited the remains 

Of an able, faithful, 

Courageous and spccessrul minister of Jesus Christ 

John Roan, 

Pastor of the United Congregations of Paxton, Derry, 

and Mountjoy, 

From 1745, to October 3d, 1775, 

Aged 59. 

The Synod held its sessions in Philadelphia; and in their 
sessions on Monday, May 27th, 1745— "A letter from a gen- 
tleman in Virginia, with a printed charge given by the Gov- 
ernor of that colony, to the grand jury, was laid before the 
Synod ; by which it appears that the government of that colony 
is highly provoked by the condaet of some of the new party 
who preached there, and therefore the Synod judge it neces- 
sary to send an address to that Governor, informing him of the 
distinction between this Synod and that separated party, that 
so their conduct may not be imputed to ns, nor provoke that 
government to deny us the liberties and favours we have 
enjoyed under it. Therefore, the Synod appoints Messrs. 
Cross, Thomson, Alison, and Griffith, to be a committee to 
draw up said address against the next sederunt." The next 
morning — " the address to the Governor of Virginia was 
brought in and approved, and is as follows ; — " To the Ilonoura- 



I vCoo^lc 



ADDRESS TO THE GOVERNOR. 139 

ble William Gooch, Esq., Lieutenant Grovernor of tlie Colony 
of Virginia, &c. — The humble address, &c. — 

"May it please your honour; The favourable acceptance 
which your Honour was pleased to give our former address, 
and the countenance and protection which those of our persua- 
Bion have met with in Virginia, fills us with gratitude, and we 
beg leave on this occasion ia all sincerity to express the same. 
It very deeply affects us to find that any who go from these 
parts, and perhaps assume the name of Presbyterians, shoold be 
guilty of such practices, such uncharitable, unchristian expres- 
sions, as are taken notice of in your honour's charge to the 
grand jury. And in the meantime it gives us the greatest plea- 
sure that we can assure your honour, these persons never be- 
longed to our body, but are missionaries, sent out by some, who, 
by reason of their divisive and uncharitable doctrines, and prac- 
tices, were in May, 1741, excluded from oar synod, upon which 
they erected themselves into a separate society, and have indus- 
triously sent abroad persons whom we judge ill-qualified for the 
character they assume, to divide and trouble the churches. And 
therefore, we humbly pray, that while those who belong to U3 
and produce proper testimonials, behave themselves suitably, 
they may still enjoy the favour of your honour's countenance, 
and protection. And praying for the divine blessing on your 
person and government, we beg leave to subscribe ourselves, 
" Your honour's, kc, 

Robert Catucart, Moderator." 

To this the Governor replied. The letter is preserved in the 
records of Synod of Philadelphia for 1746. "Gentlemen: — 
The address you were pleased to send me as a grateful ac- 
knowledgment for the favour which teachers of your persua- 
sion met with in Virginia, was very acceptable to me, but 
altogether needless to a person in my station, because it is 
what by law they are entitled to." 

"And in answer to your present address, intended to justify 
yourselves and members from being concerned in a late outrage 
committed against the purity of our worship, and the sound 
appointment of pastors for the services of the altar of the estab- 
lished church, which some men calling themselves ministers, 
were justly accused of in my charge to the grand jury, you 
must suffer me to say, that it very nearly afi'ects me, because it 
seems to insinuate as if I was so uncharitable as to suspect men 
of your education and profession could be guilty of unchristian 
expressions, that can only tend to the increase of schism and 
irreligion, whichi give you my word was far from my thoughts." 

"As the wicked and destructive doctrines and practices of 
itinerant preachers ought to be opposed and suppressed by all 



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140 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

who have concern for religion, and just regard to public peaco 
and order in Church and State, so your missionaries producing 
proper testimonials, complying with the laws, and performing 
divine service in some certain place appropriated for that pur- 
pose, without disturbing the quiet and unity of our sacred and 
civil establishments, may be sure of the protection of, 

Reverend airs, your most humble servant, 

William Uooch, 

WilUamsburg, Juno SOth, 1845." 

The principal interest of these two letters rests upon the ad- 
mission, by the Synod of Philadelphia, — that their members had 
no fellowship with the awatening in Virginia, — and the implied 
assertion, that they had members of their body in Virginia who 
had enjoyed the advantage of the Toleration Act of William 
and Mary: and on the Governor's part — the admission that 
dissenters from the Church of England were by law entitled to 
protection in their worship,— and that they should have it, in 
the colony, if not disturbers of thepublic peace. Consequently 
from Makemie's time there was no contention whether dissenters 
could, or should be, tolerated in Virginia ; but what kind of 
toleration they should experience, or rather to what degree, 
they should be tolerated. The excitement that accompanied 
this "great awakening," made it necessary to follow the letter 
of the law, on the principles of sound interpretation. The 
rights of citizens and the laws of the land, were from this time 
profoundly studied and better understood. 

The people in Hanover, in their excitement and trouble, 
looked to the Presbyteries of New Castle and New Brunswick, 
which met under the title of — Conjunct Presbytery for counsel 
and aid. In the month of May 1745, the month next ensuing 
the term of the indictment found against Mr. Roan, they sent 
four delegates, of whom Mr. Morris says he was one, to meet 
the brethren of the two Presbyteries that were then preparing 
to form a Synod, which by the Union of the New York Presby- 
tery was duly organized the next September, at Elizabethtown, 
New Jersey. Of this mission Mr. Morris saya — "the Lord 
favoured us with success. The Synod drew up an address to 
our Governor the Honourable Wm. Gooch, and sent it with 
Messrs. Tonnent and Einley, who were received by the Gov- 
ernor, with respect, and had liberty granted them of preaching 
amongst us." Mr. Morris speaks of jtbe Synod as formed ; ho 
is wi-iting some time after the event; it would have been more 
strictly correct, if he had said, the brethren that are now, or 
were soon formed into — the Synod of New York. The Synod 
at its first meeting, at Elizabethtown, in September 1745, upon 
considering the circumstances of the people in Virginia, "and 
the wide door that is opened for the preaching of the gospel in 



DEATH OP MR. ROBINSON, 14J 

tlieso parts, with a hopeful prospect of success, the Synod are 
unaniraously of the opinion, that Mr. Robinson ia the most 
suitable person to he sent among them, and accordingly they 
do earnestly recommend it to him to go down and help them as 
soon as his circumstances will permit him, and reside there for 
some months." No person more acceptable to the people could 
have been designated, or sent, to those, who looked, ivith joy, 
upon him as their spiritual father. But they saw his face no 
more ; his radiant course was coming to its close. The next 
meeting of the Synod of New York, took place, in the city of 
New York, October, 1T46. The death of Mr. Robinson ia 
made a matter of record, — and, — " a supplication and call for a 
minister from Hanover, in Virginia, was brought into Synod 
and read; the Synod doth earnestly recommend the assisting 
of said people, to the Presbyteries of New Brunswick and New 
Castle. From these Presbyteries they received their supplies 
till the Presbytery of Hanover was formed." 

Messrs. Gilbert, Tennent, and Samuel Finley, performed their 
missions, and were kindly received by the Governor, who gave 
them permission to preach in Hanover. " By this means," says 
Mr. Morris, " the dreadful cloud was scattered for a while, and 
our languid hopes revived. They continued with us about a. 
week, and though the deluge of passions, in which we wore at 
first overwhelmed, was by this time somewhat abated, yet 
much good was done by their ministry. The people of God were 
refreshed, and several careless sinners were awakened. Some 
that had trusted before in their moral conduct and religious 
duties, were convinced of the depravity of their nature, and the 
necessity of regeneration, though indeed there were but few 
ungenerate persons amongst us at that time, that could claim so 
regular a character, the most part indulging themselves in cri- 
minal liberties, and being remiss in the duties of religion, which, 
alas ! is too commonly the case, still, in such parts of the 
colony, as the late revival did not extend to. After they left us 
we continued vacant for a considerable time, and kept our meet- 
ings for reading and prayer in several places, and the Lord 
favoured us with his presence- 
Extracts from the Records of the General Court, held in 
Waiiamsburg, Oct. 19th, 1745. 
"Present — The Governor, 

John Robinson, Lewis Burwell, 

John Grymbs> William Fairfax, 

John Custis, John Blair, and 

Philip Lightpoot, William Nelson, Esqrs., and 

Thompson Lee, William Dawson, Clerk. 



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142 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

" Our Lord the King, — against 
" John Boan, Thomas Watkina, son of Ed-"^ if.^„ several in- 
■ffard Watkina, James Huhbard, Joshua I formationa Exhibit- 
Morris, Charles Rice, Isaac Winston, feda^inst them for 
Sen. and Samuel Morris, J niisdemeacourE, 

" The said defendants hy their attorneys respectively saythat 
they are not guilty in manner and form as in the said informa- 
tion against them alleged and of this they severaliy put them- 
selves upon the country — and the Attorney General of our Lord 
the King, likewise." The person first named in the preceding 
record, was the Rev. John Koan — the last mentioned, was Mr. 
Morris, the reader to the people, from whom the Reading House 
took its name, and from whose narrative frequent quotations 
have been made : the others were persons, at whose houses Mr. 
Roan had preached, or were implicated in the excitement. Mr. 
Roan'a name does not appear after this date. Mr, Morria aaya, 
"Sis witnesses were cited to prove the charge against Mr. 
Eoan, but their depositions were in hie favour ; and the witness 
who accused him of blasphemy, when he heard of the arrival of 
Messrs. Tennent and Finley, fled, and has not returned since, 
80 that the indictment was dropped." 

Mr. Samuel Finley, one of the delegation, was pastor of 
Nottingham, Cecil county, Maryland. Born of pious parents 
in the county of Armagh, Ireland, in the year 1715, he was 
deeply impressed with a sense of religion when he was six years 
old. Emigrating to America, he landed in Philadelphia, Sep- 
tember 28th, 1734. Having pursued his studies for the minis- 
try, through many difficulties, he was licensed by New Bruns- 
wick Presbytery August 5th, 1740. Having preached with 
great acceptance, he was ordained as Evangelist, October 13th, 
1742, and enjoyed much success in his labours at Dcerfield, 
Greenwich and Cape May, New Jersey. In June 1744 he 
went to Nottingham, where was a large congregation of his 
countrymen and their descendants. He was installed pastor 
the same year he visited Virginia. He opened an Academy in 
Nottingham, and attracted scholars from a great distance, 
being justly famed as a scholar, and eminently qualified as a 
teacher. In this institution, Eev. Dr. MeWhorter, Dr. Rush, 
Governor Henry of Maryland, Col. John Bayard, and a num- 
ber of other eminently useful characters, received their educa- 
tion. Upon the death of President Davies in 1761, Mr. Finley 
was chosen his successor. In his early ministry he was much 
engaged in the great revival; and during his presidency, in the 
year 1762, there was a great attention to religion among the 
students, nearly one half being hopefully converted. 

Mr. Finley was a man of small stature, round face, and 

™=— glc 



REV, GILBERT TENNENT, 143 

ruddy countenance. In the pulpit he was always solemn, and 
sometimes glowing with fervor. He possessed great knowledge 
of the human heart, and was remarkable for sweetness of tem- 
per, politeness and generosity. The University of Glasgow 
conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1763. 

At the request of some people in New Milford, Connecticut, 
who had seceded from the Congregational church on account 
of the Arminian doctrine of the minister, he was sent by Pres- 
bytery to preach to them a short time. Lieutenant Governor 
Law, who belonged to the opposing party, taking advantage of 
the strict laws then in force in Connecticut, ordered him to be 
arrested, and carried from constable to constable, and from 
one town to another, to the borders of the State, and there dis- 
missed. 

Going to Philadelphia for medical advice, he closed his most 
useful and exemplary life, on the 17th of July 1776, in a joy- 
ful and triumphant manner. His biography would form a 
choice volume of Christian experience. He was an example of 
enjoyment in the profession of gospel truth, and in spiritual 
exercises. 

The other minister appointed by the " Conjunct Presbytery," 
afterwards the Synod of New York, to visit Governor Gooch, 
was Gilbert Tennent, son of Rev. William Tennent, of "Log 
College" memory. Bom in Ireland, Feb. 5th, 1703, the eldest 
of four brothers that became Presbyterian ministers, he was 
hopefully converted at the age of fourteen, under the ministry 
of his father. Ilis education was completed at the " Log Col- 
lege." Licensed by New Castle Presbytery in the year 1725, 
he was the same year settled in New Brunswick. He was the 
chief instrument of the separation of the Synod in 1741, de- 
voutly believing that a separation was necessary for the pre- 
servation and advancement of religion. He expressed his 
opinions of his opponents with great vehemence, in his famous 
"Nottingham Sermon." In 1743 he became pastor of the 
church in Philadelphia, which was gathered chiefly from "thoso 
who were denominated the converts and followers of Mr. White- 
field." A bold, ardent, practical, and unusually impressive 
preacher, his labours in the great revival were productive of 
visible and lasting good. In 1753 he was chosen with Samuel 
Davies, to represent the College of New Jersey before the 
churches in England. The journal of Mr. Davies has been 
preserved and makes a part of this volume. Nothing has yet 
appeared from the pen of Mr. Tennent, in the diary or journal 
form, respecting that successful visit. As Mr. Tennent bad 
been a leading man in the division of the Synod, he was equally 
prominent in the reunion. In one he appeared a son of thun- 
der, and in the other a son of consolation. He continued in 



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144 EKETCHES OF VIRGINIA 



the ministry about forty years. In a sermon preached before 
the College, and published, by request, in 1757, he argues that 
the pollution of Adam's race can be accounted for only by the 
fact that Adam's sin was imputed to all his race. He never 
dissented from the orthodox construction of the Confession of 
Faith. 

"After these left us," — saya Mr, Morris— "we continued 
vacant for a considerable time, and kept our meetings for read- 
ing and prayer in several places. And the Lord favoured us 
lyith his presence. I was again prosecuted and repeatedly fined 
in court for absenting myself from church and keeping up 
unlawful meetings, as they were called. The next that were 
appointed to supply us were the Rev. Wilham Tennent and 
Samuel Blair. They administered the Lord's supper amongst 
us; and we have reason to remember it as the most glorious 
day of the Son of Man. The assembly was large, and the 
novelty of the manner of administration did peculiarly engage 
their attention. It appeared as one of the days of heaven to 
some of us; and we could hardly help wishing we could with 
Joshua have delayed the revolution of the heavens to pro- 
long it." 

AVilliam Tennent, hero mentioned, was the second son of 
William Tennent of the "Log College." In the course of his 
preparation for tho ministry he was taken ill and appeared to 
die. Saved from burial by the importunity of one who loved 
him with peculiar tenderness, he revived. All recollection of 
his former acquirements was gone. By degrees his mind was 
restored to its proper action, and he finished his preparation for 
the ministry. More than six feet high, of a spare thin visage, 
erect carriage, bright piercing eye, with a countenance grave 
and solemn, he was always cheerful, and won youth to seek his 
conversation. He carried through life a lively recollection of 
the scenes and things that occupied his mind during the days 
he lay as one dead; they wore a perpetual stimulus in his min- 
isterial work. He preached with indescribable power, in a 
manner peculiar to himself, and seldom failed to interest and 
impress his audience. Of scrupulous integrity, independent 
mind, and an uncommonly clear perception of human character, 
he was a noted peace maker. Living above the world, he fin- 
ished his course March 8th, 1777, having been pastor of Pree- 
hold, New Jersey, forty-two years. 

His associate, Samuel Blair, was famous in his day as an ad- 
mirable preacher, a superior teacher, and a good writer. Born 
in Ireland, June 14th, 1712, he was eariy removed to Monmouth, 
New Jersey; and completed his education at the " Log College" 
of William Tennent. He was licensed in 1733 by the Presby- 
tery of Philadelphia, which then covered New Jersey. The 



"•— rfl^ 



REV. MR. WHITEFIELD. I45 

next year he -was ordained pastor at Shrewsberry, hy tbc Pres- 
bytery of East Jersey, which had been set off from the Phila- 
delphia Presbytery. Five years after, the Presbytery of New 
Brunswick was formed and he was a member. In the fall of 
1739, by the advice of Presbytery, Mr. Blair removed to New 
Londonderry in Faggs Manor Chester county, Pennsylvania. 
The next year his congregation was visited with a powerful 
awakening, which spread to the neighbouring congregations, 
and ultimately reached Virginia under the preaching of Mr. 
Robinson, who found the soil prepared to his hand. Mr. Blair 
opened a school in which were educated some noted ministers 
of the Presbyterian Church — Alexander Gumming, settled in 
Boston, — John Kodgers, in New York, — John Blair Professor 
of Divinity at Nassau Hall, — Rev. James Pinley, Hugh 
Henry, and Samuel Davica whose name is dear to Virginia and 
Nassau Hall. The attachment of Davies to Mr. Blair may be 
seen in his Journal. The feelings of tenderness and sentiments 
of respect expressed on a visit to the dwelling of the widow are 
worthy of the pupil and his teacher. Dr. Green tells us, in his 
History of the College of New Jersey, that Mr. Davies, on his 
return from Britain, in reply to an inquiry respecting the pulpit . 
orators he had heard abroad, replied, — "that there was scarce 
one of them who exceeded, and most of them came far short of 
his old master, Mr. Blair, both as to the matter of their dis- 
courses, and the impression produced by their delivery. He 
died July 5th, 1751, at the early age of thirty-nine years and 
twenty-one days. His last sickness was brought on by a jour- 
ney to Nassau Hall to attend a meeting of the Trustees. He 
lay a long time in Philadelphia ; and fcehng his end approach- 
ing, he sent for the elders of his church, and two members 
from each quarter of his congregation, and gave them his dying 
council. This was preserved and printed by his brother-in-law 
the Rev. Robert Smith of Pequa. Dr. Finley says, — "strict 
holiness was his choice." 

These gentlemen, the Tennents and Finley and Elair, it is 
supposed visited the other Presbyterians in Virginia, as well as 
those in Hanover. Of this however we have no written docu- 
ment, or direct tradition further than — "Hat Creek in Camp- 
bell county was consecrated with the prayers of Gilbert Ten- 
nent." 

"After Mr. Tcnnent and Blair were gone" — says Mr. Mor- 
ris — "Mr. Whitcfield came and preached four or five days, 
which was the happy means of giving us further encourage- 
ment, and of engaging others to the Lord, especially amongst 
the church people, who received the gospel more readily from 
him than from ministers of the Presbyterian denomination. 
19 



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146 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

After his departure we were destitute of a minister, and fol- 
lowed our usual method of reading and prayer at our meetinga, 
till the Rev. Mr. Davies, our present pastor, was sent us" by the 
Prcshjtery to supply a few Sabbaths in the spring of 1747, 
■when our discouragements from Government were renewed and 
multiplied." 

The early Presbyterians in Virginia were enlightened by a 
galaxy of ministers, of which the church might glory in her beet 
days. In the height of the religious excitement, they were 
called, in derision, by the clergy of the established church, and 
others who opposed,— dissenters, — enthusiasts, — fanatics, — new 
lights, — hypocrites, — while they themselves gloried in the names 
of Christians — and Presbyterians. Davies in writing to the 
Bishop of London acknowledged himself one of those desig- 
nated by opposers — as " new lights;" but he shows that it was 
a misnomer. In Virginia the word "new light," in a little 
time, lost its opprobrium, and became among Presbyterians a 
technical phrase; but was never recognised as their proper 

The labours of these men, Robinson, Roan, the Blairs, and 
the Tennenta, laid the foundation on which Davies builded; 
and all united have had a controlling influence over Virginia 
Presbyterians in creed and practice, to this day. From the 
time of these men, the Virginia ministers and people have 
believed in awakenings, — in spiritual exercises in religion, — and 
the power of godliness in men's hearts and lives. Prom deep 
conviction they have been believers in the depravity of human 
nature, — ^the sovereignty of God, — original sin, — the divinity 
of Christ, — the influences of the Holy Spirit as a divine per- 
son, — and the absolute necessity of the new birth. Hoping for 
justification by the righteousness of Christ made theirs by faith, 
believing it would be safe to appear in it, in the judgment to 
come, ministers and people rejoiced in the unsearchable riches 
of Christ, through trials and difficulties that would make ordi- 
nary spirits tremble and quit the field. By the help of God 
they have left us a good report. 



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CHAPTER IX. 

VIRGISIA. IN 1743; COMMiSSAEY BLAIR; WILLIAM AND MART 
COLLEGE. 

At the death of Rev. James Elair, one of the greatest benefac- 
tors of Virginia, in the year 1743, the ecclesiastical and 
political condition of the colony had not ostensibly much 
changed, except by expansion. Looking back upon the pro- 
gress of things, we now see the colony was even then on the 
eve of changes and revolutions that went on with rapidly in- 
creasing force and extending influence till consummated in 
complete political and religious liberty, the liberty of choice 
and of law. 

The population had greatly increased, and was taking pos- 
session of the vallies beyond the Blue Ridge. The frontiers 
had been removed several days journey west of the head of 
tide water. Emigrations were flowing in, destined to have a 
greater influence on the State, than mere numbers, or wealth 
however increased. Virginia was esteemed loyal through all 
the changes and revolutions that shook the throne of England 
in the time of the Charleses, and the Jameses, and Cromwell, 
and the Prince of Orange, There was nothing to make her 
otherwise. She had a State religion with which the over- 
whelming majority were satisfied, and would probably have 
been forever had it been rightly administered. In her assembly 
she claimed and exercised alt the independence a colony in 
her condition desired. Too weak to stand alone, she clung to 
the throne of England by which she had not felt herself 
oppressed. In the collisions with proprietors and the Board in 
London, the King had appeared the friend of the colony, 
which had not yet questioned his prerogative in Church and 
State. She had been indulged in her Legislature more than 
ever the Parliament of England had been, on account of her 
distance, and the apparent unimportance of the political bearing 
of her independent acts. And yet by her increasing area and 
population, by her babita of personal independence and increas- 
ing wealth, Virginia was rapidly preparing for the change 
from the most loyal to the most republican colony. 

In her ecclesiastical concerns the elements of change were 
ready to be developed. The number of the clergy had in- 
creased with the increasing parishes, but had not improved 
in general character or iufluence. The Bishop of London said 



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148 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

of them, about this time, — in bis letter to Dr. Doddridge — 
"Of those who are sent from heace, a great part are the 
Scotch or Irish, who can get no employment at hoifie, and 
enter into the service more out of necessity than choice. 
Some others are willing to go abroad to retrieve either lost 
fortune or lost character. I'or these reasons and others of 
less weight I did apply to the King, as soon as I was Bishop 
of London, to have two or three bishops appointed for the 
plantations to reside there." 

The sapport of the clergy was regulated somewhat different- 
ly, at this time, from the law and custom of 1688. At that 
period, as stated in chapter first, a tax of sixteen pounds of 
tobacco was levied on each of the titheables of the parish, for 
the support of the minister. His support varied, consequently, 
with the number of his titheable parishioners, as well as with 
the quality of the tobacco cultivated. But in 1696, to remove 
in part this inequality and secure a competent salary in all 
parishes, it was enacted, — "that all and every parish minister, 
or ministers, in all and every parish and parishes, in this do- 
minion, incumbent in said parish or parishes, and therein offi- 
ciating as minister, or ministers, shall have and receive for his 
or their meantenance the sume of sixteen thousand pounds of 
tobacco besides their perquisites." This law remained in force 
till the Revolution. In the fluctuations of trade and the conse- 
quent changes in the price of tobacco, the operations of this 
law were a source of great complaint to the clergy, and con- 
stant vexation to the whole country. The preamble of the law 
sets forth, that this law was made for the advantage of religion 
and its ministers; history declares it was the cause of sorrow 
and endless disputes to both ministers and people, and embit- 
tered the revolutionary contest. Beverly tells us — "When 
these salaries were granted, the Assembly valued tobacco at 
ten shillings per hundred; bat in all parishes where the sweet 
scented grew, since the law for appointing agents to view the 
tobacco was made, it has generally been sold for double that 
value. The fee for a funeral sermon is forty shillings, or four 
hundred pounds of tobacco; for a marriage, by license, twenty 
shilUnga, or two hundred pounds of tobacco ; and when the 
bans are proclaimed only five shillings or fifty pounds of tobac- 
co." There was also a dwelling house and glebe lands, &c. — 
" in some parishes likewise, there are, by donation, stocks of 
cattle and negroes, on tho glebes, which are also allowed to the 
minister, for his use and encouragement." The amount of 
support given the clergy taken in connexion with their general 
influence and their seeking from the Legislature greater emolu- 
ments, had an influence on the public mind preparatory to the 
change which now began to appear. 



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VIRGINIA IN 1743. 149 

In some particulars, the clergy of the established church 
Lave not received justice, at the hands of historians. Some of 
them were men of piety, whose death was triumphant. Many 
were men of classical education, who brought libraries of value 
from the mother country. Some of these, from necessity, and 
others from choice, opened classical schools, and taught tho- 
roughly and extensively. The sons of the wealthy were in- 
structed at these schools. To the parsons, whose morals were 
often distressingly loose, and whose religion was but a name, 
Eastern Virginia was for a long time indebted for her supply 
of educated men. 

The citizens of Virginia were advancing in wealth and refine- 
ment; and in courtly manners, had no peers in the colonies, 
except in Boston, Massachusetts, Edenton and Newbern, North 
Carolina, and in parts of South Carolina. Williamsburg was 
the centre of taste and fashion and refinement. The sessions 
of the General Court, and the house of burgesses, collected the 
wealth and talent of Virginia, that vied in splendour with the 
representative of royalty. The entertainments of the Governor 
and Council in the capital were answered by entertainments in 
the country; and a season of revelry in the city was followed 
by a tour of visiting in the country. Young men seeking re- 
finement of manners had specimens of the English gentlemen to 
copy. Wealth, dress, and address were every thing: and the 
two latter were often obtained at the expense of the former. A 
season unfavourable for tobacco brought dismay to those who 
were in the habit of anticipating their income. Sometimes, 
unhappily, the father left his son expensive habits, a worn out 
plantation, and a heavy debt; then degradation by poverty, 
premature death, or emigration to the western borders, were the 
alternatives. Too spirited to be degraded, and too proud to be 
mean, many families carried to new settlements, in the wilder- 
ness, easy manners, dear bought experience, and social refine- 
ment; and commencing life anew, ran a new course, less splen- 
did and expensive, but not less amiable ; less captivating, but 
not the less useful to the State. The farther the removal from 
Williamsburg, the less the dependence on the King: the more 
embosomed in the, mountains, the more resolutely did the pio- 
neers contend against authority that was not warranted by 
necessity and the plainest dictates of law. Above tide-water, 
the people simple in their habits, plain in manners, and accus- 
tomed to a roving and independent life, questioned every de- 
mand made upon their property, their persons, or their enjoy- 
ments. They were still loyal, because they had not been 
provoked hy oppression. Their children were republicans; in 
England they would have been styled rebels. 

The Rev. James Blair led the way for improvement in lite- 



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150 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

rature and science; and opened the path from obscurity to 
renown, for some of tke greatest statesmen of their age. He 
did much that, in concurrence with other causes to he mentioned, 
hrought about the Revolution in Virginia, He wished well to 
the colony, and laboured like a patriot, in all probability uncon- 
scious of the effects to be produced by his labours. Ho sought 
for mental improvement as a means to advance morals and 
religion. He accomplished what he designed, and unthinkingly 
perhaps, put in motion a mighty engine to shake the throne and 
set conscience free- He was the father of successful literary 
enterprise in Virginia, and all the South. Commonly called 
Commissary Blair, his glory ia in being the founder of William 
and Mary College. Mr. Blair was born in Scotland, in the 
year 1665. Having a liberal Scotch education, he obtained a 
benefice in the Established Church of England, as set up in 
Scotland by the Stuarts. That form of government was never 
acceptable to the great body of the Scotch ; and much less so 
were the ceremonies of worship. Mr. Blair, unwilling to per- 
form the ministrations of his office amidst discontent and con- 
stant uneasiness, left Scotland, hoping to find in England an 
opportunity to labour in usefulness and peace. This was some 
time in the reign of Charles the Second. Compton, Bishop of 
London, made choice of him as a missionary to the Colonies, and 
prevailed on him to sail for Virginia in 1685. Mr. Blair's 
ministerial labours and general deportment in Virginia being 
highly acceptable to the planters and government officers, a 
favourable report of him reached the Bishop of London. When 
Sir Francis Nicholson was, in 1689, made Lieutenant-Governor 
of Virginia, the Bishop made Mr. Blair his Commissary. The 
Governor publicly entered upon his office June 3d, 1690, The 
next day, says Burke, the commission of Mr. Blair as Commis- 
sary was laid before the Council. The Commissary was the 
Bishop's deputy with limited powers. He might hold conven- 
tions of the clergy for the disciphne of the Church, and might 
visit churches for that purpose; hut could not ordain Priests or 
Deacons, or depose delinquent church officers, or confirm com- 
municants. The office was more burdensome than profitable, 
and required peculiar talents for government. It gave Mr. 
Blair some advantage in his efforts to build a college, as he 
appeared as the representative of the Bishop of London. The 
salary was ^100 from the quit rents. 

The wants of the country deeply affected his mind before he 
became Commissary ; and he had also contemplated the true 
remedy which was, in part, with the powers in England, and 
in part, with him in Virginia. To his part he addressed him- 
self with all his strength. With the installation of the Governor 
and the proclamation of his own commission as Commissary, 



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WILLIAM AND MARY COLLEGE. 151 

he brouglit forward his proposition for a College for Protestant 
Virginia, A subscription paper headed by the Governor and 
his Council soon amounted to 2500^. In the first assembly 
held by Nicholson, in 1691, the project of the College ivaa 
highly approved and recommended to the patronage of their 
majesties ; and Commissary Elair was appointed to present the 
address. Their majesties William and Mary highly approved 
the plan of the College ; and sent over an ample charter by 
Governor Andress, bearing date February 14th, 1792. The 
Bishop of London was Chancellor, Mr. BUir President, with 
six professors, for Latin, Greek, Mathematics, Moral Philoso- 
phy, Divinity, and for the instruction of Indians. The name 
was William and Mary. The preamble of the charter says — 
" their trusty and well beloved subjects, constituting the 
General Assembly of the colony of Virginia, have had it in 
their minds, and have proposed to themselves, to found and 
establish a certain place of universal study, or perpetual col- 
lege of Divinity, philosophy, languages, and other good arts 
and sciences — to the end that the church of Virginia may bo 
furnished with a seminary of ministers of the gospel, and that 
the youth may be piously educated in good letters and man- 
ners, and that the Christian faith may be propagated among 
the Western Indians, to the glory of Almighty God." The 
corporation might hold property to the amount of 2000?. a 
year. Trustees were appointed, with full powers, to act till 
the College was completed; the whole then to pass into the 
hands of the President and Professors who were then to 
become a corporation. Their Majesties endowed the College 
with about 2000/. quit rents due them from the colony ; with 
20,000 acres of land; with the place of the Surveyor General 
of the colony, then vacant, worth about 50/. per annum; 
with the duty of a penny a pound on all tobacco exported to the 
sister colonies, worth about 200/. per annum ; and the privilege 
of a Burgess in the Assembly. The Assembly of Virginia 
added the duty on skins and furs, worth about 100/. per annum; 
and from time to time made other liberal donations. The legis- 
lature determined that the College should not be located as 
first designed, at Townsends lands, but at Middle Plantations, 
near the church. This place was afterwards chosen as the 
capital, and named Williamsburg. The foundation of the 
College was immediately laid, in the form of a square ; and 
two sides completed and occupied for purposes of instruction. 

In erecting this College, Mr. Blair exhibited a patience and 
perseverance worthy of all praise. Colleges in colonies were 
not then popular either in England or the colonies themselves. 
In England many said, — " Let the colonists attend to the pro- 
ductions of the earth, and look to England for learning and 



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J52 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

learned men." When pressed on the subject of religion in the 
colony, one of the lords of trade imprecated a curse upon their 
aoula — "let them make tobacco." In the colony thoSe who 
thought they would lose by the application of the imports, aa 
directed by their majesties, opposed the College. They said in 
the colony, that the planters, by means of the College and 
schools, would he drawn from their business, and the colony 
would become poor ; and to the powers in England that the colo- 
nists would become too knowing to be obedient and submissive 
subjects. Mr. Blair urged that the English born in the colony 
were capable of everything, if provided with the means of a 
good education ; that as Virginia lay between the colonies north 
and south, her College might be a common nursery ; and that 
the native colonists would be put in a way of further improve- 
ment. He also insisted on the advantages arising to religion 
from such an institution, both in the colony, and also among the 
Indians on its borders. The christianising the Indians was a 
favourite project with the pious in England. Eobert Boyle 
made a handsome donation to the College, to secure the educa- 
tion of young Indians, and their conversion to Christianity. He 
called the professorship, "Brafferton" from an estate in Eng- 
land purchased with the money, the income of which was to 
support the professor. 

After sixteen years of labour, the College was in successful 
operation, with this drawback, that the scholars were mostly 
young beginners. Boys commencing their education, were sent 
to the professor of languages, and the College wore the aspect 
of an academy or high-school. More advanced scholars would 
not attend with these young beginners in a young institution. 
This difficulty arose from the want of proper schools, primary and 
classical, and could he remedied only by their multiplication. 
A greater drawback was from a fire, in 1705, during the short 
administration of Governor Nott. " Very little saved that was in 
it," says Beverly, " the fire breaking out about 10 o'clock at 
night, in a public time. The Governor, and all the gentlemen 
in town came up to the lamentable spectacle, many getting out 
of their beds. But the fire had got such power, before it was 
discovered, and was so fierce, that there were no hopes of put- 
ting a stop to it, and therefore no attempts made to that end." 

The College, which was commenced in Henrico, in the early 
days of the colony, after receiving many endowments, was aban- 
doned after the massacre by the Indians in 1622 ; and with it the 
high-school in Charles city, called the East India School, to be 
connected with the College, was given up. The act for a college, 
passed in 1662, existed on paper ; and now the College of William 
and Mary, after the labours of sixteen years, was consumed. Mr. 
Blair was not discouraged. Under Governor Spottswood's ad- 



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COMMISSARY BLAIR. 153 

ministration, and by the favour of tbat gentleman, a new edifice 
waa erected, and the College exercises resumed. Beverly saysi 
that Spottswood was a friend of the Indians. " There had been 
a donation of large sums of money, by the Hon. Robert Boyle, 
Esq., to this college, for the edacationof Indian children therein. 
In order to make use of this, tfiey had formerly brought half a 
dozen of captive Indian children, slaves, and put them into the 
College. This method did not satisfy this Governor, as not an- 
swering the intent of the donor, so to work he goes among the 
tributary and other neighbouring Indians, and m a short time 
brought them to send their children to be educated; and 
brought new nations, some of which lived four hundred miles 
off, taking their children for hostages and education equally, at 
the same time setting up a school iu the frontiers convenient 
to the Indians, that they might often see their children under 
the first managements, where they learnt to read, paying fifty 
pounds per annum out of his own pocket to the schoolmaster 
there; after which they were brought to the College, where 
they were taught ti!l they grew big enough for their hunting 
and other exercises, at which time they returned home and 
smaller ones were taken in their stead." To the honour of the 
founders of the "University at Henrico" and of William and 
Mary College, the education of the Indian youth formed an 
important integral part of their plan, and was pursued with 
commendable spirit. But, as in the case of the school of Dr. 
Wheelock, and of Dartmouth College, comparatively little was 
efi'ected by the benevolent effort. There was one difficulty 
never surmounted. The educated Indian must either abandon 
his nation, or live among barbarians. If he abandoned his 
country, the object of his education, influence over his nation 
for civilization, was lost. If he went to the barbarians, he 
must live single or take a savage for his wife, or do what was 
not thought of for a moment, marry a white woman. Modern 
efforts for the civilization of Indians are carried on in a diffe- 
rent way marked out by experience, and embrace the education 
of females. 

Besides performing the duties of Commissary and President 
of the College, Mr. Blair found time to write for the press. In 
1722 there was published — " Our Saviour's Divine Sermon on 
the Mount, contained in the 5th, 6th and 7th chapters of 
St. Matthew's Uospel, Explained; And the practice of it re- 
■commended in divers Sermons and Discourses. In four vol- 
umes. By James Blair, Commissary of Virginia, President of 
William and Mary College, and Rector of Williamsburgh in 
that colony." A second edition corrected by the author, and 
published under the care of Dr. Waterland, was made in the 
year 1T39. The Doctor prefixed a recommendatory notice, 
20 



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154 SXETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

He says that noblest of subjeots, the Saviour's Sermon on the 
Mount, " 13 here , explained with ^ood judgment, so it appears 
likewise to be pressed with due force ; in a clear, easy, yet 
masculine style, equally fitted to the capacities of common 
Christians, and the improved understanding of the kriowing 
and judicious." He observes also — "how happy a talent the 
author had in deciding points of great moment in a very few 
plain wordfl, but the result of deep consideration, and discover- 
ing great compass of thought. Dr. Doddridge, the Dissenter, 
author of the Family Expositor, in> his Exposition, refers to 
Mr. Blair as a writer of authority — " Mr, Blair in hia excellent 
discourses on this chapter has shown, what a beautiful corres- 
pondence there is between the characters described in these 
beatitudes, and the blessings connected with- them." And 
again commenting on the doxology in. the Lord's prayer, he 
Bays — "yet it is certainly very ancient;- and as Bishop Hop- 
tins, Mr. Blair, and other excellent writers have well observed, 
SO admirably suite, and enforces every preceding petition, that 
I could not persuade myself to omit it." 

Mr. Whitefield passed through Virginia in 1740, about three 
years before the death of Mr. Blair. In his journal for De- 
cember 1.5th he says — "'Paid, my respects to Mr. Blair, Com- 
missary of Virginia. His discourse was savory, aueh as tended 
to the use of edifying. He received me with joy, asked me to 
preach, and wished my stay were longer." 

Mr. Blair's labours in Virgi^a was not to prevent his people 
leaning to dissent from the established church, for, except the 
few colonies of Presbyterians that were on the frontiers, and 
the German settlement on the Rappahannoc, and the Hugue- 
nots on the James, none of which caused any alarm, he knew 
nothing of dissent, in practice. His great labour was to sup- 
ply Virginia with educated men, and the church with a proper 
ministry. As far as he succeeded he did the work of a true 
churchman and patriot. 

Mr. Blair died, August 1st, 1743, aged eighty eight years. 
He had been a missionary fifty-eight years, and a minister of 
the gospel about sixty-two years ; had acted as Commissary 
fifty-four years, and Presdent of the College fifty years. 
"William and Mary is his enduring monument. The influence 
of that institution on the colony was gentle in its first operas 
tions; its advance regular, and yet quite imperceptible, at 
any one time. We cannot saywe see its action till the time of 
the Eevolution, There is no evidence that disloyalty was ever 
tittered from a Profcssov's chair. But there ia evidence, that 
literature, and science, imd religion, acting iipoTi youthful 
minds, in this colony, remote fi-om the fascinatiotia ofioyalty. 
madf! republicf^s. T!).e College was in its orjranixauon Spia- 



isdr., Cockle 



COMMISSARY BLAIR. 



155 



copal, and probably will always remain so. It has had emi- 
nent men, of that denomination, at its head, both laymen and 
ministers; and is now under the supervision of a Diocesan. A~ 
detailed history of its origin, progress, troubles, and changes, 
with' some notice of the eminent men that were its alumni 
would j)rove a volume of interest to the church to which, ec- 
clesiastically, it belongs, and of value to the cause of literature 
and religion at large. Every man would like to know more of 
the mother college, at the South, especially after reading from 
one of the greatest politicians in America — "In the spring of 
1760, went to William and Mary College, where I continued 
two years. It was my great good fortune, and what probably 
fixed the destinies of my life, that. Dr. William Small of Scot- 
land, was then Professor of Mathematics, a man profound in 
most of the useful branches of science, with a happy talent of 
communicative, correct, and gentlemanly, manners and an 
enlarged and liberal mind. He most happily for me, became 
soon attached to me, and made me his daily companion when 
not engaged in the school ; and from his conversation I got my 
first views of the expansion of science, and of the system of 
things in which we are placed." This gentleman penned 
the Declaration of Independence and the Bill for Keligioua 
Liberty. 

The influence of the African population on the colony was 
now fully seen. Politicians were sensible that slavery, as an 
element of society, gave rise to new' habits, customs, laws, 
and usages ; made the administration of law and justice pecu- 
liar; and gave a new turn to discussions about private rights. 
From being an instrument of wealth it had become a moulding 
power, leaving it a vexed question, which controlled society 
most, the African slave or his master. The number of slaves 
in Virginia in 1743 cannot be known. Governor Berfcely tella 
us in 1671 there were 2000 slaves to a population of 38,000 
whites. In 1790 by census there were 293,427 slaves and 
454,881 whites. The increase of the slaves had been like mul- 
tiplying 2000 by 146 ; the white, like multiplying 38,000 by 12, 
nearly. What was the relative number in 1743 is conjectural. 
But in that year the number of counties was thirty-six ; and 
the House of Burgesses consisted of eighty members, two from 
each county, one from each of the towns of Norfolk, Williams- 
burg and Jamestown, and one from William and Mary College. 

Philanthropists looked with deep interest on this new clement 
in English society, and found in Virginia a phase of slavery 
diverse from all ancient or modern forma of servitude. Ser- 
vants for life, scattered among the whites and outnumbered by 
them, the Africans in Virginia were under civilizing influences 
immeasurably superior to those in the West India islands. 



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156 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

While by their labour thcj conferred affluence and ease upon 
their masters; by thus being congregated in small numbers, 
and intermingled with the whites they were by degrees' recov- 
ered from their native aavageneaa, and led to some more be- 
coming ideas of civilization and propriety. The meanest servant 
on a Virginia plantation, after a few years residence, knew more 
of the proprieties of life than the savage chiefs in Africa. 
Christian people looked upon this body of men with peculiar 
sympathy, and recognised a part of their Lord's vineyard un- 
like any found in Europe, and requiring the services of devoted 
ministers of the gospel. That such men were found, and that 
the spiritual welfare of this class of people was cared for in 
proportion to the white population, will appear in the history 
of religious denominations in the colony. 

Two events of like nature, but differing in time and circum- 
stance, had an influence on the religious aspect of the colony, 
and ultimately on its political condition. By permission of the 
Legislature a colony of Huguenots was planted in Virginia east 
of the Blue Ridge ; and this in a few years was followed by a 
colony of Germans ; each of which was permitted to have its 
own ministers and exercise its own forms of religion. The 
Huguenots, soon left their village at Manabin town, and inter- 
mingled with the English in the neighbouring counties. The 
Germans, in Madison county, have preserved their location and 
in some good degree their manners, but are fast loosing their 
language. They were followed by numerous colonies that made 
their home in the Valley of the Shenandoah. Their numbers 
and wealth prevailed to have some enactments of the Legislature 
recognising their existence and influence. 

These colonies, on the frontiers, and the College near the 
eastern border of the province, grew together. Their influence, 
like the rivers on which they flourished, spread wider and 
deeper, and, at the time of Mr. Blair's death, began to assume 
the form of a head stream, meandering gently yet permanently 
through a rich and beautiful country of forests and intermingled 
habitations of men. 



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CHAPTEIt X. 

REV. SAMUEL DAVIES, FROM HIS BIRTH TO HIS VOYAGE TO 
ENGLAND. 

The month of April, 1747, in Hanover county, Virginia, was 
one of those times in which, the current of human events, run- 
ning on with increasing hitterness, takes an unexpected turn ; 
the waters of Mara are sweetened, and the night of clouds and 
thick darkness has its morning of brightness and joy. 

After Mr. Whitefleld'a visit, the Presbyterians were not only 
without a minister, but grievously harassed by the pains and 
penalties of the law. " Upon a Lord's day" — says Mr. Mor- 
ris — "a proclamation was set up at our meeting-house, strictly 
requiring all magistrates to suppress and prohibit, as far as 
they lawfully could, all itinerant preachers, — which occasioned 
ua to forbear reading that day, till we had time to deliberate 
and consult what was expedient to do. But how joyfully were 
we surprised before the next Sabbath, when we unexpectedly 
heard that Mr. Davies was come to preach so long amongst us, 
and especially that he had qualified himself according to law, 
and obtained the licensing of four meeting-houses among ns, 
which had never been done before." 

No man had equal influence with Mr. Davies in gathering tho 
congregations and settling the ministers that composed the 
Presbytery of Hanover, the first Presbytery south of the Poto- 
mac, in connexion with the Synods of New York and Philadcl- 
?hia. His spirit and habits and tastes gave complexion to the 
'resbytery, and the Synod that grow out of the Presbytery. 
The incidents of his life will always be interesting to the South- 
ern church, over which hia influence is still exerted, and to the 
generations to which he is still preaching by his posthumous 



Samuel Davies was born near Summit Ridge, about twelve 
miles from Drawyer's Church, New Castle county, state of 
Delaware, November M, 1723, of Welch extract, both by 
father's and mother's side. His father was a farmer, of small 
property, of moderate intellectual endowments, and of a blame- 
less, religious life. His mother was possessed of superior 
natural abilities, and was eminently and ardently pious. Of 
her, Mr. Davies says, in a letter to Dr. Gibbons, of London, 
that he was blessed with a mother whom he might account, 
without filial vanity or partidity, one of the most eminent 



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158 SKETCHES IN VIRGINIA. 

saints he ever knew upon earth. "J cannot bnt mention to my 
friend an anecdote tnown to but few; that ia, that I am a son of 
prayer, like my namesate, Samuel the prophet, and my mother 
called me Samuel, because, she said, I have asked him of the 
Lord. This early dedication to God has always been a strong 
inducement to me to devote myself to him as a personal act, and 
the most important blessings of my life I have looked upon as 
immediate answers to the prayers of a pious mother." 

The father died the month next succeeding the son's accept- 
ance of the presidency of the College of New Jersey, August 
11th, 1759, aged T9 years. The mother survived the son some 
years, and was an inmate of the house of Dr. Rodgers of New 
York, the intimate friend of Mr. Davies, and his companion in 
their preparatory studies for the ministry, and their early exer- 
cise of the sacred office. 

As there is some discrepancy in the dates given by the dif- 
ferent notices that have been published respecting Mr. Davies, 
it is proper here to observe, that the dates given in this sketch, 
for his birth, — licensure, — ordination, — marriage, — settlement 
in Virginia, — his departure for England, — his return to Virgi- 
nia, — hia acceptance of the presidency, — his father's death, and 
other dates respecting his family, are copied from memoranda 



made by h: 

the possess! 

Mr. Davi 



is own hand, in an interleaved quarto Bible, now in 
Ion of hia descendants near Petersburg, Virginia, 
ies is represented as having been a sprightly docile 
child. As there was no school in the neighbourhood, hia early 
instructions in the rudiments of education were from the lips of 
his mother. At about ten years of age he had the opportunity 
of attending an English school, some distance from home. 
According to his own opinion, while he made rapid progress in 
learning, during the two years of his attendance, he lost some 
of the deep impressions made by his mother's teaching, example 
and prayers. His habits of secret prayer were continued, 
and — "he was more ardent in his supplications for being intro- 
duced into the gospel ministry, than for any thing else." At 
the ago of twelve years he received impressions of a religious 
nature that were abiding. In his fifteenth year, having a set- 
tled confidence of being justified by faith through grace, he 
made a public profession of religion by uniting with the Church. 
His Ifeart was impressible, hia conscience tender, his feelings 
lively; and in reviewing his own conduct, he became, at this 
early period, a severe and unsparing judge of himself, in all 
things pertaining to godliness. 

His classical course was commenced under the tuition of an 
estimable and learned Welsh minister, a Mr. Morgan, a pupil 
of the Rev. Thomas Evans of the same nation. When' Rev. 
Samuel Blair opened his famous school at Fagg's Manor, Ches- 



BEV, SAMUEL DAVIES. 159 

ter county, Pennsylvania, young Davies was put under Lis 
tuition, and there completed his education. In that school strict 
attention was paid to the classics and the sciences. The acqui- 
sition of theological knowledge was sedulously encouraged from 
the commencement of the course. The standard of classical 
acquirement was high; and the acquaintance with the best 
writers on systematic theology was accurate. As evidence of 
the high standing of Mr. Blair's school, and its real efficiency, 
in making scholars, it may be observed, that from his students 
came — John Rodgers, the eminently prudent- patriarch of the 
churches ia New York city, — Alexander Cummins, nephew of 
Mr. Blair, for some time minister in New York, and afterwards 
in Boston, — Hugh Henry for a long time pastor of Monakin 
and Bohoboth, the ancient churches on the Eastern Shore of 
Maryland, — and Robert Smith, of Pequa, the father of Samuel 
Stanhope and John Blair Smith, whose names are indissolubly 
connected with the two Colleges, Hampden Sidney in Virginia, 
and Union in New York. 

Mr. Davies was a student. Stimulated to close application, by 
his narrow means, and earnest desire for improvement, his slen- 
der frame became enfeebled, and, at the time his course of pre- 
paratory studies was completed, his health was very delicate. 
He was licensed by Newcastle Presbytery, July 80th, 1746. 

Of the circumstances of his first marriage, nothing more ia 
known than the following brief record taken from his Bible, — 
" Married to Sarah Kirkpatrick, October 23d, 1746." 

On the 19th of February, 1747, he was ordained Evangelist, 
for the purpose of visiting the congregations in Virginia, espe- 
cially those in Hanover county. He had been aided by these 
people in his preparatory studies by the agency of Rev. William 
Robinson; his few months of probation in the vacancies in 
Delaware and Pennsylvania had answered the high anticipations 
of his friends ; and his prudence and piety were of that order 
called for in difficult posts in the Lord's vineyard. All these 
things designated him as the proper person to send to the inte- 
resting, yet perplexing field of Hanover county, Virginia. The 
civil suits instituted against Messrs. Roan, Morris, Watkins and 
others, in October, 1745, for holding religious worship, contrary 
to the law of the province, were still pending ; and the agitation 
of the public mind by no means allayed. Davies was reluctant, 
doubting his own experience in church and political matters, and 
bis bodily health; but in obedience to his presbytery, he set out 
for his destined field of labour. 

Before visiting Hanover county, Mr. Davies passing down 
the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia, and traversing the 
country once occupied by Makemie, repaired to Williamsburg, 
in Virginia, " I petitioned the General Court to grant me a 



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IgO SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

license to officiate in and about Hanover, at four meeting- 
houses." The Governor, Mr. William Crooch favoured the ap- 
plication. The council hesitated. The tall, slim, well-formed 
youth, pale and wasted by disease, dignified and courteous in 
manner, won the Governor's favour. It were better he should 
lead the people in Hanover, according to law, than to subject 
them to fines and imprisonment for receiving instructions ac- 
cording to the law of their conscience, but contrary to the law 
of the land. The Governor remembered his promise that tho 
Presbyterians acting according to the provisions of the law, 
should be protected, especially on the frontiers. Tho General 
Court was in session, tho highest court in the province, com- 

fosed of the Governor and council. The Governor presided, 
n state and parade, Virginia surpassed all the other provinces. 
Davies in after years may have appeared more grand, but he 
never appeared more interesting than when he modestly asked 
of the court, and finally obtained by the infiaence of the Gove- 
nor, permission to preach the gospel unmolested, to the vexed 
and harassed people of God, in Hanover. The license was 
issued in the following form : 

"April 14th, 1747. 
"Present — the Governoe, 

John Robinson, Lbwis Burwell, 

John Gbymes, William Fairfax, 

John Cubtis, John Blair, and 

Philip Ligiitfoot, William Nelson, Eeqrs. 

Thomas Leb. William Dawson, Clerk. 

" On the petition of Samuel Davies, a Dissenting Minister, 
who, this day in Court, took the usual oaths to his Majesty's 
person and government, and subscribed the Test, and likewise 
publicly declared his assent thereunto, he is allowed to assem- 
ble and meet any congregations of Dissenters, at the several 
meeting-houses, on the lands of Samuel Morris, David Rice, 
and Stephen Leacy, in Hanover county, and on the lands of 
Thomas Watkins in Henrico county, without molestation, they 
behaving in a peaceable manner, and conforming themselves 
according to the directions of the acts of parliament in that 
behalf made." 

In two days the trial of those indicted for worshipping con- 
trary to law, while Mr, Roan was in tho province, commenced. 
The granting Mr. Davies license to preach, and the licensing 
of houses, some of which were on the lands of the indicted, had 
no effect with the Council or Governor towards dismissing those 
arraigned for past offences of worshipping contrary to law and 
custom. In the opinion of the Court, justice required some 



"•— rfl^ 



REV. SAMUEL DAVIES. jg]^ 

victims to preserve tlie sanctity of the law; and the incensed 
church must be appeased by fines. 

On the 17th of April, 1747, the Governor present, with same 
council as above, with the exception of Messrs. Burwell and 
Dawson, the case of Thomas Watitins the son of Edward Wat- 
tins, was called, and, — "continued to the next court at the 
motion and costs of the said Thomas." 

On the 20th of the same month, same court present as at the 
signing the license, with the exception of Lightfoot, Lee, and 
Bnrwell, the case of Joshua Morris was taken up, and—" the 
Attorney General of our Lord the King saith he will not fur- 
ther prosecute of and upon the premises. Therefore it is or- 
dered, that the indictment aforesaid be dismissed." The same 
record is made in the case of Charles Kice. 

In the case of Isaac "Winston, senior, the following record is 
made under the date of the 20th of the month. " This day 
came as well the Attorney General of our Lord the King, as 
the defendant by his attorney ; and thereupon came a jury — to 
wit — 'Xhomas Guille, James Roe, Benjamin Cocke, James Pat- 
ton, Theophilus Field, Thomas Addison, John Woodson, George 
Waller, Peter Fontaine, Littleton Scarhnrgh, Major W. Hard- 
ing, and Thomas Gfray, who being elected, tried and sworn the 
truth to speak upon the issue joined, brought in a special ver- 
dict, in these words, to wit — We find that people did assemble 
at the house of tho defendant, but not in a riotous manner, and 
that John Roan preached in said house, but not against the 
canons of the Church of England as set forth in the informa- 
tion ;— and the cause is continued till tho next court for the 
matters of law arising thereupon to be argued.' ' This case was 
argued April, 1748. 

On the same day, the case of Samuel Morris, labourer, was 
taken up and tried. The verdict rendered (the names of the 
jury omitted) was— "Wo find that Roan preached at defend- 
ant's house; and that he is clear of all charge against him, in 
the information. The case is continued till tho next court for 
the matters of law arising thereupon to be argued." It was 
argued April, 1748. 

On the 2d day of May, of the same year, and at the same 
sessions of the court, there is the following notice of Mr. Mor- 
ris—" On motion of his Majesty's Attorney General, the King's 
writ of Certiorari is awarded to remove hither certain present- 
ments of the Grand Jury made in the County Court of Hano- 
ver in November last, against Samuel Morris, Bricklayer, John 
Sims son of John Sims, and Roger Shackelford, Planters, — 
Thomas Green, Tailor, and William Allen, returnable here the 
sixth day of next court." 

It may not be amiss to quote one more record of the General 



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152 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

Court, dated April 17th, 1Y47. " The Grand Jury appeared, 
&c. — They also presented Robert "White Senr. Margaret White, 
and John White Junr. for impiously and blaspheniouslyTeviling 
our Holy Religion and the Common Prayer ; for blasphemouBly 
asserting — the Cross in Baptism to be nothing but a whore's 
mark, — and for reviling the Bishops and Clergy of the Church 
of England." This suit was renewed in 1749, but dismissed in 
1750. Unguarded and passionate expressions, in religious con- 
troversy, were avenged by the strong arm of the law, whose aid 
was invoked to sustain the privileged church; bat no notice 
was taken of any harsh expressions used against dissenters, 
however unjust and severe. 

From these scenes, in the court, Mr. Davies proceeded to 
Hanover, with an excited spirit; and was received with an out- 
burst of joy. News had spread through the county that another 
preacher was expected by the people that worshipped in the 
Reading Houses; and a proclamation was attached to the door 
of the Reading House of Mr. Morris, warning all people against 
gathering to hear "itinerants," as the law would be enforced 
with rigour, on all delinquents. The Reading was omitted for a 
Sabbath — the alarm, in recollections of past sufferings, and of 
the suits still pending in the General and County courts, caused 
the people to pause and consult. The coming of Dr. Davies, 
with his license, was like a visit from the angel of mercy. His 
ardent sermons refreshed the congregations, and his legal pro- 
tection turned the enmity of the opposers to their own mortifi- 
cation. 

His account of his mission is short — "I preached frequently 
in Hanover, and some of the adjacent counties ; and though the 
fervour of the late work was considerably abated, and my 
labours were not blessed with success equal to that of my 
brethren, yet I have reason to hope they were of service in 
several instances. The importunities they used with me to 
settle with them were invincible ; and upon my departure, they 
sent a call for me to the Presbytery, After I returned from 
Virginia, I spent near a year under melancholy and consump- 
tive languishments, expecting death." 

Soon after his return from Virginia, his wife was taken from 
him, in a sudden and afflictive manner. The brief notice in his 
Bible is — "September 15th, 1747, separated by death, and 
bereaved of an abortive son." Grief for her loss oppressed his 
languishing frame, and thoughts of his own speedy dissolution 
mingled with his siglis for the departure of his beloved. His 
hectic assumed a more alarming cast, and his prospects of pro- 
longed usefulness vanished. Dr. Gibbons relating the circum- 
stances, as he received them from Mr. Davies, says — "finding 
himself upon the borders of the grave, and without any hopes 



,,^,.,.,j>k' 



REV. SAMUEL DAVIES. Jgg 



of a recovery, he determioed to spend the little r 
almost exhausted life, aa he apprehended it, in endeavouring to 
advance his Master's glory in the good of souls; — and as he 
told me, — he preached in the day, and had his hectic by night, 
and to such a degree as to be sometimes delirious, and to stand 
in need of persons to sit up with him." 

Unwilling, in his weak state, to tate charge of any congre- 
gation, he travelled from vacancy to vacancy, and from desola- 
tion to desolation, as much as his feeble strength would permit, 
and was every where made welcome. In the spring of l'i'48 — 
"he began slowly to recover, though he then looked upon it 
only as the intermission of a disorder that would finally prove 
mortal. Many earnest applications were made for his pastoral 
services. The one from Hanover, " signed by about one hun- 
dred and fifty heads of families," came with renewed importu- 
nity, and aided by the voice of the living messenger despatched 
by the people to urge their call, moved his heart. He says — 
" but upon the ajrival of a messenger from Hanover, I put my 
life in my hand and determined to accept their call, hoping I 
might live to prepare the way for some more useful successor, 
and willing to expire under the fatigues of duty rather than in 
voluntary negligence." It is scarcely possible for a missionary 
to have gone to Virginia in circumstances better calculated to 
make an impression in favour of the gospel which he preached. 
In his domestic afflictions and bodily weakness, Davies felt the 
sentence of death gone out and already in execution. His soul 
burned with the desire of usefulness, and his tongue uttered the 
earnest persuasions of a spirit that would reconcile man to God, 
and lay some trophies at the Redeemer's feet, before his lipa 
should be locked up in the grave. He longed to carry with 
him to the heavens some gems for the eternal crown. The 
people of Hanover were ready for an elevated spirit to lead 
them on through common and uncommon difficulties, through 
trials incident to all men, and the trials peculiar to their situa- 
tion from the laws of the province, complaints, ridicule, indict- 
ments, fines and heavy costs of court, — to virtue and honour 
and eternal life. Davies was the man for the situation ; for 
what were all these difficulties to such a man expecting soon to 
be giving in to Ood the account of his stewardship ? 

In his second visit to Virginia he was accompanied by his 
fellow student and warm friend John Eodgers, whose biography 
has been so ably written by his associate in the ministry. Rev. 
Samuel Miller, D.D., of the Theological Seminary, Princeton, 
New Jersey. 

These friends had pursued their studies for the ministry in 
times of the greatest religious excitement the country had ever 
known, a parallel to which is seldom found m any age or any 



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164 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

part of the Torld. The great awakenlDg in whicli the Presby- 
terian church in Ireland waa gathered, more than a century 
previous, and the great excitement, commonly spoken of as 
"the great Revival of 1802," that spread over the Southern, 
and Western, and portions of the Middle States," with a power 
almost terrific, were of a similar nature, and like ahiding con- 
sequences. Together, these form throo links in the chain of 
God's remarkable gracious dealings with the Presbyterian por- 
tion of his church, especially that part found in America. The 
influence of the great Revival in Ireland was felt in every 
Presbyterian band of emigrants from the "Emerald Isle," that 
came in such numbers to the Middle, and Southern, and West- 
ern States, from Makemie's time to the American Revolution. 
That of 1740 and onwards, in New England, Kew Jersey, New 
York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, laid 
broad and deep foundations for the spiritual church to arise in 
the wilderness. And that of 1802 lighted up the fires of the 
Banctury in the South and West like a pioneer chain of forts, 
both a refuge and a temple for the adventurous emigrants. In 
al! these there were, in places, many very exceptionable things. 
Extravagances in feeling and action arose in them all. Errors 
in doctrine crept in; many tares were sown with the wheat. 
But the seed was not all tares; neither did the tares possess 
the field. There wore some wild vines; but many plants of 
Sorek struck deep roots, whose fruits have refreshed the world, 
We do not believe the good and the evil were inseparable, 
either in the nature or the circumstance of the case. But, 
could it be established that the good fiowing from these great 
awakenings could not be separated from the evils that accom- 
panied, a soul that loves the race of men, and reverences the 
Redeemer of the lost, might, in view of these awakenings, pray 
pour out thy Spirit, Lord, Lord review thy work — shake 
the earth, and let the desire of all nations come. 

These young friends also received their education under the 
preaching and instruction of one who took a leading part in the 
excitements and agitations of that peculiar period; whose piety, 
and talents, and ministerial usefulness, and academical success, 
made the school at Eagg's Manor a rival of the Log College of 
the Tennents, Virginia can never forget Samuel Blair, or his 
school, while she holds the pupil, Davies, in becoming esti- 
mation. 

At the earnest solicitation of Mr. Davies, Mr. Rodgers was 
appointed, by Presbytery, to accompany him, and enga.ge, for a 
few months, in the work of Evangelist in Virginia. They com- 
menced their journey in April, 1748, and proceeded directly to 
Hanover. On their way, as related by Dr. Miller, Mr. Rodgers 
was relieved from his distressing fear of thunder, by being 



REV. SAMUEL DAVIES. 165 

exposed to tlie violence of a tempest of lightning and thunder 
in the thick woods, during a benighted ride. On reaching 
Hanover, they rested a Sabbath, — both preached, — and pro- 
ceeded to \¥i!Iiamsburg, to obtain a license for Mr, Rodgers to 
preach in the province. Governor Gooch received the joung 
ministers kindly, and favoured the application. When they 
appeared before the Council, Mr, Rodgers presented his testi- 
monials from the Presbytery, and asked that they might be 
read, preparatory to his taking the oath, such as had been 
required of his friend Davies. Some of the Council objected to 
reading the papers, and demanded that the subject be made a 
matter of private consultation. The Governor requested the 
clerk to take the papers from the young gentlemen, and read 
them, — and repeated the demand; but the attorney and some of 
the Council objecting strenuously to the reading, before a con- 
sultation. Sir William, bowing to the young ministers, said, — 
"Gentlemen, you shall hear from us in a day or two," They 
immediately withdrew to their lodgings, shut themselves in 
their chamber, and poured out their hearts unto God. A sepa- 
ration seemed inevitable, or Virginia must be abandoned. Was 
it the will of God that the province should be left '( — or that 
Davis should, solitarily, and aa an exile, preach the riches of 
grace where a door, was by law, scarce opened to him alone, / 
and by the providence of God, opened to a host of ministers? 

On the afternoon of the next day, at the invitation of the 
Governor, they met him, at his residence, with three of the 
Council, who were friendly to the application. The Governor 
informed them, that unable to procure from the Council, a license 
for Mr. Rodgers, as he had desired, it was with the greatest 
difficulty he had prevented the recall of the license granted 
Mr. Davies the last year. The young men insisted that they 
had asked only for a right, and not ^privilege; — that the Act 
of Toleration was esplicit in making it a right to ask, and a 
duty to grant, license in such cases. The Governor admitted 
their construction of the law, and expressed his regret at the 
decision of the Council. 

At the suggestion of the Governor, in a polite note sent to 
them that evening, the young ministers prepared a memorial in 
due form, and the next day presented it to the Council, while 
the Governor was prudentially absent. After the reading, the 
senior member of the Council filling the Governor's chair, ex- 
claimed with warmth — "we have Mr. Rodgers out, and we are 
determined to keep him out;" — and dismissed the subject. 

The excitement ran high ; the suits commenced, years before, 
against certain gentlemen in Hanover, were in progress; at 
this session of the court, Isaac Winston, sen., and Samuel 
Morris were each fined twenty shillings with costs of prosecu- 



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166 SKETCHES OP VIRGINTA. 

tion. ^Some of the clergy of the Established Church were vehe- 
ment in their opposition to these young men. One of the clergy 
of Hanover followed Messrs. Davies and Rodgera to Williams- 
burg, and complained that Mr. Rodgers had preached in the 
province without license, and demanded the rigorous enforce- 
ment of the law. From members of the Council he met encour- 
agement: but from the Governor a rebuke—" I am surprised 
at you 1 — ^you profess to be a minister of Jesus Christ, — and 
you come and complain of a man, — and wish me to punish him 
for preaching the gospel ! For shame, Sir ! Go home, and 
mind your own duty. For such a piece of conduct, you deserve 
to have your gowil stripped over your shoulders." 

The Governor, and three members of the Council, — Mr. 
Blair, nephew of Commissary Blair the founder of William and 
Mary College— Rev. William Dawson, D. D., the successor of 
Bev. James Blair as Commissary and President of the Col- 
lege, — and another gentleman whose name is not given, — sym- 
pathised with the young dissenting ministers, (as they were 
termed,) treated them with great kindness, and endeavoured to 
.procure a reconsideration of the case before the Council. 
After much consideration, however, farther eiforts to obtain a 
license for Mr. Rodgers was abandoned, and he prepared to 
leave the province. " Almost all the intelligent men in the 
colony"— says Mr. Burke in his 3d vol. pages 121, 2— "and 
amongst the rest several who afterwards became distinguished 
as the champions of an unqualified freedom in every thing 
relating to the human mind, — and even the venerable name of 
Pendleton, appear in the class of persecutors; a proof that 
liberality and toleration are not instinctive qualities, the 
growth of an hour ; but the result of wisdom and experience." 

In the month of May 1748, Mr. Rodgera parting with his 
friend Davies, crossed the bay of Chesapeake, visited the 
scene of Makemie's labours, on the Eastern Shore of Mary- 
land. There his preaching met with great acceptance. He 
passed on to Delaware, and the next year became pastor of the 
church at St. George's, gathered by the labours of Mr. Robin- 
son, ao favourably known in Virginia and Maryland. Mr. 
Davies went up to Hanover, and took his residence among a 
pious and inquiring people, whose pastor he continued about 
eleven years, laying the foundation of the Presbytery of Hano- 
ver, and moulding the spirit of the future Synod of Virginia. 
In the whole "Ancient Dominion" he had no fellow labourer 
with whom his heart might rejoice. West of the Blue Ridge, 
there were Miller and Craig, and on its eastern base at the 
head of Rockfish, Mr, Black ; — but these were members of the 
Synod of Philadelphia, and for some years had no communica^ 
tion with Mr. Davies. Like David Brainerd, he laboured in 



KEV. SAMUEL DA VIES. Jgf 

solitnde; Erainerd, with savages that had no sympathy for 
him, but in tho neighbourhood of eminent Christian ministers; 
Davies, with kind and hospitable people that appreciated him, 
but no Christian brother near to counsel and to cheer. Brainerd 
finished Ms course as a minister, when Davies commenced his. 
Both laboured in weakness of body; both preached "as dying 
men to dying men." And the church will forever love to dwell 
upon their self-denial and success. 

In writing to the Bishop of London, in whose diocese Vir- 
ginia was reckoned, under date of January 10th, 1752, Mr. 
Davies reveals the state of mind with which he entered upon 
this solitary field of labour nearly four years previous. "I 
solemnly assure your Lordship that it was not the secret thirst 
of filthy lucre, nor the prospect of any other personal advan- 
tage, that induced me to settle here in Virginia. For sundry 
congregations in Pennsylvania, my native country, and in 
other northern colonies, most earnestly importuned me to 
settle among them; where I should have had, at least an equal 
temporal maintenance, incomparably more ease, leisure and 
peace, and the happiness of the frequent society of my bre- 
thi'en; and whore I should never have made a great noise or 
bustle in the world, but concealed myself in the crowd of my 
superior brethren, and spent my life in some little service for 
God and his church, in some peaceful corner, which would 
have been most becoming so insignificant a creature, and more 
agreeable to my recluse natural temper. But all these strong 
inducements were overweighed by a sense of the necessity of 
the Dissenters, as they lay two or three hundred miles distant 
from the nearest ministers of their own denomination, and 
laboured under peculiar embarrassments for the want of a 
settled ministry." 

In his letter to Dr. Bellamy he says: "The Honorable 
William Gooch always discovered a ready disposition to allow 
us all claimable privileges, and tho greatest aversion to perse- 
cuting measures ; but considering the shocking reports spread 
abroad concerning us, by officious malignants, it was no great 
wonder the Council discovered considerable reluctance to tolerate 
us. Had it not been for this, I persuade myself they would 
have shown themselves the guardians of our legal privileges, as 
well as generous patriots to their country, which is the charac- 
ter generally given of them." If in this case he thought more 
favourable of the Council, than circumstances justified, or Burke 
believed, his favourable opinions flowed from a charity- that 
thinketh no evil. That the Governor was pleased with Davies 
is evident ; and equally aa evident that he was greatly incensed 
with some of the people in Hanover. 

While Messrs. Davies and Rodgera were urging their applica- 



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168 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

tions for license for Mr. Rodgers, it has been observed that tbe 
trialof Isaac Winston, sen., took place, April 18th, 1748, before 
the Govevnor and Messrs. Robinson, Gfrjmes, Lee, 1?airfax, 
Blair, Nelson and Dawson, members of Council, — "The mat- 
ters of law arising upon the special verdict being argued, — It 
is considered by the court, that the said Isaac make his fine 
with our Lord the King, by the payment of twenty shillings to 
his Majostys use, and that he pay the costs of prosecution." 

The same verdict was rendered in the case of Samuel Morris. 
On the same day, the case of Thomas Watkins' son Edward, con- 
tinued from the preceding year, was dismissed. 

Mr. Morris in his narrative says : " Some who had invited 
him (that is Mr. Roan) to preach at their houses, were cited to 
appear before the General Court, and two of them were fined." 
Again he says : "While my cause was upon trial, I had reason 
to rejoice that the throne of grace is accessible in all places, and 
that helpless creatures can send up their desires in the midst 
of a crowd." Again he says : I was 'repeatedly fined in court 
for absenting myself from church, and for keeping up unlawful 
meetings as they were called." 

From such tyrannical and exciting proceedings Mr. Davies 
went to Hanover and took his abode. His preaching during 
the summer of 1748 was blessed. The desire to hear the gospel 
from the lips of the young dissenter spread in every direction ; 
people rode great distances to attend upon his ministry, and 
became desirous to obtain some portion of his services in their 
more immediate neighborhood for the benefit of their families 
and neighbours. To avoid all collisions with the public authori- 
ties resolutely bent on executing the laws in favour of the 
English church, petitions, from the different neighbourhoods, 
were laid before the General Court for an increased number of 
authorized houses of worship. The petitions were granted. 
" November, Ist 1748, 

"Present — of the council, — Robinson, Burwell, Fairfax, 
Blair, Nelson, and Lewis. On petition of divers of the inhabi- 
tants of the counties of Louisa, Goochland, and Carolina, Samuel 
Davies, a dissenting minister, who bath qualified himself ac- 
cording to the Act of Toleration, is allowed to assemble and 
meet any congregation of Protestant Dissenters, at the se- 
veral meeting-houses to be erected on the land of Joseph 
Shelton, near Owen's Creek, in the county of Louisa, — on the 
land of Tucker Woodson, in the county of Goochland, — and on 
the land of John Sutton, at Needwood, in the county of Caro- 
line, without molestation, they behaving in a peaceable manner, 
and conforming themselves according to the directions of the 
said Act of Parliament in that behalf made." 

To avoid all difSculty, Mr. Davies requested the following 



REV. S-UIUEL DAVIES. 169 

entry, of a fact which had been omitted, which was made, — viz., 
" On motion of Samuel Davies, a dissenting minister — it is 
ordered that the certificate of his reading, assenting to, and sub- 
scribing the articles of Religion according to the Act of Tole- 
ration be recorded." 

This license added three places of preaching to the four pre- 
viously occupied by Davies. The seven were located, — three in 
Hanover, one in Henrico, one in Grooehland, one in Louisa, and 
one in Caroline. Of these, he saya in his letter to the Bishop 
of London, " The nearest are twelve or fifteen miles apart, and 
many of the people have ten, fifteen, or twenty miles to the 
nearest, and thirty, forty, or sixty miles to the rest; nay, some 
of them have thirty or forty miles to the nearest." 

Some time after the county court of Kew Kent gave license 
for his preaching, in St. Peter's parish, within their hounds, — 
but the excitement had become so high on the subject, that the 
General Court annulled the proceeding. 

A copy of this petition from inhabitants of New Kent, is pre- 
served among the writings of Mr. Davies. It is itself a com- 
ment on the state of society. 

" To the Worahipful Court of New Kent:, the Petition of the 
Subscribers humbly ahoweth." 

" Whereas we are Protestant Dissenters of the Presbyterian 
denomination, under the ministerial care of the Rev, Mr, Da- 
vies, — and therefore humbly claim the liberties, and immunities 
granted to such by the Act of Toleration, npon our taking the 
qnalifieationa therein imposed, which we are willing to do ; and 
whereas our distance from the meeting-houses now licensed, 
renders our attendance on Public Worship, (a word or two obli- 
terated) and sometimes impracticable, your petitioners, therefore, 
pray that a place on the land of William Clopton, in this 
county, may be recorded, according to the direction of the said 
Act, and licensed for our public religious use, 

" And your petitioners as in duty bound shall pray &c. Black- 
more Hughes — Roger Shackelford — Richard Muir — William 
Crumptoo — Robert Brain — John Thompson — (three or four 
names obliterated) Charles Ouningham, — Simon Clement, — 
Abraham Lewis, — Thomas Francis, — Julius K. Burbidge." 

At a court held for New Kent County, April 12th, 1750 — 
" On the petition of divers of the inhabitants of the county of 
New Kent and Hanover, Samuel Davies a dissenting minister, 
who hath qualified himself according to the Act of Toleration is 
allowed to assemble and meet any congregation of Protestant 
Dissenters at a meeting-house to be erected on the land of Wm. 
Clopton in New Kent County without molestation, they be- 
having in a peaceful manner and conforming themselves accord- 
22 

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170 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

ing to the provisions of the said Act of Parliament in that 
tehalf made. 

Copy — Teste 

John Dandridgb, Clerk of County." 

This license was revoked hy the General Court. 

In the case of Watkins, Morris, and others, the defence had 
been confined to the matters of fact in evidence — that they 
had assembled in a peaceable manner, — and had avoided all 
irritating epithets in their worship. And these facts were 
proved in face of the indictments. But the jury brought in a 
special verdict — guilty of the fact of assembling, — but not 
guilty of the irregularities charged in the hill. On the special 
verdict, they Tvere fined, because they assembled contrary to 
the statutes, in houses not licensed by the Court. The 
Governor understood the law of the Province, and also the 
extent of his promise given to the emigrating Presbyterians; 
and was punctilious in the execution of both. It is not clear 
that the members of Council, or of the Bar, had the right 
interpretation of the Act of Toleration, in its effect upon their 
own laws. 

In the discussion, which took place, upon the application for 
licensing the three additional places of worship, for Mr. Daviea 
and his friends, the rights of Dissenters were fully canvassed. 
Mr. Davies and his friends contended, as Makemie had done, 
in his appearance before the Virginia Courts, and in his 
famoua trial in New Tork, given in Chapter III. of these 
Sketches, — that in England, the Act of Toleration took off the 
edge of all the penal laws, under whatever name, made against 
Dissenters, upon their taking certain oaths ; — that this Act of 
Toleration having been made a part of the Virginia code in 
1699, also took of the edge of penal laws in Virginia, on like 
like conditions.- This the Governor always admitted; and the 
Attorney General admitted in theory — but denied the applica- 
tion in England to be such as understood by Mr. Davies. Mr. 
Eodgers at the time of his application for licensure, in a 
private conference with the Governor, modestly expressed his 
opinion that, as a Dissenter in the eye of the Virginia law, he 
had a right to a license, on complying with the terms of the 
Act of Toleration. To this the Governor assented; but the 
Council dissented, and took it upon themselves to determine 
bow many preachers the Dissenters in Hanover, and adjacent 
counties, ought to have, and refused Mr. Rodgers his license, 
and bad some discussion about annulling that granted to Mr. 
Davies the previous year, — or declaring it to have been only tem- 
porary. At the time of the Second application for places for Mr. 
Davies to preach in, the ground of discussion was changed; the 
question was, how many places of preaching should a Dissent- 



I .vCoc^le 



REV. SAMUEL DA VIES. Jirj^ 

ing miaiatcr bave? The Attocney General and otiiers would 
have the Dissenters limited to a small number, some thought 
with the Bishop of London, that one place of preaching was all' 
that a Dissenter in Mr. Davics' situation could ask for: and 
of consequence, that the number of Mr. Davies places of 
preaching should he lessened rather than increased. 

Mr. Davies plead that he was not guilty of causing dissent 
in Hanover, that it sprung up, as ali knew, without a preacher; 
— That the desire of people to attend on his preaching was not, 
while he observed the laws of the province, to be imputed to 
Lim as a crime:— That the ministers of the Established Church 
in Hanover and other counties had some two, and one three 
places of preaching, because their parishes were so extensive, 
and the population so sparse;— That the members of his 
church, with the families connected, were sufEcient to form two 
respectable congregations, were they located in the vicinity of 
each other, and the places of worship ; — that they were how- 
ever greatly scattered, the mass being in Hanover, and the 
others in Henrico, Goochland, Louisa, Caroline, and New- 
Kent, and at distances too great to attend at two places, ex- 
cept by riding thirty or forty miles;— That tho intention of 
the Toleration Act was to enable tho Dissenters from the 
Established Church to worship according to law, and under its 
provision ; — that unless license was given for houses, in suffi- 
cient numbers, to accommodate the Dissenters, the intention of 
the Act of Toleration would not be followed out in its spirit;— 
and that the Dissenters would be compelled by the court to 
break the laws of the province which require the citizens to be 
in the regular hahit of attending the parish church ;— and that 
It could not be the design of the court, by withholding license, 
to compel the peaceable citizens to subject themselves to ex- 
pensive and vexatious suits at law, or grieve their consciences. 

The lawyers in attendance compiimented Mr. Davies; the 
Governor and majority of the council sustained him. The young 
Dissenter gained laurels; and he rejoiced because it gave him 
opportunity to preach the gospel to his fellow men. The 
Attorney General, Peyton Randolph, could not be prevailed^ 
upon to put a favourable construction upon the law, and con- 
tinued, for years, to throw obstacles in the way of the Presby- 
terians obtaining license for meeting-houses, especially when 
the petition came from neighbourhoods originally settled hy 
others than colonies of Presbyterians. A great part of Mr. 
Davies' labour was in counties not originally Presbytemn ; and 
his success was reckoned by the Attorney and others, as the 
progress of dissent to the detriment of the Established Church. 
Years after this petition, and after Mr. Davies had repeatedly 
appeared in Williamshurg, speaking of E-andolph, he calls him 



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172 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

"my old enemy," — wlioso influence he dreaded in London, 
when on the miasion for the College. 

Mr. Dayies entered the second time into the matrimonial 
Btate, being united in marriage October 4th, 1748, to Miss Jane 
Holt, of Hanover. This lady, of whom he ever spoke with the 
greatest affection, bore him six children, and survived him many 
years. Hie residence was about twelve miles from Richmond, 
in the neighbourhood of the meeting-house built near "Morris's 
Beading House." This meeting-house is still standing; a 
plain, unpretending wooden building, capable of containing 
about five hundred people. Over the pulpit are the letters 
S. D. In pleasant weather this building was quite too small for 
the multitudes that assembled. The thick woods were then 
resorted to; and the opposers of the Dissenters were exaspe- 
rated at the sight of crowds listening to the gospol in the deep 
shades of the forest. 

The fact that so soon after his return to Virginia, there was 
need of three additional houses, is evidence of the great excite- 
ment attending the preaching of Mr. Davies. Rev, Jonathan 
Edwards, under date of May 23d, 1T49, says — "I heard lately 
a credible account of a remarkable work of conviction and con- 
version, among whites and negroes, at Hanover, Virginia, 
under the ministry of Mr. Davies, who is lately settled there, 
and has the character of a very ingenious and pious young man ; 
whose support in ,his preparation for service, Mr. Robinson 
contributed much if not mostly to, and on his death-hed gave 
him his hooks." 

In his lettter to Dr. Bellamy, Mr. Davies says, previously 
to 1751, — "there are about three hundred communicants in 
my congregation, of whom the greater number are, in the judg- 
ment of charity, real Christians, besides some, who through 
excessive scrupulousness, do not seek admission to the Lord's 
table. There is also a number of Negroes. Sometimes I see 
a hundred and more among my hearers. I have baptized about 
forty of them within these three years, upon such profession of 
faith, as I then judged credible." 

Mr. Davies was a very regular attendant upon the meetings of 
the Synod of New York, as the records show. What was his hahit 
with his Presbytery cannot be known, as the records of New- 
castle Presbytery are not to be found. In his attendance on 
Synod he always remembered the desolations of Virginia. In 
May, 1749, the year after Mr. Davies settled in Hanover, the 
Synod met at Maiden Head. Upon representation of the 
circumstances of Virginia — "Mr. Davenport is appointed, if he 
recover a good state of health, to go and supply Virginia." 
At this meeting the first proposition for reconciliation and 
union with the Synod of Philadelphia was entertained. The 



"•— 8'^ 



REV. SAMUEL DATIES. I73 

next jearhe Synod reeommeniJed to the Presbytery of New 
Brunswick — "to endeavor to prevail with Mr. John Todd upon 
his being licensed, to take a journey thither; and also to the' 
Presbytery of New York, to urge the same upon Messrs. Syma 
and Greenman. Mr, Davenport is appointed to go into Virginia 
to assist in supplying the nunierous vacant and destitute 
congregations there. The same is also recommended to "Mr. 
Byram." 

The Synod, at its meeting, in the month of September, of 
the same year, — "making inquiry how the several appoint- 
ments for Virginia had been fulfilled, do find that Mr. Daven- 
port has been there, and that Mr. Todd is licensed and pre- 
paring to go." Of this visit of Mr. Davenport, Mr. Daviea 
says in his letter to Dr. Bellamy, — "I forgot to inform you in 
the proper place, that the Rev. Mr, Davenport was sent by the 
Synod to Hanover, last summer, and continued there about two 
months. And blest bo God, did not labour in vain. Some 
were brought under concern, and many of the Lord's people 
much revived, who can never forget the instrument of it." 

The established clergy of Virginia complained loudly of the 
proceedings of the General Court in tho case of Mr, Davies, 
and in the year 1750, appealed to their Diocesan, the Bishop of 
London. Colonel Lee, the President of the Council, informed 
Mr. Davies of this, some time in the summer. Mr. Daviea 
immediately began preparing a statement to lay before the 
Bishop. But in the month of August, after having proceeded 
some length, he postponed the work, and addressed the follow- 
ing letter : 

To the Rev'd and Ilon'ble Dr. William Dawson, Commissary 
of His Majesty's Council and President of tho College of 
Wm. and Mary. 
Bev'dand Honoured Sir : — As I am informed, you have written 
to England for Instructions with respect to the Dissenters in 
my Congregation, and particularly with respect to the meeting- 
house in Kew Kent ; and as I suppose you have transmitted 
some account of them and that afi'air, in order to give light for 
an impartial determination, I request you to send me a copy 
of the representation you have made, or at least an account of 
the substance of it. As each party in such a case has a legal 
right to know the true state of it ; and as I confidently presume 
your representation need not afi'cct concealment as its defence 
and honour ; I cannot look upon my request aa a criminal 
curiosity to pry into inviolable secrets of Government; how- 
ever Sir, if it should appear so to you, your refusal with the 
reasons of it will give it an easy and inoffensive check. I so- 
lemnly profess Sir, it does not proceed from a suspicion that 



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174 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

you have knowingly and willfully given a partial and injurious 
representation of us. Your compliance Sir, or the reasons of 
your denial will lay peculiar obligations on, 
Eev'd and Honoured Sir, 

Your already obliged and most humble servant, 
Samuel Davies. 
Hanover, August 19th, 1750. 

The desired answer, the representation, was never given to 
Mr. Davies by Dr. Dawson. 

A statement of the situation of the Dissenters in Virginia, was 
sent by Mr. Davies to Dr. Doddridge, in England, a copy of 
which has not been preserved. Letters were sent to other dis- 
senting ministers in England ; and much sympathy was ex- 
pressed for the suffering Christians in Virginia. No answer 
being received from Dr. Dawson, Mr. Davies completed the 
statement he had begun for the Bishop of London, and sent it 
to the care and discretion of his friends in England. A copy 
of this was preserved among Mr. Davies's papers; it covers a 
sheet of paper, and is drawn np in a historic form and in a 
style of great simplicity and frankness. The contents of it are 
all embraced in his second statement which will be given in full. 
Sometime in the year 1751, Mr. Davies received two letters 
from Dr. Doddridge, one of which has been preserved, but in a 
decayed state, and is as follows: 

"Reverend and Dear Sir: — The former letter was written 
many months ago and it would be too long to tell you by what 
a series of providences it has been delayed. I must now tell 
you by the hand of a friend, as the hurry of my journey, and 
the great indisposition with which it has pleased God to afflict 
me, renders it difficult for me to write myself, that I have 
taken the affair of those prosecutions you mention and the re- 
fusal of your eighth license under the most serious considers^ 
tion. On consulting with Dr. Avery as you desired, we both 
judged that as I had some acquaintance with the Eishop of 
London, it would be best I should write to his Lordship about 
it, and I really thought there was such a spirit of candour and 
piety in your letter as would plead your cause with him more 

powerfully than any thing that could proceed from any 

I therefore sent a large extract from it, and received the ... . 

Lordship which I here inclose, containing his answer 

to of the letter he received from and wrote to 

Virginia, on a copy of the licenses that were . . . 

I will not trouble my reply to his Lordship, the 

thing which I judge know with regard to it my 

dear friend is, Act of Toleration which to bo sure 

you in exact agreement with it. That (I) know 

nothing of licensing the use of particular persons, 



"•— 8'^ 



REV. SAMUEL DAVIES. ^7-5 

nor persona to preach in such and such places; a minister 
licensed according to law has a right indifferently to preach in 
any licensed place "whatsoever, and every licensed place is open 
to every qualified mioister -whom the proprietor or tenant will 
employ, and therefore I apprehend that three or four persons 
living one of them upon and the rest near the place for which 
you desire the eighth license ought to draw up a certificate to 
this purpose. We A, B, C, D, being Protestant Dissenters 
under the denomination of Presbyterians do hereby signify to 
his Majesty's justices of the peace (here you must determine the 
words for yourself) that we intend to make use of such a place 
situate in such a parish as a place of publick worship, and we 
do hereby demand that this our certificate be registered accord- 
ing to law. If upon this the court will not register the certifi- 
cate, and give you a testimonial of that register for which you 
are topay sixpence and whieh is what we call a license of the 
place, those whom I have consulted on this occasion apprehend 

that youwillhavejust matter of complaint in our court 

which we think you cannot have on the licenses that have .... 
us. As to your coming to these parts .... shall be extremely 

glad to see you, and shall think honoured with 

such a guest, but when I con inseparable from such 

a journey and voyage especially when I consider 

how much your of these new founded churches and 

true g had two or three brethren of lea ... . you 

in the care of them and hope God will raise up some who may 
be disposed to bear a part of your burden. In these parts we 
want ministers extremely, and I never saw so great a number 
of destitute churches since I have appeared under a public cha- 
racter. I should gladly enlarge but my time will not permit, 
for this reason I must avoid saying any thing particularly of 
Mr. Schultz the Jewish missionary, of whom indeed I have 
heard nothing these two years but that the report wc had con- 
cerning his death was false, and that he was a little while aco 
living at Venice. I have. long been thoughtful about some 
scheme for forming a society for the propagation of the gospel 
among the Dissenters, and have made some efi'orts towards it 
this year ; but it is judged most proper to defer the attempt for 
a while. However I believe something pretty considerable will 
be done towards encouraging the Mohawk school, in which 
Colonel Williams has been a great instrument. I would beg 
^our prayers for me that it may please God to reestablish my 
health, and to give me opportunities of pursuing those various 
schemes of service as a tutor and writer as well as minister, on 
which I hope he knows my heart is set, and for the sake of 
which it is chiefiy that I could wish to live. But it is a great 
joy that God will never want instruments to carry 



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1Y6 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

on his ....:. he has in you raised up one of so great emi- 
nence doe thanksgiving to many others as well a8 

myself. I possess the Archbishop of Canterbury 

with whom almost two hours within these few days 

with your character and the candour of your attempt 

service if the affair should ever come before the that 

his Grace's designs are so pacifick and his disposition 

that neither you nor any of the Dissenters will suffer any 
injustice that he can prevent; and indeed his Majesty is so 
strenuous an assertcr of the religious rights of all his subjects 
that none either in civil or ecclesiastical stations must think of 
recommending themselves to him by invading them. Join with 
me in praying that it may please God to reestablish his health 
and prolong his life, aa I am sure you will in rejoicing in that 
great revival that he seems lately to have received. May God 
scatter down on you and all under your care the blessings of 
his providence and grace, may all the agreeable hopes you have 
received by those souls which God has graciously given you be 
answered and exceeded, and be assured that to be recommend- 
ed to their prayer^ will be esteetned a happiness by 
Dear Sir, 

Your affectionate brother 

And humble servant, 

P. DODDILIDGE." 

Accompanying this letter were the following extracts: first, 
from a letter from Virginia, bearing date July 27th, 1750, as 
follows: — "Seven meeting-houses, situated in five counties, 
have been licensed by the General Court for Mr. Samuel 
Davies. In those counties there are eight ministers of the 
established church. The justices of New Kent county lately 
granted him a license to have a meeting-house in St. Peter's 
parish. But their order has been superceded by the General 
Court, it being judged that this affair is not within the jurisdic- 
tion of county courts. The instructions alluded to in the 
answer of Peyton Randolph, Esq., Attorney General of Vir- 
ginia, to the first question, is as follows: — 'You are to permit a 
liberty of conscience to all persons except Papists, so they be 
contented with a quiet and peaceable enjoyment of the same, 
not giving offence or scandal to the government. I most ear- 
nestly request the favour of your Lordship's opinion, whether, 
in licensing so many meeting-houses for one teacher, they 
have not granted him a greater indulgence than cither the 
King's instructions or the Act of Toleration intended. It is 
not to be dissembled that several of the laity, as well as clergy, 
are uneasy on account of the countenance and encourage- 
ment he has met with; and I cannot forbear expressing my own 
concern to Bee schism spreading itself through a colony which 



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REV. SAMUEL DA VIES. X7T 

has been famous for tiiiiformity of religion. I had almost forgot 
to mention hia holding forth on working days to great numhera 
of poor people, who, generally, are his only followers. This, 
certainly, is inconsistent with the religion of labour, whereby 
they are obliged to maintain themselves and families, and their 
neglect of this duty, if not seasonably prevented, may, in pro- 
cess of time, be sensibly felt by the government." 

The second extract that accompanied Dr. Doddridge's letter 
is a copy of the two licenses granted to Mr. Davies for preach- 
ing in the seven meeting-houses. A copy had been sent to the 
Bishop of London for his inspection, and thia copy was sent 
back to Mr. Daviea for his inspection. 

The thii-d extract accompanying Dr. Doddridge's letter is a 
part of the reply of the Bishop of London, sent to his corres- 
pondent in Virginia, The Bishop sent this extract to Dr. 
Doddridge, and he sent it to Mr. Davies. It bears date 
December 25th, 1750. "As to Davies' case, as far a? I can 
judge, your Attorney General is quite in the right, for the Act 
of Toleration confines the preachers to a particular place, to be 
certified and entered, and so the practice here has been; and it 
was so far admitted to be the case that the Dissenters obtained 
a clause in the 10th of Queen Anne, to empower any dissenting 
minister to preach occasionaHy in any other county but thas 
where he was licensed, I observe in one of the licenses, {a 
copy of which you sent me) Davies is permitted to assemble, 
&c., at several meeting-houses to be erected on the lands of 
Joseph Shelton, &e. Wow, the Act of Toleration requires that 
the places of meeting shall be certified and registered, but how 
houaes that are not in being can be certified and registered, I 
can't understand. The Act of Toleration was intended to per- 
mit the Dissenters to worship in their own way, and to exempt 
them from penalties, hut it never was intended to permit them 
to set up itinerant preachers, to gather congregations where 
there was none before. They are, by the act of AVilliam and 
Mary, to qualify in the county where they live, and how 
Davies can be said to live in five different counties, they who 
granted the license must explain. 

" In the act of William and Mary the Justices of the peace 
can admit of the teacher's qualifications, which is the reason I 
suppose of your Justices acting in the present case. If thia 
power be lodged with the Governor, as your Attorney General 
takes it to be, I don't see how the Justices can interfere unless 
they suppose they can do whatever the Justices in England 
can do under the special authority of an act of parliament, 
which in many cases would be an absurd claim. 

" Since I received yours I have been confined at home, and 

as the ships are soon going out, I have not time to advise upon 

23 



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I>f8 SKETCHES OP VIEGINIA, 

this subject, and therefore what I have said must be taten only 
as my private opinion. But as this case concerns the church 
abroad very much, I will soon learn what the sense of our law- 
yers is here." 

Besides these extracts, Br. Doddridge sent Mr. Bavies a 
copy of the letter from the Bishop of London, to him, inclosing 
the three preceding extracts. The Bishop's letter bears date 

"London, 11 May, 1751. 
"_ffev. Sir, 

" I ara very much obliged to you for the open and candid 
manner in which you have communicated to me, the case of 
Mr. Davies, and an extract of his letter upon the subject. I 
wish all eases of this sort could be as fairly stated: it would 
exclude frivolous complaints, and bring the rest to bo under- 
stood, which often times they arc not. The best return I can 
make you, is to send you extracts, verbatim from the account I 
received from Virginia, and from the answer I returned. You 
have them enclosed. 

" The question upon Mr. Davies's case, as far as it appears 
yet, relates to the meaning and construction of the act com- 
monly called the Toleration Act. What I conceive the mean- 
ing to be, appears in the extract from my answer. If you 
consider the act, and the circumstance under which it was 
granted, you will not, I believe, see reason to think me mis- 
taken. If you judge the liberty granted not sufficient, and that 
you, and every body, have a natural right to propagate their 
opinions in religion in such a manner as they approve them- 
selves, that is quite another point, and in which Mr. Davies, 
who claims under the Act of Toleration, has no concern. 

" If you suppose the Church of England to be (which I am 
persuaded you do not,) in the same state of corruption as the 
Romish church was at the time of the Reformation, there wants 
indeed no license, nor authority from the government to justify 
the methods of conversion which Mr, Davies is pursuing, and 
which the Methodists now do and long have pursued. But if 
the Act of Toleration was desired for no other view than to 
ease the consciences of those who could not conform — if it was 
granted with no other view, how must Mr. Davies's conduct he 
justified, who, under the colour of a toleration to his own con- 
science, is labouring to disturb the consciences of others, and 
the peace of a church acknowledged to be a true church of 
Christ ? He came three hundred miles from home, not to serve 
people who had scruples, but to a county where the Church of 
England had been established from its first plantation, and 
where there were not above four or five dissenters within one 
hundred miles of it, not above six years ago. Mr. Davies says, 



REV. SAMUEL DATIES. Jtjrg 

in tis letter to you, ' We claim no other liberties than those 
granted by the Act of Toleration.' So that the state of the 
question is admitted, on both sides, to be this: How far the 
Act of Toleration will justify Mr. Davies, in taking upon him- 
self to be an itinerant preacher, and travelling over many 
counties, to make converts in a country, too, where till very 
lately, there was not a dissenter from the Church of England ? 
_" Yon will observe in the extract from my letter, that I pro- 
mised to take the opinion of lawyers upon the case ; hut I havo 
not done it ; which I tell you that you may not think I havo 
an opinion and conceal it from you. 

" Mr. Davios says, sundry of the people have been indicted 
and fined, and it is upon this information, I suppose, that you 
express yourself apprehensive that methods of severity, not to 
say of oppression, may be used. Of this I have heard nothing; 
but give me leave to set you right on one thing, and to tell yon 
that my name neither is nor can be used for any such purpose. 
The Bishop of London, nor his commissaries, have no such 
power in the plantations, and I believe never desired to have it; 
80 that if there be any ground for such complaint, the civil 
government only is concerned. 

" There is another part of Mr. Davies's letter which gives me 
great concern. I mean the character he gives of the clergy 
and laity in Virginia. I daro say you have so much candor 
as to deduct something from the general character; knowing 
how hard it is not to suspect and charge corruption of princi- 
ples, upon those who differ in principles from us. I have no 
such account of the clergy of Virginia as will justify this cha- 
racter; though there maybe reason in some cases for very just 
complaints, and how can it be expected to he otherwise, con- 
sidering the state of the Church of England abroad : the care of 
it as an Episcopal church, is supposed to be in the Bishop of 
London. _ How ho comes to be charged with this care, I will 
not inquire now, but sure I am that the care is improperly 
lodged: for a bishop to live at one end of the world, and his 
church at another, must make the office very uncomfortable to 
the bishop, and, in a great measure, useless to the people. 
With respect to ordinances, it has a very ill effect; the people 
of the country are discouraged from bringing up their children 
for the ministry, because of the hazard and expense of sending 
them to England to take orders, where they often get the small 
T)ox, a distemper fatal to the natives of those countries. Of 
those who are sent from hence, a great part are of the Scotch 
or L-ish, who can get no employment at home, and enter into 
the service more out of necessity than choice. Some others 
are willing to go abroad, to retrieve either lost fortunes, or 
lost character. For these reasons, and others of less weight, I 



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180 SKETCHES OF VIRCrlNIA. 

did apply to the king, as soon as I was Bishop of London, to 
have two or three bishops appointed for the plantations, to 
reside there. I thought there could be no reasonable objection 
to it, not even by the dissenters, as the bishops proposed were 
to have no jurisdiction but over the clergy of their own chureTi ; 
and no more over them than should enable them to see the pas- 
toral office duly performed; and as to New England, where the 
dissenters are so numerous, it never was proposed to settle a 
bishop in the country. 

" You are probably no stranger to the manner in which the 
news of this proposal was received in New England. If you 
are, I will only say, that they used all their influence to 
obstruct the settling of bishops in the Episcopal church of Eng- 
land. Was this consistent even with a spirit of toleration ? 
Would they think themselves tolerated, if they were debarred 
the right of settling ministers among themselves, and were 
obliged to send all their candidates to Geneva or Scotland for 
orders ? At the same time that they exert this opposition, they 
set up a mission of their own for Virginia, a country positively 
Episcopal, by authority of their synod ; and in their own coun- 
try, where they have the power, they have persecuted and 
imprisoned several members of the church, for not paying to- 
wards supporting the dissenting preachers, though no such 
charge can, by any colour of law, be imposed upon them. This 
has been the case in New England. I am sorry to add, that 
some here, for whose characters and abilities I have due esteem, 
have not upon this occasion given signs of the temper and 
moderation that were expected from them. 

" I do not willingly enter into these complaints even to you, 
who, I am confident, will make no ill use of them. I wish there 
was no occasion for them. In this wish, I am sure of your con- 
currence, from the love you bear to our common Christianity. 
" I am, sir, 
" Your most affectionate friend, 

" Very humble servant, 

"Tiioa. LosDON." 

Mr. Davies having received these communications drew up 
at length a statement of the condition of the dissenters in Vir- 
ginia, addressed to the Bishop of London, and sent it to his 
friends in England, to present to the Bishop, should they, upon 
perusal, think it advisable. It is as follows; 
^^My Lord, 

" My little name would probably never have been made known 
to your lordship in this manner, were I not constrained by 
such reasons as I humbly presume will acquit me from the cen- 
sure of a causeless instrusivc application. Your lordship's 



DA VIES' LETTER TO THE BISHOP OP LONDON. Igl 

general character and the high sentiments of your candour afid 
impartiality your Taluable writings have inspired me with, per- 
suade me yonr lordship is a patient searcher after truth hoth 
in matters of speculation and fact ; and therefore will patiently 
bear the following representation, though unavoidably tedious, 
especially when it is intended to reflect light upon a case, which 
in your lordship's own judgment, concerns the church abroad 
very much, and help to hring it to an impartial determination. 
And though my being unaccustomed to such addresses may 
render me awkward or deficient in some of the decent and pre- 
cedented formalities with which I should approach a person of 
your lordship's dignity ; yet I flatter myself my inward affec- 
tionate veneration will naturally discover itself in stich genuine 
indications as will convince your lordship of its sincerity and 
ardour, and procure your indulgence to my involuntary imper- 
fections. 

" When his Honour the President of this Colony, the late Col. 
Lee, first informed me, that the case of the Protestant dissenters 
here had been laid before your lordship, I drew up a repre- 
sentation of it with all possible impartiality, in a letter intended 
for your lordship, dated August 13th, 1750. I had no suspicion 
that either the President or the Rev. Dr. Dawson had know- 
ingly and wilfully misrepresented it ; yet I had reason to con- 
clude their representation was imperfect, as they were not 
thoroughly acquainted with the circumstances of the dissenters 
in those parts. This supposed imperfection I attempted to 
supply in that letter. But upon farther deliberation I con- 
cluded, it would answer no valuable end to send it; as I had 
then no opportunity of procuring the attestation of others, and 
I know a person's speaking in his own behalf is generally deemed 
a sufficient ground to suspect his veracity. Accordingly I kept 
it by me until about three months ago, when I sent it with some 
other papers upon the affair to a correspondent in London; 
leaving it wholly to his judgment, whether to present it to your 
lordship or not. I have not received any intelligence from 
him as yet, what he has thought proper to do; and therefore 
lest your lordship should not have received it, I shall as far as 
I can recollect lay the substance of it before you, together with 
such additional remarks as have been suggested to me by occur- 
rences since that time. 

"I informed my worthy friend Dr. Doddridge of the state of 
afi^airs here with respect to the dissenters, about a year and a 
half ago, and by his answer, I find he has laid a large extract 
of my letter before your lordship. I wrote it with all the un- 
reserved freedom of friendship, aa I did not expect it would 
have been presented to your lordship's eyes: yet I am glad 
you have seen it ; as by comparing it with this, which it may 



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182 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

be presumed I write with more caution, your lordship may be 
convinced I do not act in disguise, but malco substantially the 
same naked artless representation of truth to all parties'. 

" Dr. Doddridge has sent me a copy of your lordship'a 
letter to him, with the extracts of the letters from and to Vir- 
ginia enclosed, as the fullest and easiest method of informing 
me of your lordship's sentiments. This, my lord, will not, I 
trust, weaken your ' confidence that he would make no ill use' 
of your lordship's freedom with him, since the matter is of a 
public nature, and the reason of his writing to your lordship 
was, that he might inform me of your sentiments. And as I find 
some misrepresentations in your lordship's letter, and the ex- 
tracts enclosed, which I apprehend I can rectify ; I hope, my 
lord, yon will not suspect I have so much arrogance as to en- 
counter your lordship as a disputant, if I presume to make 
some free and candid remarks upon them. My only design is to 
do justice to a misrepresented cause, which is the inalienable 
right of the meanest innocent ; and as an impartial historical 
representation will be sufficient for this purpose, 'tis needless to 
tire your lordship with tedious argumentation, 

" 'Xhe frontier counties of this colony, about an hundred milea 
■west and south-west from Hanover, have been lately settled by 
people that chiefiy came from Ireland originally, and imme- 
diately from the Northern colonies, who were educated Presby- 
terians, and had been under the care of the ministers belonging 
to the Synod of New York (of which I am a member) during 
their residence there. Their settling in Virginia has been many 
ways beneficial to it, which I am sure most of them would not 
have done, had they expected any restraint in the inoffensive 
exercise of their religion, according to their consciences. After 
their removal, they continued to petition the Synod of New 
York, and particularly the Presbytery of Newcastle, which was 
nearest to them, for ministers to be sent among them. But as 
the ministers of said Synod and Presbytery were few, and vastly 
disproportioned to the many congregations under their care, 
they could not provide these vacancies with settled pastors. 
And what, my lord, could they do in this case? I appeal to 
your lordship, whether this was not the only expedient in their 
power, to appoint some of their members to travel, alternately, 
into these destitute congregations, and officiate among them as 
long as would comport with their circumstances ? It was this, 
my lord, that was the first occasion, as far as I can learn, of our 
heing stigmatized itinerant preachers. But whether there was 
any just ground for it in these circumstances, I cheerfully sub- 
mit to your lordship. The same method was taken for the same 
reason (as I shall observe more particularly hereafter) to supply 
the dissenters in and about Hanover, before my settlement 



"•— 8'^ 



DA VIES— TO THE BISHOP OF LONDON. Igg 

among them; and this raised the foi'mer clamour still higher. 
There are now in the frontier counties, at least five congrega- 
tions of Presbyterians, who, though they have long used the' 
most vigorous endea,vours to obtain settled ministers among 
them, have not succeeded as yet, by reason of the scarcity of 
ministers, and the number of vacancies in other parts, particu- 
larly in Pennsylvania and the Jerseys ; and we have no way to 
answer their importunate petitions, but by sending a minister 
now and then to officiate transiently among them. And as the 
people under my charge are so numerous, and so dispersed, that 
I cannot allow them at each meeting-house snch a share of my 
ministrations as is correspondent to their necessity, the said Sy- 
nod has twice or thrice in the space of three years sent a minis- 
ter to assist me for a few Sabbaths, These, my lord, are the 
only itinerations that my brethren can be charged with in this 
colony, and whether they should not rather run the risk of 
this causeless charge, than suffer these vacancies, who eagerly 
look to them for the bread of life, to perish through a famine 
of the Word of the Lord, I cheerfully submit to your lordship. 

"But aa I am particularly accused of intrusive achismatical 
itinerations, I am more particularly concerned to vindicate my- 
self ;and for that purpose it will be sufficient to inform your 
lordship of the circumstances of the dissenters in and about 
Hanover, who are under my ministerial care. 

" The dissenters here, my lord, are but sufficiently numerous 
to form two distinct organized congregations, or particular 
churches, and did they live contiguous, two meeting-houses 
would be sufficient for them, and neither they nor myself, would 
desire more. But they are so dispersed that thoy cannot con- 
vene for public worship, unless they have a considerable num- 
ber of places licensed ; and so few that thoy cannot form a par- 
ticular organized church at each place. There are seven meet- 
ing-houses licensed in five different counties, as the letter from 
Virginia, I suppose from the Rev. Dr. Dawson informs your 
lordship. But the extremes of my congregation lie eighty or 
ninety miles apart ; and the dissenters under my care are scat- 
tered through six or seven different counties. The greatest 
number of them, I suppose about one hundred families, at least, 
in Hanover, where there are three meeting-houses licensed: 
abouttwenty or thirty families in Henrico; and about ten or 
twelve in Caroline ; about fifteen or twenty in Groochland, and 
about the same number in Louisa ; in each of which counties 
there is but one meeting-house licensed ; about fifteen or twenty 
families in Cumberland, where there is no place licensed ; and 
about the same number contiguous to New Kent, where a license 
was granted by the court of that county, but afterwards super- 
seded by the G eneral Court. The counties here are large, gene- 



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184 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

rally forty or fifty miles in length, and about twenty or tliirty 
miles in breadth ; so that tliough they lived in one county, it 
might be impossible for them all to convene at one plade ; and 
much more when they are dispersed through so many. Tliough 
there are now seven places licensed, yet the nearest are twelve 
or fifteen miles apart ; andmany of the people have ten, fifteen, 
or twenty miles to the nearest, and thirty, forty, or sixty miles 
to the rest ; nay, some of them have thirty or forty miles to the 
nearest. That this is an impartial representation of our cir- 
cumstances, I dare appeal to all that know anything about 
them. 

"Let me hero remind your lordship that such is the scarcity 
of ministers in the Synod of New York, and so great the num- 
ber of congregations under their caro, that though a part of my 
congregation have, with my zealous concurrence, used repeated 
endeavours to obtain another minister amongst them to relieve 
me of the charge of them, yet they have not succeeded as yet. 
So that all the dissenters here depend entirely on me to ofii- 
ciate among them,' as thero is no other minister of their own 
denomination within two hundred miles, except when one of my 
brethren from the northern colonies is appointed to pay them a 
transient visit, for two or three Sabbaths, once in a year or 
two: and as I observed they cannot attend on my ministry at 
one or two places by reason of their distance ; nor constitute a 
complete particular church at each place of meeting, by reason 
of the smallness of their number. 

" These things, my lord, being impartially considered, I dare 
submit it to your lordship, 

"Whether my itinerating in this manner in such circum- 
stances be illegal ? And whether, though I cannot live in five 
different counties at once, as your lordship observes, I may not 
lawfully officiate in them, or in as many as the peculiar circum- 
Btances of my congregation, which though but one particular 
church, is dispersed through sundry counties, render necessary ? 

"Whether contiguity of residence is necessary to entitle dis- 
senters to the liberties granted by the Act of Toleration ? 
Whether when they cannot convene at one place, they may not, 
according to the true intent and meaning of that Act, obtain as 
many houses licensed as will render public worship accessible 
to them all ? And whether if this liberty be denied them, they 
can be said to be tolerated at all? i. e. whether dissenters are 
permitted to worship in their own way, (which your lordship 
observes was the intent of the Act) who are prohibited from 
worshipping in their own way, unless they travel thirty, forty 
or fifty miles every Sunday ? Your lordship grants we would 
have no reason to think ourselves tolerated, were we obliged to 
send our candidates to G-eneva or Scotland to be ordained; and 



DAVIES— TO THE BISHOP OF LONDOX. 



185 



is there any more reason to think so when great numbers are 
ohliged to journey so far weekly for public worship? 

"Whether, when there are a few dissenting families in one 
county and a few in another, and they are not able to form a 
distinct congregation or particular church at each place, and 
yet all of them conjunctly are able to form one, though they 
cannot meet statedly at one place; whether, I say, they may 
not legally obtain sundry meeting-houses iicensei^, in these 
different counties, where their minister may divide his time 
according to the proportion of the people, and yet be looked 
upon as one organized church ? And whether the minister of 
such a dispersed church, who alternately officiates at these sun- 
dry meeting-houses should on this account be branded as an 
itinerant? 

" Whether, when a number of dissenters, sufficient to constitute 
two distinct congregations, each of them able to maintain a, 
minister, can obtain but one by reason of the scarcity of minis- 
ters, they may not legally share in the labours of that one, and 
have as many houses licensed for him to officiate in, as their 
distance renders necessary ? And whether the minister of such 
an united congregation, though he divides his labours at seven 
different places, or more, if their conveniency requires it, be 
not as properly a settled minister as though he preached but 
at one place, to but one congregation? Or {which is a parallel 
case) whether the Rer. Mr, Barrett, one of the ministers in 
Hanover, who has three churches situated in two counties, and 
whose parish is perhaps sixty miles in circumference, bo not as 
properly a settled parish minister, as a London minister whose 
parishioners do not live half a mile from his church? 

" I beg leave, my lord, farther to illustrate the case by a 
relation of a matter of fact, and a very possible supposition. 

" It very often happens in Virginia, that the parishes are 
twenty, thirty, forty, and sometimes fifty or sixty miles long, 
and proportion ably broad; which is chiefly owing to this, that 
people are not so thick settled, as that the inhabitants in a 
small compass should be sufScient for a parish; and your lord- 
ship can easily conceive that the inhabitants ^f this infant 
colony are thinner than in England. The Legislature here has 
wisely made provision to remedy this inconveniency, by order- 
ing sundry churches or chapels of ease to be erected in one 
parish, that one of them at least may be tolerably convenient 
to all the parishioners ; and all these are under the care of one 
minister, who shares his labours at each place in proportion to 
the number of people there. In Hanover, a pretty populous 
county, there are two ministers, one of whom has two churches, 
and the other, as I observed has three ; the nearest of which 
are twelve or fifteen miles apart: and in some of the frontier 
24 



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186 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

counties tlie number of churclies in a pariah is much greater. 
And yet the number of churches does not multiply the parish 
into an equal number of parishes; nor does the minister by 
officiating at so many places, incur the odious epithet of an 
itinerant preacher, a pluralist or nonresident. (Hero again, 
my lord, I appeal to all tlie colony to attest this representa- 
tion.) Now, I submit it to your lordship, whether there be not 
at least equal reason that a plurality of meeting-houses should 
be licensed for the use of the dissenters here, since they are 
more dispersed and fewer in number? The nearest of those 
licensed are twelve or fifteen miles apart ; and as, if there were 
but one church in a parish, a great part of it would be incapable 
of attending on public worship; so if the number of my meeting- 
houses were lessened, a considerable part of the dissenters here 
would be thrown into a state of heathenism wholly destitute of 
the ministrations of the gospel, or obliged to attend statedly on 
the established church, which they conscientiously scruple. 
And indeed this will be the case with some of them if more be 
not licensed, unless they can go twenty, thirty, or forty miles 
every Sabbath. And here, my lord, it may be proper to ob- 
serve, that in the Act of Toleration it ia expressly provided — 
' That all the laws made and provided for the frequenting divine 
service on the Lord's Day, shall he in force and executed 
against all persons that offend against the said laws, except 
such persons come to some congregation or assembly of reli- 
gious worship, allowed or pennitted by this Act.' So that the 
dissenters are obliged, even by that Act which was made de- 
signedly in their favour, to attend the established church unless 
they come to some dissenting congregation; and this obligation 
is corroborated, and the penalty increased by an act of our 
Assembly, which enjoins all adult persons to come to church at 
least once a month, 'excepting as is excepted in an act made 
in the first year of the reign of King William and Queen Mary,' 
&c. But how, my lord, is it possible for them to comply with 
this injunction, if they are restrained to so small a number of 
meeting-houses as that they cannot attend them? If the Act 
of Toleration imposes this restraint upon them, does it not 
necessitate them to violate itself? And if our magistrates 
refuse to license a sufficient number, and yet execute the penal 
laws upon them for the profanation of the Sabbath, or the 
neglect of public worship, does it not seem as though they 
obliged them to offend that they may enjoy the malignant plea- 
sure of punishing them ? The act of William and Mary, my 
lord, does not particularize the number of houses to be licensed 
for ihe use of one congregation ; but-only requires in general, 
that all such places shall be registered before public worship 
be celebrated in them ; from which it may be reasonably pre- 



DA VIES— TO THE BISHOP OP LONDON. JgiJ- 

Slimed, the number is to be wholly regulated by the circum- 
stanecs of the congregation. It is, however, evident that such 
a number was intended as that all tho members of the congre- 
gation might conveniently attend. But to return. I submit it 
also to your lordship, whether there bo not as little reason for 
representing me as an itinerant preacher, on account of my 
preaching at so many places for the conveniency of one con- 
gregation, as that the minister of a large parish, where there 
are sundry churches or chapels of ease, should be so called for 
preaching at these sundry places, for the convenience of one 
parish ? Besides the reason common to both, the distance of 
the people; there is one peculiarly in my favour, the small 
number of our ministers; on which account almost the half of 
the congregations that have put themselves under our aynodical 
or presbyterial care, are destitute of settled pastors : which is 
far from being the case of lato in the established church in 
Virginia. I shall subjoin one remark more : It is very common 
licre, my lord, when a parish which has had sundry churches 
under the care of one minister, is increased, to divide it into 
two or more, each of which has a minister. And I submit it 
to your lordship, whether my congregation may not be so 
divided, when an opportunity occurs of obtaining another min- 
ister ? And whether, till that time I may not, according to 
the precedent around me in the established church, take the 
care of all the dissenters at the places already licensed, and 
at that petitioned for, when I do it for no selfish views, but 
from the unhappy necessity imposed upon me by present cir- 
cumstances, and am eager to resign a part of my charge as 
soon as another may bo obtained to undertake it, which I hope 
TVill be ere long? 

"I know but little, my lord, howit is in fact in England: but 
I will put a case. Suppose then there are fifteen families of 
dissenters at Clapham in Bedfordshire, fifteen at Wotten in 
Northamptonshire, fifteen at Kimbolton in Iluntingtonshire, 
and fifteen in the North corner of Buckinghamshire ; (if these 
places are not so pertinent as others that might be supposed, 
your lordship can easily substitute others, and your candour 
will overlook my blunder, as I have never seen England but 
in a map) and suppose, that these families not being able to 
form a distinct church in each shire and maintain a minister at 
each place, agree to unite into one organized church, and to 
place themselves under the care of one minister, who shall pro- 
portion his labours at sundry meeting-houses, one being erected 
in each shire for the conveniency of the families resident there: 
1 humbly query, whether in this case such a congregation 
may not according to the act of William and Mary, claim a 
license for a meeting-house in each of these shires? Whether 



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188 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

tliis could justly be suspected as an artifice ' to gather dissenting 
congregations where there were none before, to disturb the 
peace of the Church ?' Whether the minister of such a dis- 
persed congregation should be stigmatized an itinerant? — or 
(to adapt the illustration yet more fully to the case) suppose 
twice the above number in five contiguous shires or counties, 
capable of constituting two particular churches, and maintain- 
ing two ministers; and suppose the number of ministers so 
small, that they can obtain but one to settle among them, may 
they not, in these circumstances, unite in one church, and 
place themselves conjunctly under the care of one minister, 
sharing his labours among them at meeting-houses, in five 
counties, in proportion to their number at each place ? And 
TTOuld not such a minister be justly looked upon as a settled 
minister? Or would he be limited to one county in this case, 
because the Act of Toleration requires him to qualify in the 
county where he lives. And this, my lord, suggests to me a 
remark in your lordship's letter to Virginia — ' They [dissent- 
ing ministers] are by the ' Act of William and Mary to qualify 
in the county where they live, and how Davies can be said to live 
in five different counties, they who granted the license must 
explain.' You know, my lord, it is the judgment of our 
Attorney General, that county courts here have no authority 
in such matters ; and your lordship has not declared your dis- 
Bant from him. The council also has published an order, pro- 
hibiting county courts to administer qualifications to dissenting 
ministers, and appropriating that authority to the Governor 
or Commander in Chief. And how is it possible, my lord, we 
should qualify in the county where we live, since the Gover- 
nor does not live there ? It is hard, if after we are prohibited 
to qualify in county courts as we desire, the validity of our 
qualifications should be suspected, because we did not qualify 
there. As for myself I was required to qualify by his honour 
the Governor, in the general court, which consists of the 
Governor and Council, and as the epithet G-eneral, intimates, 
it is the supreme court of tho whole province, and what is done 
therein is deemed as valid through the whole colony, as the 
acts of a county court in a particular county: and conse- 
quently I look upon myself, and so does the government, as 
legally qualified to officiate in any part of tho colony where 
there are houses licensed. 

" To all this, my lord, I may add, that though the Act of 
Toleration should not warrant my preaching in so many coun- 
ties; yet, since, as your lordship observes, 'the dissenters 
obtained a clause in the 10th Queen Anne, to empower any 
dissenting preacher to preach occasionally in any other county 
but that where he was licensed;' and since the reason of the 



"•— 8'^ 



DA VIES— TO THE BISHOP OF LONMN. 189 

law is at least aa strong here as in England, and consequently 
it extends hither, my conduct is sufficiently justified by it. 

"All these things, my lord, furnish a sufficient answer to your 
lordship's question, ' How far the Act of Toleration will justify 
Mr. Davies in tating upon himself to be an itinerant preacher, 
and travelling over many counties to make converts, in a 
country too where, till very lately, there was not one dissenter 
from the Church of England?' And itappeara to have heen 
stated upon misinformation. When impartially stated, it would 
stand thus : 

" IIow far the Act of Toleration will justify Mr. Davies, in 
sharing his labours at sundry places in different counties 
among the professed dissenters, who constitute but one particular 
church, though dispersed through so many counties and inca- 
pable of meeting at one place ? — Or, thus : 

"Whether legally qualified protestant dissenters, who are 
dispersed through sundry counties, and cannot meet at one place, 
and by reason of the scarcity of ministers cannot obtain but 
one among them, may not legally share in the labours of that 
one, and have so many houses licensed for him to officiate in 
as that all of them may alternately attend on public worship ? 
And were the question considered in this view, I confidently 
presume, your lordship would determine it in my favour, and 
no longer look upon me as an itinerant preacher, intent on 
making converts to a party. 

"But I find I have been represented to your lordship as an 
uninvited intruder into these parts: for your lordship in your 
letter to Dr. Doddridge writes thus, 'If the Act of Toleration 
was desired for no other view hut to ease the consciences of 
those that could not conform : if it was granted with no other 
view, how must Mr. Davies's conduct be justified '! who under the 
colour of a toleration to his own conscience, is labouring to dis- 
turb the consciences of others. — He came three hundred miles 
from home, not to serve people who had scruples, hut to a coun- 
try — where there were not above four or five dissenters within 
an hundred miles, not above six years ago.' 

" To justify me from this charge, my lord, it might be suffi- 
cient to observe, that the meeting-houses here were legally 
licensed before I preached in them, and that the licenses were 
petitioned for by the people, as the last license for throe of 
them expressly certifies, as your lordship may see: which is a 
sufficient evidence that I did not intrude into any of these 
places to gain proselytes where there were no dissenters before. 

"But to give your lordship a just view of this matter, I 
shali present you with a brief narrative of the rise and increase 
of the dissenters in and about this county, and an account of 
the circumstances of my settling among them. And though I 



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190 SKETCHES or VIRGINIA. 

know, my lord, there maj be some temptations to look upon 
all I aay as a plausible artifice to vindicate myself or my party : 
yet I am not without hopes that one of your lordship's impar- 
tiality, who has found it possible by happy experience to he 
candid and disinterested oven when self is concerned, will be- 
lieve it possible for another also to be impartial for once in the 
relation of plain, public facts, obvious to all, though they con- 
cern him and his party ; especially when he is willing to venture 
the reputation of his veracity on the undeniable truth of his 
relation, and can bring the attestations of multitudes to con- 
firm it, 

_ "About the year 1743, upon the petition of the Presbyte- 
rians in the frontier counties of this colony, the Rev. Mr. 
Eobinson, who now rests from his labours, and is happily ad- 
vanced beyond the injudicious applauses and censures of 
mortals, was sent by order of Presbytery to officiate for 
Bome time among them. A little before this about four or five 
persons, heads of families, in Hanover, had dissented from the 
established; church, not from any scruples about her ceremo- 
nial peculiarities, the usual cause of non-conformity, much less 
about her excellent Articles of Faith, but from a dislike of the 
doctrines generally delivered from the pulpit, as not savouring 
of experimental piety, nor suitably intermingled with the glo- 
rious peculiarities of the religion of Jesus. It does not concern 
me at present, my lord, to inquire or determine whether they 
had sufficient reason for their dislike. They concluded them 
sufficient; and they had a legal as well as natural right to 
follow their own judgment. These families were wont to meet 
in a private house on Sundays to hoar some good hooks read, 
particularly Luther's ; whose writings I can assure your lord- 
ship were the principal cause of their leaving the Church; 
which I hope is a presumption in their favour. After some 
time sundry others came to their society, and upon hearing 
these books, grew indiff'erent about going to church, and chose 
rather to frequent these societies for reading. At length the 
number became too great for a private house to contain them, 
and they agreed to build a meeting-house, which they accord- 
ingly did. 

"Thus far, my lord, they had proceeded before they had 
heard a dissenting minister at all. (Here again I appeal to all 
that know any thing of the matter to attest this account.) 
They had not the least thought at this time of assuming the 
denomination of Presbyterians, as they were wholly ignorant of 
that Church: but when they were called upon by tho court to 
assign the reasons of their absenting themselves from church, 
and asked what denomination they professed themselves of, 
they declared themselves Lutherans, not in the usual sense of 



DAVIES— TO THE BISHOP OF LONDON. Jg^ 

that denomination in Europe, but merely to intimate that they 
■were of Luther's sentiments, particularly in the article of Jus- 
tification. 

" Hence, my lord, it appears that neither I nor my brethren 
were the first instruments of their separation from the Church 
of England: and so far wo are vindicated from the charge of 
'setting up itinerant preachers, to gather congregations where 
there waa none before.' So far I am vindicated from the 
charge of ' coming three hundred miles from home to disturb 
the consciences of others — not to serve a people who had scru- 
ples, but to a country — where there were not above four or five 
dissenters at the time of my coming here. 

"Hence also, my lord, results an inquiry, which I humbly 
submit to your lordship, whether the laws of England enjoin 
an immutability in sentiments on the members of the established 
church ? And whether, if those that were formerly conformists, 
foliowtheir own judgments, and dissent, they are cut off from 
the privileges granted by law to those that are dissenters by 
birth and education ? If not, had not these people a legal right 
to separate from the established church, and to invite any 
legally qualified minister they thought fit to preach among 
thetn f — And this leads me back to my narrative again. 

" While Mr. Robinson was preaching in the frontier counties, 
about an hundred miles from Hanover, the people here having 
received some information of his character and doctrines, sent 
him an invitation by one or two of their number to come and 
preach among them ; which he complied with and preached four 
days successively to a mixed multitude; many being. prompted 
to attend from curiosity. The acquaintance I had "with him, 
and the universal testimony of multitudes that heard him, 
assure me, that he insisted entirely on the great catholic doc- 
trines of the gospel, (as might be presumed from his first test, 
Luke xiii. 3,) and did not give the least hint of his sentiments 
concerning the disputed peculiarities of the Church of England, 
or use any sordid disguised artifices to gain converts to a party. 
'Tis true many after this joined with those that had formerly 
dissented ; but their sole reason at first was, the prospect of 
being entertained with more profitable doctrines among the 
dissenters than they were wont to hear in the parish churches, 
and not because Mr, Robinson had poisoned them with bigoted 
prejudices against the established church. And permit me, my 
lord, to declare, with the utmost religious solemnity, that I 
have been (as I hope your lordship will be in the regions of 
immortal bliss and perfect uniformity in religion) the joyful wit- 
ness of the happy effect of these four sermons. Sundry thought- 
less impenitents, and sundry abandoned profligates have ever 
since given good evidence of a thorough conversion, not from 



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192 SKETCHES OP TIRGINU. 

party to party, but from sin to holiness, by an universal devo- 
tednesB to God, and the conscientious practice of all the social 
and personal virtues. And when I see this the glorious con- 
comicant or consequent of their separation, I hope your lord- 
ship will indulge me to rejoice in such proselytes, as I am sure 
our divine Master and all his celestial ministers do; though 
without this, they are but wetehed captures, rather to be 
lamented over, than boasted of. When Mr. Robinson left 
them, which he did after four days, they continued to meet 
together on Sundays to pray and hear a sermon out of 
some valuable book read by one of their number ; as they 
Lad no prospect of obtaining a minister immediately of the 
same character a,nd principles with Mr. Robinson. They 
were now increased to a tolerable congregation, and made 
unwearied application to the Presbytery of New Castio in 
Pennsylvania for a minister to be sent among them, at least 
to pay them a transient visit, and preach a few sermons, and 
baptize their children, till they should have opportunity to have 
one settled among them. The Presbytery complied with their 
petitions, as far as the small number of its members, and the 
circumstances of their own congregations, and of the vacancies 
under their Presbyterial care, would permit; and sent minis- 
ters among them at four different times in about four years, 
who stayed with them two or three Sabbaths at each time. 
They came at the repeated and most importunate petitions of 
the dissenters here, and did not obtrude their labours upon 
them uninvited. Sundry upon hearing them, who had not 
heard Mr. Robinson, joined with the dissenters ; so that in the 
year 1747, when I was first ordered by the Presbytery to take 
a journey to Hanover, in compKance with the petition of tho 
dissenters here, I found them sufficiently numerous to form 
one very largo congregation, or two small ones ; and they had 
built five meeting-houses, three in Hanover, one in Henrico, 
and one in Louisa county; which were few enough considering 
their distance. Upon my preaching among them, they used 
the most irresistible importunities with me to settle among 
them as their minister, and presented a call to me before the 
Presbytery, signed by about an hundred and fifty heads of 
families; which in April, 1748, I accepted, and was settled 
among them the May following. And though it would have 
been my choice to confine myself wholly to one meeting-house, 
especially as I was then in a very languishing state of health ; 
yet considering that hardly the one half of the people could 
possibly convene at one place, and that they had no other 
minister of their own denomination within less than two hun- 
dred miles, I was prevailed upon to take the pastoral care of 



I ..Google 



DA VIES— TO THE BISHOP OF LONDON. IQ^ 

them all, and to divide my labours at the sundry meetine- 
houses. 

"And now, my lord, I may leave yourself to judge, whether 
the imformationa were just, upon which your lordship has 
represented me as not 'coming to serve a people that had 
scruples, but as disturbing the consciences of others, under the 
colour of a toleration to my own, and intruding into a country 
where there were not above four or five dissenters, &c." Your 
lordship must see if this account be true, (and thousands can 
attest it) that I had not the least instrumentality in the first 
gathering of a dissenting Church in these parts. Indeed I was 
then but a lad, and closely engaged in study. And I solemnly 
assure your lordship, that it was not the sacred thirst of filthy 
lucre, nor the prospect of any other personal advantage, that 
induced me to settle here: for sundry congregrations in Penn- 
sylvania, my native country, and in the other northern colonies, 
most earnestly importuned me to settle among them, where I 
should have had at least an equal temporal maintenance, in- 
comparably more ease, leisure, and peace, and the happiness of 
the frequent society of my brethren ; never made a great 
noise or bustle in the world, but concealed myself in the crowd 
of my superior brethren, and spent my life in some little ser- 
vices for God and his Church in some peaceful retired corner; 
which would have been most becoming so insignificant a crea- 
ture, and most agreeable to my recluse natural temper: but ail 
these strong inducements were preponderated by a sense of the 
more urgent necessity of the dissenters here; as they lay two 
or three hundred miles distant from the nearest ministers of 
their own denomination, and laboured under peculiar em- 
barrassments for want of a settled minister; which I will 
not mention, lest I should seem to fling injurious reflections on 
a government whose clemency I have reason to acknowledge 
■with the most loyal gratitude. 

"It is true, my lord, there have been some additions made 
to the dissenters here since my settlement, and some of them 
by occasion of my preaching. They had but five meeting- 
houses then, in three difi'erent counties, and now they have 
seven in five counties, and stand in need of one or two more. 
But here I must again submit it to your lordship, whether the 
laws of England forbid men to change their opinions, and act 
according to them when changed? And whether the Act of 
Toleration was intended to tolerate such only as were dissen- 
ters by birth and education? Whether professed dissenters 
are prohibited to have meeting-houses licensed convenient to 
them, where there are conformists adjacent, whose curiosity 
may at first prompt them to hear, and whose judgments may 
afterwards direct them to join with the dissenters? Or 



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]^94 SKETCHES OF VIRGTNIA. 

whether, to avoid tlie danger of gaining proselytea, the dis- 
senters, in such circumstances, must be -wholly deprived of the 
ministration of the gospel ? 

"For my farther vindication, my lord, I beg leave to declare, 
and I defy the world to confute me, that in all the sermons I 
have preached in Virginia, I liavo not wasted one minnte in 
exclaiming or reasoning against the peculiarities of the estab- 
lished church ; nor bo much as assigned the reasons of my own 
non-conformity. I have not exhausted my zeal in railing 
against the established clergy, in exposing their imperfections, 
some of which lie naied to ihy view, or in depreciating their 
characters. No, my lord, I have matters of infinitely greater 
importance to exert my zeal and spend my time and strength 
upon ; — To preach repentance towards God, and faith towards 
our Lord Jesus Christ — To alarm secure impenitcnts ; to reform 
the profligate ; to undeceive the hypocrite ; to raise up the hands 
that hang down, and to strengthen the feeble knees ; — These 
are the doctrines I preach, these are tho ends I pursue ; and 
these my artifices to gain proselytes: and if ever I divert 
from these to ceremonial trifles, let my tongue cleave to the 
roof of my mouth. Now, my lord, if people adhere to me on 
such accounts as these, I cannot dbcourage them without wick- 
edly betraying the interests of religion, and renouncing my 
chaVacter as a minister of the gospel. If the members of the 
Church of England come from distant places to the meeting- 
houses licensed for the use of professed dissenters, and upon 
hearing, join with them, and declare themselves Presbyterians, 
and place themselves under my ministerial care, I dare say 
your lordship will not censure me for admitting them. And if 
these new proselytes live at such a distance that they cannot 
meet statedly at the places already licensed, have they not 
a legal right to have houses licensed convenient to them, 
since they are as properly professed dissenters, in favour of 
whom the Act of Toleration was enacted, as those that have 
been educated in non-conformity ? There is no method, my 
lord, to prevent the increase of our number in this manner, but 
either the prohibiting of all conformists to attend occasionally 
on my ministry; which neither tho laws of God nor of the land 
will warrant: or the Episcopal ministers preaching the same 
doctrines which I do ; as I humbly conceive they oblige them- 
selves by subscribing their own articles; and had this been 
done, I am vorily persuaded there would not have been one 
dissenter in these parts : or my absolutely refusing to receive 
those into the community of the dissenters, against whom it 
may be objected that they once belonged to the Church of Eng- 
land ; which your lordship sees is unreasonable, 'Tis the con- 
version and salvation of men I aim to promote; and genuine 



DA VIES— TO THE BISHOP OF LONDON. ^95 

Christianity, under whatever vavious forms it appears, never 
faQs to charm mj heart. The design of the gospel is to bring 
periahing sinners to heaven, and if they are but brought thither, 
ita ministers have but little cause pf anxiety and contention 
about the denomination they sustain in their way. Yet, my 
lord, I may consistently profess, that as I judge the govern- 
ment, discipline and modes of worship in the dissenting church 
more agreeable to the divine standard than those in the Epis- 
copal, it cannot but afford me a little additional satisfaction to 
Bee those that agree with me in essentials, and are hopefully 
waiting towards the same celestial City, agree with me in extra- 
essentials too; though this ingredient of satisfaction is often 
swallowed up in the eublimer pleasure that results from the 
other more noble consideration.-^And here, my lord, that I may 
unbosom myself with all the candid simplicity of a gospel min- 
ister, I must frankly own, that abstracting the consideration o£ 
the disputed peculiarities of the established church, which have 
little or no influence in the present case, I am verily persuaded 
(heaven knows with what sorrowful reluctance I admit the 
evidence of it) those of the Church of England in Virginia 
do not generally enjoy as suitable means for their conver- 
sion and edification as they might among the dissenters. 
This is not because they are of that communion; for I 
know the gospel and all its ordinances may be administered 
in a very profitable manner in a consistency with the oonstituj 
tion. of that church; and perhaps her ceremonies would be ao 
far from obstructing the efficacy of the means of grace, that 
they would rather promote it, to them that have no scruples 
about their lawfulness and expediency; though it would be 
otherwise with a doubtful conscience : but because the doctrines 
generally delivered from the pulpit, and the manner of delivery, 
are such as have not so probable a tendency to do good, as 
those among the dissenters. 1 am sensible, my lord, ' how 
hard it is,' as your lordship observes, 'not to suspect and 
charge corruption of principles on those, who differ in prin- 
ciples from ua.' But still I cannot help thinking that they 
who generally entertain their hearers with languid harangues 
on morality or insipid specuhitipns, omitting or but slightly 
touching upon the glorious doctrines of the gospel, which will 
he everlastingly found the most effectual means to reform a 
degenerate world; such as the corruption of human nature in 
its present lapsed state ; the nature and necessity of regenera- 
tion, and of divine infiuences to effect it; the nature of saving 
faith, evangelical repentance, &c.* I cannot, I say, help 

* "I io not intend this, my lord, for a complete enumeration of evan- 
gelical doctrioes, as I intimate by the &c., annexed.— For your lordship's far- 
ther satisfaction, I must refer you to Dr. Doddridge's Practical writrnge, 



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1QQ SKETCHES OF VIRGimA. 

thinking that they ivho omit, pervert or but slightly hint at 
these and the like doctrines, are not likely to do much service 
to the souls of men: and as far as I can learn by personal ob- 
servation or the credible information of others, this is too 
generally the case in Virginia. And on this account especially, 
I cannot dissuade persons from joining with the dissenters, who 
are desirous to do so ; and I use no other methods to engage 
them but the inculcating of these and like doctrines. 

"I beg leave, my lord, to subjoin one remark more to vindi- 
cate the number of my meeting-houses, and aa a reason for the 
licensure of that in New Kent: that in a large and scattered 
congregation, it may be necessary the minister should officiate 
occasionally in particular corners of his congregation for the 
conveniency of a few families that lie at a great distance from 
the places where he statedly officiates for the conveniency of the 
generality. This, my lord, is frequently practised, in the 
parishes in the frontier counties, which are very large, though 
not equal to the bounds of my congregation. 'Tis no doubt 
unreasonable, that the minister should consult the conveniency 
of a few rather than of the majority; and therefore I preach 
more frequently at one of the meeting-houses in Hanover, 
where the dissenters are more numerous, than at all the other 
six. But, my lord, is it not fit I should so far consult the con- 
veniency of a few families, who live in the extremities of tho 
congregation, at a great distance from the place where I sta- 
tedly officiate, as to preach occasionally among them four or 
five times a year? Though one or two of a family may be able 
to attend at the stated place of meeting, yet it is impossible 
that all should; and why may not a sermon bo preached occa- 
sionally in their neighbourhood, where they may all attend? 
Again; though the heads of families may be capable of attend- 
ing on public worship at a great distance themselves, yet it ia 
an intolerable hardship that they should be obliged to carry 
their children thirty, forty, or fifty miles to be baptized. And 
is it not reasonable, my lord, I should preach among them occa- 
sionally, to relieve them from this difficulty once in three or 
four months ? And may not houses he legally licensed for this 
purpose? The meeting-house in New Kent was designed for 
such occasional meetings : and when I have given an account 
of the affair, I doubt not but your lordship will justify the pro- 
cedure of the County Court in granting a license for it. Some 
people m and about that county, particularly two gentlemen of 

particularly his Rise and Progress of Religion, Lis Sermons on the Power 
and Grace of Chriot, and on Regeneration , which I heartily approve as to 
mitter and manner, and would miitate, as for as my inferior genius will 
admit. 



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DAVIES— TO THE BISHOP OP LONDOX. 1Q1 

good estates and excellent characters, who had been Justices of 
the peace and officers in the militia, told me, that as they lived 
at a great distance from the nearest place where I statedly' 
officiate, and therefore could not frequently attend there, they 
would count it a peculiar favour, if I would preach occasionally 
at some place convenient to them, though it were on week-days. 
I replied, that though I was wholly unahle to perform ministe- 
rial duties fully to the people at the places already licensed, yet 
I should he willing to give them a sermon now and then, if they 
could obtain a license for a place. Whereupon they presented 
a petition to the County Court, signed by fifteen persons, heads 
of families, and professed Presbyterians, which {as your lordship 
h^ been informed) was granted; but afterwards superseded by 
the Council, Hence, my lord, you may see what was the occa- 
sion and design of this petition ; and that it was not an artifice 
of mine as an itinerant, 'to gather a congregation where there 
was none before;' but wholly the act of the people, professed 
dissenters, for their own conveniency. 

" I am surprised, my lord, to find any intimations in the 
letter from Virginia about the validity and legality of the 
licenses for seven meeting-houses granted by the General 
Court, especially if that letter came from the Commissary. 
These were granted by the supreme authority of this colony ; 
and cannot be called in question by the Council without ques- 
tioning the validity of their own authority, at least the legal 
exercise of it in this instance. And the Rev. Dr. Dawson 
himself (whom I mention with sincere veneration) sat as a judge 
in the General Court (for he is one of Ms majesty's Council 
here) when the licenses were granted, and did not vote against 
it. Whether I have since forfeited them by my public conduct, 
I dare appeal to himself; and whether there be any limitations 
of the Dumber of meeting-housea for the conveniency of one 
congregation, in the Act of Toleration, or his majesty's private 
instructions to the Governor, I dare submit to any one that 
has seen them. 

" What I observed above concerning my preaching occasion- 
ally on working days, and the reason of it, reminds me, my lord, 
of an unexpected charge against me in the letter from Virgi- 
nia, expressed in terms contemptuous enough — ' I had almost 
forgot to mention his holding forth on working days to great 
numbers of poor people, who generally are his only followers. 
This certainly is inconsistent with the religion of labour, 
whereby they are obliged to maintain themselves and families; 
and their neglect of this duty, if not seasonably prevented, 
may in process of time be sensibly felt by the Government.' 
Here, my lord, imaginary danger is traced from a very distant 
source ; and I might justify myself by an argumentum ad 



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198 SKETCHES OF YIRGINTA. 

hominem: my people do not spend half as many working days 
in attending on my holding forth the Word of Life, as the 
members of the Church of England are ohliged to keep holy 
according to their calendar. But I know recrimination, though 
with advantage, is but a spiteful and ineffectual method of vin- 
dication. I therefore observe, with greater pleasure, that as I 
can officiate but at some one of my meeting-houses on Sundays, 
and as not any one of the seven is tolerably convenient to the 
half of my people ; many of them cannot have opportunity of 
hearing me on Sundays above once in a month or two ; and I 
have no way to make up their loss in some measure but by 
preaching in the meeting-house contiguous to them, once or 
twice in two or three months on working days. And can this, 
my lord, have the least tendency to beggar themselves and fa- 
milies, or injure the Government, especially when such meetings 
are chiefly frequented (and that not oftener than once a fort- 
night or month) by heads of families and others, who can easily 
afford a few hours for this purpose, without the least detriment 
to their secular affiiirs? I can assure your lordship a great 
number of my hearers are so well furnished with slaves, that 
they are under no necessity of confining themselves to hard 
labour ; and that they redeem more time from the fashionable 
riots and excessive diversions of the ago than they devote to 
this purpose : and I wonder there is not an equal clamour raised 
about the modish ways of murdering time, which are more likely 
to be sensibly felt by the Government, and, which is worse, to 
ruin multitudes forever. The Religion o/XaSoMr is held sacred 
among us; as the temporal circumstances of my people demon- 
strate ; which are as flourishing as before their adherence to 
me, except that some of them have been somewhat injured by 
the fines and concomitant expenses imposed upon them for wor- 
shipping God inoffensively in separate assemblies. But this 
hardship, my lord, I will not aggravate, as I very believe it was 
not the effect of an oppressive spirit in the Court, but of misinfor- 
mation, and the malignant offieiousness of some private persons. 
" I am fully satisfied, my lord, were there a pious bishop resi- 
dent in America, it would have a happy tendency to reform the 
church of England here, and maintain her purity : and there- 
fore upon a report spread in Virginia, some time ago, that one 
was appointed, I expressed my satisfaction in it ; and my poor 
prayers shall concur to promote it. I know this is also the sen- 
timent of all my brethren in the Synod of New York, with whom 
I have conversed. I am, therefore, extremely surprised at the 
information your lordship has received concerning the recep- 
tion of this proposal in New England, and ' that they used 
all their influence to obstruct it.' I never had the least intima- 
tion of it before, though some of the principal ministers there 



,,^,.,oglc 



DAVIES— TO THE BISHOP OF LONDON. jgg 

maintain a very unreserved correspondence with me ; and I 
have also the other usual methods of receiving intelligences from 
a country so near. If it bo true, I think with your lordship, 
that it is hardly consistent with a spirit of toleration, but it 
appears so unreasonable, and so opposite to the sentiments of 
all the dissenters whom I am acquainted with (and they are 
many, both of tho clergy and laity) that the informers must be 
persons of undoubted veracity, before I could credit it. How- 
ever, my lord, I am not concerned : the Synod of New York, 
to which I belong, I am confident, have used no means to oppose 
it : but would rather concur to promote it, were it in their 
power ; and therefore, if your lordship deal with us secundum 
legem talionis, wo expect favourable usage. The same things 
I would say concerning the prosecution and imprisonment of 
sundry members of the church in New England. I never heard 
so much as an uncertain rumour of it ; and I am sure it is neither 
approved nor practised in tho bounds of tho Synod of New 
York. Were your lordship acquainted with tho members of 
that Synod, you would own them as strenuous advocates for the 
civil and sacred rights of mankind, and as far from a bigoted 
intolerant spirit, as perhaps any in the world. And here, my 
lord, let me correct a small mistake (the effect of imperfect 
or false information, I suppose) in your lordship's letter to Dr. 
Doddridge ; your lordship takes the persons in Now England, 
who have been accessory to those prosecutions, to be members 
of the Synod, which sent me as a missionary to Virginia ; 
■whereas I am a member of another synod two or three hundred 
miles distant ; and do not in the least act in concert with, or 
subjection to the ministers in New England. 

_ " Your lordship huddles me promiscuously with the metho- 
dists, as though I were of their party. I am not ashamed to own 
that I look upon Mr. Whitefield as a zealous and successful 
minister of Christ ; and as such to countenance him. I love him, 
and I love your lordship, (the profession, I hope, will not be 
offensive) because I hope you are both good men : and if my 
affection to him proves me one of his party, I hope your lordship 
will conclude mc one of your own too : yet I am far from ap- 
proving sundry steps in Mr. 'Whitefield'e first public conduct ; 
and I am glad to find by some of his late writings that he does 
not approve of them himself. The eruptions of his first zeal 
were, in many instances, irregular ; his regulating his conduct 
so much by impulses, &c., was enthusiastic, and his freedoms in 
publishing his experience to the world, in his journals, were, in 
my opinion, very imprudent. As to the rest of the methodists, 
I know but little of them ; and, therefore, must suspend my 
judgment concerning them. 

" Our loyalty to the Government is so well attested and uni- 



ir.. Google 



200 SKETCHES OF TIRGINIA. 

versally known, ttat I presume none have ventured to surmise 
the contrary to your lordship ; and this renders it needless for 
me to offer anything to demonstrate it. 

" Thus, my lord, in the simplicity of my heart, I have laid 
before your lordship an impartial view of the state of affairs 
relating to the dissenters here, aa it appears to me ; and made 
some remarks on your lordship's letter to Dr. Doddridge, and 
the letters from and to Virginia. I please myself with the 
persuasion that I have not indulged the contradictious, angry 
humour of a contentious disputant ; nor the malignant par- 
tiality of a bigot: and it will afford me peculiar satisfaction, if 
it should be equally evident to your lordship. All the apolo- 
gies I could make could not atone for my tediousness, were it 
impertinent or avoidable; but aa one that has not naturally a 
concise method of communicating his thoughts, could not fully 
represent the matter in fewer words, I promise myself your 
lordship's forbearance. 

" I am persuaded, my lord, were you convinced the repre- 
sentation I have given is just, your lordship would turn advo- 
cate for the dissenters here, that the matter might be deter- 
mined in their favour, I am therefore anxious to take some 
method to convince your lordship it is so ; and I can think of 
no better method than to give those that may look upon them- 
selves concerned to refute me, an opportunity to make the 
experiment, hy publishing this letter to the world. This I 
should undoubtedly have done, and sent your lordship a printed 
copy, had I not been scrupulous of making so free with your 
private letters without your consent. If your lordship approve 
of this expedient, I shall, upon the first information of it, send 
it to the press. 

"May the great Shepherd and Bishop of souls shed the 
richest blessings of his providence and grace upon you; and 
long continue your lordship to be consumed in pious ser- 
vices for the Church of God! — whatever reception this letter 
meets with, this shall be the ardent wish and perpetual 
prayer of, 

" My Lord, 

" Your Lordship's 

" Most dutiful servant, 

Samuel Davies. 

"Hanover, in Virginia, Jan. 10, 1752. 

" POSTSCRIPT. 

" I am heartily sorry, my lord, that the character I gave of 
the clergy and laity in Virginia, in my letter to Dr. Doddridge, 
has given your lordship groat concern. I have no doubt of ita 



.glc 



DAVIES— TO THE BISHOP OF LOSDOX. 201 

sincerity, tliougb I am uncertain whether it was occasioned by 
a suspicion of calumniating partiality in me, or of truth in my 
account, or both. There was no part of your lordship's letter 
that afflicted me so deeply as this ; yet, I thought to have 
passed it ovgr in silence, and accordingly made no remarks upoa 
it in the preceding letter ; because, as I have not been bo happy 
since as to see reason to retract my former account, I couid 
not relieve your lordship from your pious anxiety ; and as it is 
a tender point, and the information comes with a poor grace 
from me, I thought the mentioning the many unwelcome evi- 
dences of its justice, which force themselves upon me all around, 
would but increase your lordship's concern, and confirm the 
suspicion of my partiality, which you intimate in your letter to 
the Dr., though with tenderness. Eut considering that I write 
to one that will not officiously spread the account, to the dis- 
grace of religion ; and who may be able to administer remedies 
to so deplorable a case, if seasonably informed of it ; and that 
your lordship's correspondents here may be under as strong a 
temptation to extenuate such matters, as I may bo supposed to 
bo to aggravate them ; and consequently a medium between 
the two may appear to your lordship to bo most just : consid- 
ering also that it seems necessary for my own vindication, 
though I do not desire to build my reputation on the infamy of 
others : I have determined to give your lordship the following 
hrief account, which I am willing should pass under the severest 
scrutiny. 

" I am sensible, my lord, ' how hard it is not to suspect and 
charge corruption of principles upon those who differ in prin- 
ciples from us;' and how natural it is to a party spirit (and 
alas ! parties are generally animated with such a spirit) to 
magnify the practical irregularities of other denominations- 
Sensible of this, and how inconsistent such a temper is with 
the generous religion of Jesus, I have conscientiously kept a 
peculiar guard upon my spirit in this respect : and yet {with 
shame I confess it) I have not been entirely a stranger to its 
malignant workings ; though I am conscious that my prevailing 
and habitual disposition is candid and generous : otherwise t 
should be self-condemned in pretending to he a minister or 
even follower of the Lamb of God. At present, my lord, I 
feel myself calm and impartial ; and could I make my letter 
the transcript of my heart, your lordship would believe me. I 
solemnly profess I am conscious of no indulged party spirit ; 
however, I am so sensible of my own weakness, that I may im- 
plicitly suspect I may be imperceptibly tinctured with it ; and 
therefore your lordship may, at the venture, ' deduct some 
things from the general character.' I shall say but little of the 
differences in speculation betwixt me and the clergy and others 



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202 



SKETCHES OP VIRGIKIjI 



here: both because such errors may not be so pernicious as 
vicious practices and the neglect of religions and moral duties; 
and becanse these are more disputable, and I may be more 
liable to mistakes about them. But, my lord, I cannot indulge 
an implicit suspicion of my partiality eo far as to rush into uni- 
versal skepticism about plain, public, indisputible facts, obYious 
to my senses. I can see, I can hear, with certainty. I can- 
not be so infatuated with prejudice as to be incapable of dis- 
tinguishing between a religious and profane life, between a rel- 
ish for divine things, and a contemptuous neglect of them, be- 
tween blasphemy and prayer, drunkenness and sobriety, &c. 
And I shall chiefly take notice of such obvious facts, about 
which there is no dispute between the church of England and 
the dissenters. I would also have it noticed, my lord, that I 
would not have this account looked oh as a history of the 
state of religion in Virginia in general ; but only in those coun- 
ties (and they are not very few) where I have had opportunity 
of personal observations : and these, if I may believe general 
fame, are not more degenerate than the rest. 

"I confess, my lord, with pleasure, that there are sundry of 
the laity in the sphere of my acquaintance in the Churchy of 
England, who are persons of good morals and have a veneration 
for religion ; and some of them, I doubt not, are sincere Chris- 
tians, whom I cordially love : and that with more ardent affec- 
tion than those of my own denomination, who appear destitute 
of real religion ; and alas! there are many such, I fear. These 
pious conformists can witness, that I have not been officious in 
endeavouring to proselyte them to my party ; and that, when 
conversant with them, I rather choose to dwell on those infi- 
nitely more important and delightful subjects in which we agree, 
than those little angry peculiarities in which we differ. I also 
cheerfully own (nor is the concession forcibly extorted from me) 
that sundry of the established clergy are gentlemen of learning, 
parts and morality, and I hope honestly aiming at the salvation 
of men ; though I cannot but disagree with them in some doc- 
trines, and humbly conceive their public discourses generally 
are not well adapted to promote their pious_ end. But,_ my 
lord, notwithstanding these concessions, religion ma^ be in a 
very languishing situation and vice triumphant in this colony. 
There may be a few names even in Sardis, who have not defiled 
their garments; and yet the majority have at best but a name 
to live, while they are dead. I must therefore now lay before 
your lordship the disagreeable part of the character ; and if I 
expatiate more largely upon it than the former, it is not because 
I take a malignant pleasure in so doing, hut because my present 
design urges me on to the unwelcome task. 

" If I am prejudiced in favour of any church, my lord, it is 



DAVIES— TO THE BISHOP OF LOTIDOS. 203 

of that established in Scotland ; of which I am a memher 
in the same sense that the Establishecl Church in Virginia 
13 the Church of England: and therefore, should I give your 
lordship an account of the state of religion there, you would not 
suspect it of excessive severity. Now, my lord, suppose I had 
resided four years in Scotland, preached frequently, and obtained 
a pretty extensive acquaintance in five different counties, gone 
sometimes as a hearer to the established kirk, and been occa- 
sionally at courts and the like public conventions ; spent a week 
at sundry times in the metropolis, and a day or two in some of 
the principal towns ; lodged in private families frequently in 
various parts of the country; and (which I may nientioD as of 
some weight in conjunction with tlie other opportunities of per- 
sonal ohsorvation) received frequent and well attested infor- 
mations from multitudes from various parts, and of different 
denominations; your lordship would grant that I had sufficient 
opportunities to make some observations on the state of reli- 
gion, and could not suspect that my partiality would render 
me so implicitly confident that religion was in a flourishing 
state, as that I should take no notice of obvious public facts, 



. -J upon my senses; or so pervert my 

judgment as to conclude all was well in spite of the most 
glarmg evidence.— Suppose then, my lord, that by ail the dis- 
coveries I can make in these circumstances, I find the genera- 
lity grossly ignorant of the nature of living Christianity and 
many of the most important doctrines of the gospel : if I find 
a general unconcernedness about their eternal states discovered 
m their discourse and practice, and no religious solemnity, no 
relish for divine things, no proper anxieties about their spi- 
ritual state intimated by those genuine indications which nature 
gives of such dispositions : if concern about such things, and a 
life of strict holiness even in a member of the established 
^hurch, be generally ridiculed as a fanatical singularity; if the 
Sabbath is prostituted by many to trifling amusements or guilty 
pleasures ; and if worldly discourse be the usual entertainment 
without the sanctuary before and after divine service : if by far 
the greatest number of families call not upon God, nor maintain 
his worship in their houses : if in parishes where there ara 
many hundreds of adults, there be not above fifty or sixty com- 
municants ; and sundry of these too, persons of abandoned 
characters : if multitudes, multitudes toss the most sacred and 
tremendous things on their daring tongues by profane oaths 
and shocking imprecations; and beastify themselves with ex- 
cessive drinking, as though it were a venial si'n : if I get me to 
the great men, and find that these also generally have burst 
the bonds, and broken the yoke; that they discard serious 
rehgion as the badge of the vulgar, and abandon themselves 



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204 SKETCHES OF VIHGIKIA. 

to lawless pleasures, to gaming, cock-fighting, liorse-racing, 
and all the fashionable methods of killing timo, aa the mo8t 
important and serious business of life: if public worship be 
frequently neglected, or attended on with trifling levity ; and 
yet the most build their hopes of heaven on these insipid for- 
malities, regardless of the manner of their devotion : in a word, 
if the trifles of time and sense engross all the thoughts and 
activity of the generality; and the infinite concerns of eternity 
be neglected, or attended on as matters by the by : — if, my lord, 
I should find this to be the state of affairs in Scotland, could 
my prejudice in favour of that church so far bias me, as that 
I could not see religion to bo in a most deplorable situation in 
her? Or would my character of Virginia in my letter to Dr. 
Doddridge be too satirical in such a case ? 

" This, my lord, is the just character of the generality of the 
laity here ; my senses tell me so ; and I cannot doubt of it more 
than of my own existence, I do not mean that ail the parts of 
this character are generally complicated in one person ; but that 
one part of it is the character of some, and another of others, 
and that the whole promiscuously is the character of the gene- 
rality of the laity here : and were I as much prejudiced in favour 
of the church established in Virginia as I may be supposed to 
be of that established in Scotland, I could not conscientiously 
give a better account of it. 

" Further ; suppose, my lord, on observing religion in so mel- 
ancholy a situation in Scotland, I have opportunity of observing 
also what measures are taken by the established clergy there 
for its revival, and to promote a general reformation, and find 
to my sorrowful surprise, that the generality of them, as far aa 
can be discovered by their common conduct and public minis- 
trations, are stupidly serene and unconcerned, as though their 
hearers were crowding promiscuously to heaven, and there were 
little or no danger; — that they address themselves to perishing 
multitudes in cold hlood, and do not represent their miserable 
condition in all its horrors ; do not alarm them with solemn, 
pathetic and affectionate warnings, and expostulate with them 
with all the authority, tenderness and pungency of the ambas- 
sadors of Christ to a dying world, nor commend themselves to 
every man's conscience in the sight of God ; that their common 
conversation has little or no savour of living religion, and is not 
calculated to excite thoughtfulness in the minds of the unthink- 
ing creatures they converse with; — that instead of intense 
application to study, or teaching their parishioners from house 
to house, they waste their time in idle visits, trifling conversa- 
tion, slothful ease, or at best, excessive activity about their tem- 
poral affairs; — that sundry of them associate with the profane, 
and those that are infamous for the neglect of religion, not like 



"•— 8'^ 



DAVIES— TO THE BISHOP OF LONDON. 205 

I Master, to reform them, but without intermm- 
gling any thing serious in their discourse, or giving a solemn 
check to their guilty liberties ; nay, that some of them are com- 
panions with drunkards, and partakers in their sottish extrava- 
gances; — that they are more zealous and laborious in their 
attempts to regain those that have joined with other denomina- 
tions, or to secure the rest from the contagion by calumniating 
the dissenters, than to convert men from sin to holiness ; if, my 
lord, I should find this to be the general character of the clergy 
in Scotland, how could 1 avoid the unwelcome conclusion, that 
such are not likely to be the successful instruments of a general 
reformation ? And who that has not sacrificed to bigotry all his 
regard to the immortal weal of mankind, would not rejoice in 
this case to see a reformation carried on in Scotland by a min- 
ister of the Church of England ? For my part, I solemnly profess 
I would ; for though by this means sundry would fall ofi" from the 
established church, yet there would be a greater probability of 
their escaping eternal destruction, and being made members of 
the church trinmphant in the regions of bliss ; which would be 
infinitely more than a reparation of that little breach of a party, 

" What I now suppose, my lord, in Scotland, is evident matter 
of fact in Virginia, unless my eyes and my ears deceive me, 
and I see phantoms instead of men. The plain truth is, a 
general reformation must be promoted in this colony by some 
means or other, or multitudes are eternally undone: and I see 
alas ! but little ground to hope for it from the generality of the 
clergy here, till they be happily changed themselves ; this is 
not owing to their being of the Church of England, as I ob- 
served before : for were they in the Presbyterian Church, or 
any other, I should have no more hopes of their success ; but it 
is owing to their manner of preaching and behaviour. This 
thought, my lord, is so far from being agreeable to me that it 
at times racks me with agonies of compassion and zeal inter- 
mingled: and could I entertain that unlimited charity which 
lulls so many of my neighbours into a serene stupidity, it would 
secure me from many a melancholy hour, and make my life 
below a kind of anticipation of heaven. I can boast of no 
high attainments, my lord; I am as mean and insignificant a 
creature as your lordship can well conceive me to be: but I 
dare profess I cannot be an unconcerned spectator of the ruin 
of my dear fellow mortals: I dare avow my heart at times is 
set upOD nothing more than to snatch the brands out of the 
burning, before they catch fire and burn unquenehably. And 
hence, my lord, it is, I consume my strength and life in such 
great fatigues in this jangling ungrateful colony. 

" Hence, my lord, you may collect my sentiments concern- 
ing an absurdity your lordship mentions in your letter to 
Dr. Doddridge, that I should attempt to make converts in a 



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206 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

chureh wliich I acknowledge in the meantime to be a cliurcli of 
Christ._ I freely grant the Church of England to he a church 
of Christ: but when I see multitudes ready to perish, and no 
suitable means used for their recovery, can it comfort me to 
think thoy perish in a church of Christ? The articles and con- 
stitution of the established church are substantially good, and 
her ceremonies are little or no binderance, as I observed before, 
to the edification of those that do not scruple them ; but her 



members in this colony are in fast generally corrupted; and I 
think, were I one of her ministers, I should rather ten thousand 
times see men pious dissenters, than graceless conformists. 
It is true, had I no other objection against conformity but the 
present degeneracy of the members of the church, it would be 
my duty to endeavour to promote a reformation in her commu- 
nion: but as I cannot conscientiously conform on some other 
accounts, the only practicable method for me to attempt the 
reformation of her members is that which I now pursue. 

"I shall only add, my lord, that I humbly conceive the infor- 
mations or personal knowledge upon which your lordship has 
characterized a great part of the cJergy in Virginia, may afi'ord 
you equal concern with my character of them. I dare avow a 
more noble spirit than to catch at it with a malignant satisfac- 
tion as a confirmation of mine : and therefore I humbly request, 
nay, demand as a piece of justice, that your lordship would not 
look on my remark on it as tho language of such a disposition. 
I only remind you of it for my own defence, and it shall never 
be officiously propagated by me. If, as your lordship observes, 
' of those that come from England,' (and the most of them come 
from thence), ' a great part are of the Scotch or Irish, who can 
get no employment at home, and enter into the service more 
out of necessity than choice ;' if ' others go abroad to retrieve 
either lost fortunes or lost characters;' how can it be expected, 
my lord, that persons who enter into holy orders, or come to 
Virginia from such sordid views as these, should deserve a better 
character than I gave of them to the Dr. or than I have now 
given your lordship ? But I forbear— your lordship will forgive 
the inaccuracies of this postscript, as I have written it in una- 
voidable haste." 

This^ letter, an evidence of the honesty and simplicity of 
Davies' heart, rather than his worldly wisdom, was never sub- 
mitted to the Bishop's inspection. 

In September 1751 the Synod of New York met at Newark, 
New Jersey. IFrom the minutes of the meeting is the following 
extract — "A motion being made to the Synod by Mr. Davies 
of the necessity of sending to England an account relating to 
the dissenting interest in Virginia, the Synod does order that 
a representation of the circumstances of the Presbyterian con- 
gregations in that colony be made and signed, in the name of 



Ho=,i.div. Google 



DAVIES' LETTER TO DR. AVERY. 207 

the Synod, by Messrs. Burr and Pemberton, to Dr. Doddridge 
and Dr. Avery; and also a certificate of Mr. Davies' charac- 
ter." 

Of the correspondence between Mr. Davies and Dr. Benja- 
min Avery there remain but two letters, one from each writer, 
That from Mr. Davies bears date May Slst, 1752. 

"Rev. Dear and Worthy Sir: — I have been so happy as to 
receive years of Pebruary 22d, about a fortnight ago by Mr. 
Hoit. I also received last December the letter you mentioned 
from the Eev, Dr. Doddridge, informing me of the sentimenta 
of the Lord Bishop of London on my affairs, and giving his 
advice and yours how to proceed. Upon receiving the Doctor's 
letter and the extracts enclosed from the Bishop of London, I 
was surprised to find what unjust representations had been 
made of my conduct, and the circumstances of the dissenters 
here to his lordship; and concluded that till they were rectified 
we could not expect the negotiations of our friends in England 
in our behalf should succeed. I therefore wrote at large to his 
lordship giving him an account of our circumstances here; 
which letter I sent to Mr. Mauduit, to he communicated by him 
to you and Dr. Doddridge (the melancholy news of whose de- 
cease had not then reached me) and after correction to be sent, 
if you judged it proper, to the bishop. At the same time I 
wrote to you soliciting your interest in hehalf of the dissenters 
here, which I find by yours, your generous temper rendered 
needless ; but whether any of them are come safe to hand I 
know not. 

" Since I received yours I have been uneasy lest my letter to 
his lordship should be put into his hands without your approba- 
tion ; as my sentiments therein expressed, concerning the mis- 
sion of bishops to North America, were different from yours in 
your letter to mo. When I expressed my satisfaction in the 
proposal, I spoke in the simplicity of my heart and according 
to my judgment, which I have had no reason to alter since, but 
only your dissent; in which I put implicit confidence as you 
have better opportunities to discover the consequences of such 
missions than I. That the settlement of bishops in the dis- 
senting colonies would be injurious to them I easily see; but I 
find by the Bishop of London's letter to Dr. Doddridge, that 
this was not proposed. And I was not able to discern what 
injury the settlement of a bishop in Virginia or Maryland, 
where the Church of England is established, would be to the 
few dissenters in them ; and I was not without hopes it might 
tend to purge out the corrupt leaven from the established 
church, and restrain the clergy from their extravagances, who 
now behave as they please, and promise themselves impunity as 
there is none to censure or depose them on this side the Atlantic. 



„^,.,.,gle 



208 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

However, dear sir, if you think me mistaken, you may take 
■what measure you think proper to prevent any ill consequences 
that may be occasioned by the unreserved declaration of my 
opinion m my letter to his lordship. And as I shall hereafter 
impose upon you the trouble of receiving and reviewing the 
papers I may find occasion to transmit to England on the 
affairs of the dissenters in Virginia, I not only allow, hut 
request you, sir, to correct or suppress them as your superior 
judgment may direct you. As I judge the matter is of great 
importance to the interest of religion in this colony, I would 
not willingly incur guilt by omitting any means in my power 
to reflect light upon it; but for want of judgment and a more 
thorough acquaintance with the state of affairs in England, I 
may sometimes fail in the right choice or prudent use of means 
for that purpose ; and therefore to prevent any ill consequences, 
I must call in the assistance of your judgment and that of the 
committee. 

" I waited on the Governor and Council about a month ago, 
m company with one of my brethren, the Rev. Mr. John Todd 
who applied to then- Honours to be qualified to ofBciato in and 
about Hanover county, as my assistant; and with much diffi- 
culty our petition waa granted. But they refused to license 
any more meeting-houses, where either of us might officiate 
occasionally, in such places as are inconvenient to the meeting- 
houses already licensed. I have strong expectation Mr. Todd 
■will settle in Hanover to relieve me of a part of my charge, 
which I hope will prove a happy providence to this colony, and 
particularly to the dissenters, as he is a pious, prudent youth, 
and a very popular preacher ; and his settlement will tend in a 
great measure to remove tho odium that has been unjustly 
flung upon me as an itinerant, because of my officiating at so 
many places. 

"I urn fully satisfied, sir, that as you intimate tho Act of 
Limformity and other penal laws against non-conformity are 
not m force in the colonies; and consequently that the dis- 
senters have no right nor indeed any need to plead the Act of 
Toleration as an exemption from those penal laws. But sir 
our Legislature hero has passed an act of the same kind with 
those laws, though the penalty is less, requiring all adult 
persons to attend on the established church. As this act was 
passed since the Revolution, it was necessary that Protestant 
dissenters should be exempted from its obligations and tole- 
rated to worship God in separate assemblies ; (though indeed, 
at the time of its enaction, viz., the 4th of Queen Ann, there 
was not a dissenting congregation, except a few Quakers, in 
the colony) and for this purpose, our Legislature thought fit 
to take m the act of Parliament made for that end in England, 

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DA VIES— TO AVERY. 209 

rather than pass a new one peculiar to this colony. This, sir, 
you may see in my remonstrance to the Governor and Council 
wbich I find has been laid before you. Now it is with a view 
to exempt ourselves from the obligations of the above law made 
by our Legislature, that we plead the Act of Toleration, and 
we plead it not as an English law, for we are convinced it 
does not extend hither by virtue of its primitive enaction, but 
as received into the body of the Virginia laws by our Legisla- 
ture. And though for some time, some pretended to scruple, 
and others denied that the Act of Toleration is in force hero 
even in this sense ; yet now I think it is generally granted, 
and all the question is about the intent and meaning of this 
Act ; particularly whether a dissenting congregation, that is 
very much dispersed, and cannot meet at one place, may claim 
a nght by virtue of said act, to have a plurality of places 
licensed for the convenience for the sundry parts of the con- 
gregation? And whether it allows a dissenting minister to 
divide his labours among two congregations at sundry meeting- 
houses when by reason of the scarcity of ministers each con- 
gregation cannot be furnished with one ? I hope, sir, all occa- 
sion for the latter will be removed by Mr. Todd's settlement, 
but the former will still continue, as the dissenters, Mr. 
Todd's congregation and mine, cannot be accommodated with- 
out a plurality of meeting-houses. Seven have been licensed, 
four of which will be under his care, and three continued under 
mine, and in these we purpose to officiate statedly. But there 
is a number of dissenters in four or five places who cannot 
obtain ministers of their own, nor attend on our ministry at the 
places licensed already, by reason of distance ; and they are 
very desirous to have houses licensed among them, where any 
qualified dissenting minister whoni they shall invite, may offici- 
ate occasionally, and the only question, sir, which we would 
have determined in England, is, whether the Act of Toleration 
entitles them to have houses licensed among them for that pur- 
pose. 

"We doubt not of your zeal, dear sir, to manage the afiair; 
and we cheerfully leave it to you and the gentlemen of the 
committee to determine the most proper time to prosecute it. 
But this, sir, I would inform you of, that we are not asking a 
favour of the Government, but entering a legal claim. If it be 
determined by competent authority, that the Act of Toleration 
docs not allow the dissenters to have meeting-houses licensed, 
where they may occasionally meet for public worship, we shall 
quietly resign our claim, till some favourable juncture happens, 
when we may petition for the enlargement of our liberties. But 
if we may legally make this claim ; if dissenters enjoy this privi- 
lege in England ; and if the rulers there judge that the Act of 
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210 SKETCHES OF YIRGIMA. 

Toleration entitles them to it, then wo humlily conceive that the 
pushiDg the matter to a determination could be attended with no 
ill consequences ; as we only pressed for an explication of the 
Act of Toleration, with reference to Virginia, according to its 
true intent and meaning in England, whether the determination 
of such a point belongs to the lawyers, to judges, or to his 
majesty and council, you, sir, can Seterjnine : though an authori- 
tative order from the latter would be moat regarded by our 
rulers ; and all the order we desire is this, that wherever ten or 
fifteen families of Protestant dissenters, who cannot attend at 
the meeting-house already licensed, apply for licenses at the 
General Court, they shall be granted them. It has been confi- 
dently affirmed to me hj some of the Council that the dissenters 
in England have no such privilege. In this, sir, I request your 
information ; for if this be the case we must resign our claim. 

" I send you inclosed a copy of a certificate given to the clerk 
of the General Court last April, to he presented to the Court. 
He showed it to the Governor and some of the Council, in my 
presence, before they sat in court, and their answer was — ' That 
it would be in vain to present it in court, for they would grant 
no more licenses till they had received answer from England, 
whither they had written for instructions.' Another certificate 
was presented to a county court, and rejected, and a third would 
have been presented to the General Court had I not discou- 
raged the persons concerned, by informing them it would be in 
vain. The certificate is drawn up in the form prescribed by 
Dr. Doddridge io his letter to mo ; and it was his judgment that 
in case it should be refused, we should have just ground of com- 
plaint in the courts of England. I therefore send you a copy 
of it, that you may make what use of it you think expedient. 
The persons concerned in all these certificates live thirteen, 
twenty, thirty, forty miles from the nearest of the places already 
licensed, and therefore unless they can obtain places licensed 
contiguous to them, they will be generally deprived of public 
worship altogether. 

"I also send you a narrative of the state of religion among 
the dissenters here in Virginia, printed in Boston ; and if it 
engage your fervent prayers, intermingled with thanksgivings 
for us, my end is obtained. I also present you with a collection 
of poems, which, though beneath your notice in all other 
respects, will, I hope, be acceptable as a token of impotent 
gratitude, 

"I have had some thoughts of laying our affairs before the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and soliciting 
their interest in our behalf. My motives are partly that their 
concurrence may enforce your attempts in our favour; and 
especially to convince the world that I am a Presbyterian 



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DR. AVERY'S LETTER TO DAVIES. 211 

minister, wliicli some here have pretended to scrapie : and I 
can think of no better expedient for this end than to pievail on 
the General Assembly to espouse my cause. But in this, and 
in all other affairs of the like nature, I am wholly at your direc- 
tion and control ; and as I shall rei^uest my friends in Scotland 
to act in concert with you, it will he still in your power to fol- 
low your own judgment. 

"Though I apply to you as a petitioner for a favour, yet, 
when I assure you that I affectionately love you, and remember 
you when I bow my knees to the God and Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, you will not, I hope, suspect it as an artifice to 
bribe your friendship. Though my warmest gratitude is due 
for your generous and pious zeal for the interests of dissenters, 
yet I have a disinterested esteem for you on account of your 
personal worth, which universal fame has not permitted me to 
be unacquainted with. I request your prayers, dear sir, for 
me, that I may be faithful and successful in that part of the 
Lord's vineyard which his providence has assigned me ; and for 
my people, that their li^t may so shine before men, &c. 

"The news of Dr. Doddridge's death gave an incurable 
wound to my spirit ; and Zioa through all her dirisions has felt 
the blow. I should be glad to know what posthumous writings 
of his are put to the press, and particularly, whether he lived 
to finish his Family Expositor, which is very acceptable in Vir- 
ginia, and of great service already to sundry families. 

"I expect, dear sir, you will write to me as frequently as 
you can, for my mind is uneasy till the matter be deter- 
mined; till then, I hope, I shall exercise that patience, and 
show that quiet submission, which you in the name of the 
committee have so kindly recommended to me. I request you 
to return my most grateful acknowledgments to them, and 
assure yourself that I am, reverend and worthy sir, your obliged 
and most humble servant, 

Samuel Davies. 

"Hanover, May 21st, 1732. 

"I write in a hun-y, and therefore you will exercise your 
candour, sir, towards my blunders and inaccuracies." 

Letter from Dr. Avery to Mr. Davhi. 
" Rev. and Dear Sir — Yours of the Slst of Slay came safe 
though directed in a way which for many years I have not been 
used to; having not preached these thirty years past. Jlr. 
Mauduit received yours of an earlier date designed for the 
Bishop of London, which he communicated to me, and we 
agreed that it was by no means advisable to send it to his 
lordship. I shall not enter into any debate with you eoneorn- 
ing the scheme proposed for erecting a Bishoprick in Korth 



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212 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

America. The less is said on that head, either on your or on 
our side of the water, I believe the better. But one thing in 
youra addressed to his lordship greatly surprised me. You 
represent your friends in North America, particularly in New 
York, Virginia and Massachusetts, as far as your correspon- 
dence reaches, if not as desiring, yet aa very willing to ac- 
quiesce, in having such an ecclesiastical superior officer sent 
over to America with power to ordain, confirm, &c. Now all 
my accounts from Connecticut, the Jerseys, and the Massa- 
chusetts, directly and strongly contradict this. They uni- 
formly speak of it as a measure quite inconsistent with their 
peace and tranquillity. Erom both the ministry and Jaity in 
all those colonies, I have received thanks for my having done 
the little I did do, or indeed could do to prevent such an ap- 
pointment taking place; and I have had the most importunate, 
repeated solicitations to prevent so sore a calamity as that 
seemed likely to prove to the colonics. These I have had from 
many quarters; and some of them expressed in strong and 
irritating terms. Yours to his lordship is the first letter I 
have seen from those parts expressing a desire, or so much as 
an indifference and coolness on that head. 

"This must he my excuse for not forwarding your letter to 
his lordship, though on several other accounts on which I 
cannot enlarge, I should not have thought it proper to be put 
into his hands; some relating to himself, and some to yourself; 
but I will add one that would have been an objection to me had 
I approved of every sentiment in the letter; I well knew the 
length would have caused his lordship to have treated your 
letter with a contempt and disregard it did not deserve. For 
in cases which these great men, whether in church or state, 
have most at heart, I have repeatedly seen that they cannot 
bear long and minute representations. 

" The next subject of your letter is an inquiry, whether you 
are not entitled according to the Act of Toleration to license 
aa many meeting-houses as you see fit. Now if the Act of 
Toleration be, in so many words, adopted, or wrought into 
your constitution and made a proper law of your colony, and 
is to be interpreted as the Act of Toleration is understood 
here, nothing can be more plain than that you may certify, 
record, or register as many houses for religious worship, as ■the 
dissenters in the colony think they want, or choose to have. If 
I was disposed to certify or register twenty houses in the parish 
in which I live as designed for religious worship, and demand 
it in the same form in which you tell me you have done, on 
paying sixpence either at the Quarter Sessions or in the Ses- 
sion Court, the officers of those courts would not 

dare refuse it ; if they did, we know where to apply 



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DR. AVERY'S LETTER TO DAVIES. 213 

bencli would immediately grant a mandamus, and oblige tlio 
clerk of the peace, or the proper officer in tlie Ecclesiastical 
Court to do as we desired. Where you arc to apply for redress 
according to the laws of your colony, we cannot say. Perhaps 
you have no Justices of the Peace or General Quarter Sessions, 
but every thing is adjudged among jou by your Governor and 
Council. From them indeed you have an appeal to the King 
and Council ; but redress this way cannot readily and speedily 
be procured. Such appeals must be attended with very great 
expense. 

" Though I well tnew the Attorney G-eneral's and other emi- 
nent lawyers' opinion on this question before, I have taken Sir 
D. Ryder's opinion on this head for your use, aJid herewith 
send it over to you, hoping that when bis excellency your 
worthy Governor and the Council shall see, peruse, and con- 
sider it, they will no longer refuse your friends' request. 

" When you certify places as designed for religious worship, 
you are not obliged to say who is to officiate in that place, your 
unnecessarily saying that has furnished the gentlemen who 
refuse and oppose you, with an handle. But the design of this 
proviso was not either to prevent the multiplying our places for 
worship, or to oblige us to ascertain and specify the persons 
who are intended to officiate in those places, in the proviso 
there is not a word relating to the qualifications, much less to 
the names of the persons to be employed therein. There are 
indeed other clauses of that Act relating to the qualifications 
of ministers [a couple of lines wantingl mentioned in the Act. 

" I cannot advise you to have any recourse to the General 
Assembly of Scotland. I do not see how an application to them 
will or can stand you in any stead. 

"I thank you for the historical account you sent me of the 
state of religion in the colony, and for the ingenious poems 
which accompanied your obliging letter. I have perused both 
the one and the other with pleasure, and my most fervent 
prayers shall not be wanting that the cause of religion, virtue, 
truth, liberty, and the most extensive charity may daily gain 
ground in Vii'ginia and all your neighbouring colonies. 

" Dr. Doddridge's death is a great wound to the dissenting 
interest, and indeed to the interest of religion. Our consola- 
tion must be, that the Lord reigns, who can carry on and per- 
fect his work even without instruments, or by the means of 
•such who seem to be much less fitted and qualified for such ser- 
vice than those which He has thought fit to remove. 

"May your health be confirmed and re-established, your 
valuable life prolonged, your usefulness be long continued and 
daily increasing, and your faithful endeavours to serve God and 
promote the welfare of your fellow creatures with respect to 



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214 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

their most important interests, be attended with the most <lesi- 
rahle success. Id which wishes the gentlemen of the com- 
mittee concur. 

"With, Kev'd and dear Sir, 

"Your sincere friend 

and humble servant, 

"Benj. Aveky." 

" P. S. You may be pleased when you show the Attorney 
General's opinion to his Excellency to let him know that you 
received it from me whom I flatter myself he will recollect, as 
he has seen me often both in London and at Bath ; and pray 
present him with my most respectful compliments." 

The opinion of Sir Dudley Rider is not to be found : but its 
meaning is not to be mistaken. It evidently decided two 
things, — that by the English interpretation of the Act of To- 
leration the dissenters might ask for the licensure of as many 
houses as they thought necessary without fear of refusal, — and 
that this interpretation properly extended to Virginia. We 
Bee from the letter of the bishop of London, that his lordship 
entertained a different opinion. The Governor and Council of 
Virginia claimed the right, as supreme executive and judiciary 
of the colony, to determine the number of houses of religious 
worship to be allowed dissenters, and also their location. From 
this decision of the Governor and Council there was no redress 
but by an appeal to the King and Council, which was both 
troublesome and expensive. Here the matter rested till Mr. 
Davies visited England. After his return from England he 
received two letters from the committee of the dissenters, which 
will be given in their chronological order. They show the in- 
terest taken in the cause of the dissenters in Virginia, by the 
dissenters in England; and that all hope of redress from civil 
authority lay in an appeal to the King. 

Amid all his labours, in seven preaching places, besides his 
journies to attend upon the judicatories of the church, Mr. 
Davies found time and strength and disposition to make fre- 
quent missionary excursions to the sections of country now 
included in the counties of Cumberland, Powhatan, Prince Ed- 
ward, Charlotte, Campbell, Nottoway and Amelia. One of his 
excursions is referred to in the following account by Bev'd 
Archibald Alexander, D. D., of Princeton, who from his 
residence of many years in Prince Edward and Charlotte 
during tho latter part of the eighteenth and the hcginning 
of the nineteenth century, had full opportunity of becoming 
acquainted with the early history of the congregations. It 
is taken from a brief memoir of Major James Morton, which 
appeared in the Watchman and Observer for February 18th, 



DAVIES AND LITTLE JOE MORTON. 215 

1847. — "AVhen Mr. Davies took long tours of preacliino-, 
which he usually dicl in the course of the year, he was com- 
monly aeoompamed by a pious young man, not merely as a 
companion, but as a pioneer to ride on before, and find a place 
of lodging; for many people were unwilling to receive a "JVcwi- 
light" preacher into their houses, in those days. In this service 
young John Morton (father of Major Morton) was sometimes 
employed, for having been converted under Mr. Davies's min- 
istry he was delighted to have the opportunity of enjoying his 
company and pious conversation. The writer has often heard 
old Mrs. Morton, of Little lloanoke Bridge, called the mother 
in Israel, relate the circumstance of Mr. Davies's first visit to 
that place. Young John Morton, who was a relative, came, 
one day to know, whether Mr. Davies, the Kew-light preacher, 
could be lodged there that night. Her husband, called, by way 
of distinction. Little Joe Morton, not being at the house, she 
could not answer. But when he was sent for, from the field, 
and the question was proposed to him, after a few moments 
consideration, he answered in the affirmative ; and Mr. Morton 
went back to the inn, and brought Mr, Davies to the house. 
And with him Christ and salvation came to that house. Eoth 
of the heads of the family, under the influence of tho gospel, 
as heard from Mr, Davies, became truly and eminently pious. 
And their conversion was the foundation of tho Briery Congre- 
gation, of which Little Joe Morton was tho first elder, and 
before they had a regular minister, was more like a pastor than 
a ruling elder; for every Sabbath he would convene the people, 
and read to them an evangelical sermon; and regularly cate- 
chise the children out of the Shorter Catechism. The writer 
never saw this excellent man ; but he can truly say he never 
knew any layman to leave behind him a sweeter savour of piety. 
None was ever heard to speak of him after hia decease, other- 
wise than with respect bordering' on veneration. And all the 
children of this pious pair became members of the Presbyterian 
Church; and if all their children and grandchildren were col- 
lected together, who are members of the church, they would 
form a large congregation ; and among them would be found 
several preachers of the gospel." 

_ In those circuits for preaching, it was the habit of Mr. Da- 
vies either to preach at the places where he lodged, or to give 
a lecture to the family and servants, at evening worship. 
These services were pre-eminently blessed; many neighbour- 
hoods have traditions of their usefulness. Every visit enlarged 
his circuit and increased tho number of places that asked for 
Presbyterian preaching. 

In the year 1752 the Synod of New York met at Newark, 
on the 29th of September, the day after the Commencement of 



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216 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

Kew Jersey College, located in that place. On the second tky 
of the sessions, in the afternoon — " Mr, Davies is come to the 
Sjnod ; his not coming in the beginning of this session occa- 
sioned by mistaking the time of meeting," The Rev. Jonathan 
Edwards, on a visit to his son-in-law, Mr, Burr, the President, 
bein^ present at the meeting of Synod, was enrolled a corres- 
ponding member. Mr. Edwards preached before the Synod 
from James ii, 19 — " Thou believest there is one God ; thou 
doest well; the devils also believe and tremble." "The Synod 
agreed to desire the Rev. Mr. Edwards to publish his sermon 
preached before them," The sermon was printed under the title, 
" True Graco distinguished from the Experience of Devils." 

" Upon a representation of the destitute circumstances of 
Virginia, the Synod appoint Mr. Grcenman and Mr, Robert 
Henry, to go there sometime betwixt this and the next synod." 
Mr, Edwards, under date of November 24th, 1752, writes to a 
gentleman in Scotland, — " "When I was lately in New Jersey, 
in the time of the Synod there, I was informed of some small 
movings and revivals in some places, on Long Island, and in 
New Jersey. I then had the comfort of a short interview with 
Mr. Davies of Virginia, and was much pleased with him and his 
conversation. He appears to bo a man of very solid under- 
standing, discreet in his behaviour, and polished and gentle- 
manly in his manners, as well as fervent and zealous in reli- 
gion. He gave an account of the probability of the settlement 
of Mr. Todd, a young man of good learning and of a pious 
disposition, in a part of Virginia near to him. Mr. Davies 
represented before the Synod the great necessities of the peo- 
ple, in tho back parts of Virginia, where multitudes were re- 
markably awakened and reformed several years ago, and ever 
since have been thirsting after the ordinances of God. The 
people are chicfiy from Ireland of Scotch extraction. The 
Synod appointed two men to go down and preach among these 
people : viz. Mr. Henry, a Scotchman, who has lately taken a 
degree at New Jersey College, and Mr. Greenman, the young 
man who was educated at the charge of Mr. David Brainerd."' 
This opinion of Edwards was formed of Davies in an assemblage 
of great men, assembled on a great occasion, the Commence- 
ment of their College, and the meeting of their Synod. 

Mr. Todd, referred to in the above extracts, was finally set- 
tled in Virginia. He was installed Nov. 12th, 1762. The 
sermon preached by Mr. Davies, on the occasion, was publish- 
lished. Prom the dedication, the following fine extracts show 
the disposition and ministerial course of the two men. It is 
addressed " To tho Rev, Clergy of the Established Church of 
Virginia." 

"In the following sermon, and appendix, gentlemen, you 



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DAVIES— TO DR. DAWSON. 



21T 



may bo infofmed of our sentiments concerning the nature and 
design and various duties of the ministerial ofEce. The follow- 
ing sermon will also inform you, gentlemen, what is the sub- 
stance of the doctrines we generally preach ; whether they are 
tho rigid peculiarities of Presbyterianiam, or the generous 
truths of catholic Christianity ; whether they are the raw in- 
novations of 'iVew Lights,' or the good old doctrines of tho 
Church of England, of the Reformation, and to say all in a 
word, of the Bible. If you would know, revered sirs, what 
has been that strange charm that has enchanted people in these 
parts to leave the stated communion of the established church, 
and to profess themselves dissenters ; we can solemnly assure 
you, and our hearers of every denomination are our witnesses, 
that it has not been any public or private artifice of ours to 
expose _ the liturgy and clergy of the Church of England ; hut 
the plain, peaceable preaching of such doctrines as are men- 
tioned in the following sermon, in weakness, and in fear, and 
in much trembling. And if we may believe the united testi- 
mony of our adherents, it was an eager thirst after these doc- 
trines, rather than a dissatisfaction with the peculiar modes of 
worship in that church, which first induced them to dissent." 

In tho same dedication, he gives an extract from a letter he 
had previously sent to tho Commissary, Dr. Dawson— "for 
whose memory" — he says — "I have a sincere veneration, 
written at his motion, to give him, and the other gentlemen of 
the Council, to whom he promised to communicate it, an impar- 
tial account of the dissenters here; and what he was pleased to 
request, I may, I hope, inoffensively present to yoa. I am 
not fond, sir, of disseminating sedition and schism ; I have no 
ambition to Presbyterianize the colony. But I may declare 
without suspicion of ostentation, or wilful falsification, that I 
have a sincere zeal, however languid and impotent, to propa- 

fate the catholic religion of Jesus in its life and power ; though 
feel but little anxiety about the denomination its genuine 
members assume. The profession of Christianity is universal 
in this colony ; but alas, sir, if the religion of the Bible be the 
test of men's characters, and the standard of their final doom, 
multitudes, multitudes, are in a perishing condition. Their 
ignorance, their negligence, their wrong notions of vital Chris- 
tianity, their habitual neglect of its known duties, their vicious 
practice proclaim it aloud; and he that can persuade himself 
■of the contrary, in spite of evidence, is possessed of a charity 
under no rational or scriptural regulations. For my part, sir, 
should I believe that religion is in a flourishing state in this 
colony, I must renounce the Bible, disbelieve my eyes, and my 
ears, and rush into universal scepticism. Could I indulge the 
pleasing dream, iny life below the skies would be an anticipation 



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218 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

of hcnven. I do not conclude religion is in so lamoiitaWe a state 
because I see tlie generality pray by form, receive the sacra- 
ment kneeling, — or in word, because they conform to the de- 
bated peculiarities of the established church ; — no sir, I freely 
grant that these things are not the test of men's characters ; 
these may be so far from hindering, that for what I know, they 
may promote living religion, in such as have no scruples about 
them ; — but the unwelcome evidences that force the conclu- 
sion upon me, are, the general neglect, and stupid unconcem- 
edness about religion, the habitual omission of its duties, and 
the vicious practices that glare upon me around, and which are 
utterly inconsistent with true religion in any denomination. 
I pretend to no superior sanctity above the established clergy, 
who are piously aiming at the great end of their office, — and I 
allow myself the pleasure of hoping there are such in Virginia. 
I pretend to no Apostolic powers and privileges, immediate 
revelations and impulses, but renounce the claim as presump- 
tuous and enthusiastical. I am as mean and insignificant a 
creature as you can well conceive me to be. But I dare pro- 
fess, sir, that even a heart so insensible as mine, is at times 
■iissolved into compassion and racked with agonies of zeal, when 
so dismal a sceUe opens around me; I dare profess, I cannot 
stand an unconcerned inactive spectator of the ruin of my fellow 
sinners, but would very gladly spend and be spent for them, 
though the more abundantly I love them, the less I should bo 
loved. I am bold to avow so much pious humanity, as that I 
would exert myself to the utmost, in my little sphere, for their 
recovery ; and since I am disabled by some conscientious scru- 
ples, to attempt it in the communion of the established church, I 
humbly conceive, I am warranted to attempt it in a separate 
communion. This, sir, is my only design, and, as I told ^ou in 
conversation, I think it would be no great stretch of charity to 
suppose, that even a dissenter may be more distressed to see 
multitudes rushing on, in a thoughtless career to ruin, than to 
see them conform to the Church of England ; and more zealous 
to convert them from sin to holiness, than from party to party." 
He thus concludes his dedication to the established clergy, 
in the following manner. " This account of my conduct and 
designs, gentlemen, I have seen no reason to retract, and my 
procedure since it was written, which was about a year ago 
(1752) has not been inconsistent with it. And till my practice 
be proven inconsistent with it, these unreserved declarations of 
my designs must be deemed sincere, and worthy to be credited : 
unless mortals can produce authentic credentials to warrant 
their assuming the prerogative of Omniscience, and judging the 
secrets of men. My sole design is to give you an impartial 
account of the doctrines with which we entertain our hearers : 



"•— 8'^ 



DA VIES TO THE ESTABLISHED CLERGY. 219 

that you may judge how far we deserve to be eensareil and 
id as ' innovators, disturbers of the peace of the church, 
f of heresies and sedition.' And if the following sermon 
• this end, the design of its publication with respect to 
yon, ia fully obtained. But if I should be so unhappy as to be 
disappointed in this, I must support myself by reflecting upon 
the inoffensiveness and integrity of my intentions; and as 
Chrysostome observes, in the quotation from him in the title 
page — it is a sufficient relief under all his labours, and more 
than equivalent for them all, when one can be conscious to him- 
self, that he regulates his doctrine to the approbation of the 
Deity. And to translate my first motto from Clemens of Alex- 
andria, he is in reality a presbyter of the Church, and a true 
minister of the will of God, who teaches the doctrines of the 
Lord Jesus, and practices accordingly; and though he be not 
honoured with the first seat upon earth, he shall be enthroned in 
heaven. To that state of perfect uniformity in sentiment, and 
everlasting friendship, may you be conducted, when you have 
served your generation according to the will of God ! And 
then may divine grace afford some humble place, among the 
myriads of glorified immortals, to the unworthy mortal who is, 
and therefore desires to he esteemed — Reverend sirs, your affec- 
tionate brother, hearty well ■vvishcr, and humble servant, 

Samuel Davies." 
" Hanover, January 9th, 1733. 

About a month before the installation of Mr. Todd, Jlr. 
Davies preached before the Presbytery of New Castle, October 
11th, 1752, from these words, — "For Zion's sake I will not 
hold my peace, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest, until 
the righteousness thereof go forth as brightness, and the salva- 
tion thereof as a lamp that hurneth." By the desire of Pres- 
bytery and the congregation it was published, being printed at 
the office of B. Franklin and D. Hall, in Market street, Phila- 
delphia, 1753, — with a preface by Rev. Samuel Finley. This 
sermon is given nearly complete in the 9th vol. of the Literary 
and Evangelical Magazine, by J. H. Rice, D.D, The design of 
the sermon is, "L Mention some measures wliieh the ministers 
of the gospel should pursue for the advancement of religion in 
the world, II. Offer some important considerations to engage 
us to use such measures with unwearied diligence and aeal." A 
sermon that would well have a place in his printed volumes. 

Another extract from Dwight's Life of Edwards, found on 
page 498, will throw some light on the history of these times. 
In writing to the Rev. John Erskine of Scotland, he expresses 
himself thus — " IVhat you write of the appointment of a gentle- 
man, to the office of Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, who is a 



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SKETCHES OP VIRGIXIA. 



friend to religion, is an event that the friends of religion in 
America have great reason to rejoice in, by reason of the late 
revival of religion in that province, and the opposition that has 
been made against it, and the great endeavours to crush it, by 
many of the chief men of the province. Mr. Davies, in a letter 
I lately received from him, dated March 2d, 1752, mentions 
the same thing. His words are — ' We have a new Governor, 
who is a candid condescending gentleman. And as he has 
been educated in the Church of Scotland, he has a respect for 
the Presbyterians ; which I hope is a happy omen,' 

" I was, in the latter part of last summer, applied to, with 
much earnestness and importunity, by some of the people in 
Virginia, to come and settle among them, in the work of the 
ministry, who subscribed handsomely for my encouragement and 
support, and sent a messenger to me with their request and 
subscriptions ; but I was installed at Stoctbridge, before the 
messenger came." He does not say what his feelings were 
about the call, or Virginia as a place of labour. Under a pre- 
vious date, July 5th, 1750, Mr. Edwards says, — " As to my sub- 
scribing to the substance of the AVestminster Confession, there 
would be no difficulty ; and as to the Presbyterian government, I 
have long been perfectly out of conceit of our unsettled, inde- 
pendent, confused way of church government in this land ; and 
the Presbyterian way has ever appeared to me most agreeable 
to the word of God, and the reason and nature of things." 

Mr. Kobert Henry, appointed by the Synod of 1752, to 
visit Virginia, was installed pastor of Cub Creek, in Charlotte, 
and Briery in Prince Edward. Mr. Todd performed the ser- 
vices. Mr. Todd took part of the congregations for whom 
Mr. Davies obtained licensed houses on his first visit and set- 
tlement. Mr. Henry took his position on the south-western 
frontier, and was not installed till June 4th, 1755, after Mr. 
Davies' visit to England. 

Besides these personal labours to promote the extension of 
gospel truth in Virginia, — his multiplied preachings in his seven 
houses for public worship, — his numerous and fatiguing mission- 
ary excursions to the frontiers east of the Blue Ridge, — his 
particular attention to the coloured people, — his efibrts to sup- 
"ily the vacancies around him with ministers from the northern 
^resbyteries, — Mr. Davies began early to rear up preachers of 
the gospel in Virginia. He did not desire to complete their 
education under his own eye, as appears from his communica- 
tions with Mr. Pattillo on that subject. He looked to New 
Jersey College, then the favourite institution of the Synod of 
New York, as the proper place for the students to complete 
their studies. Mr. Davies was instrumental in bringing for- 
ward and aiding in different stages of their education. Sir. John 

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Pi 



MISSION TO GREAT BRITAIN. 221 

AV right, a graduate of New Jersey College, in 1752 ; ]\Ir. Pat- 
tillo, so favourably known in Carolina history ; Mr. John ilar- 
tin, the first licentiate of Hanover Presbytery ; Mr, William 
Richardson, ordained in 1758, and intimately connected with 
North and South Carolina history; James Waddel, whose 
name fills a chapter in Virginia history ; and Mr. James Hunt, 
a son of one of his elders, and a graduate of Princeton in 
1759. Mr. Davica promoted classical schools, though his mul- 
tiplied labours prevented his being the head of one in Virginia. 
Mr. Davios endeavoured faithfully to perform the duties to 
which ho was called, by the providence of God, in Hanover 
county, and on the frontiers of Virginia. His post was one 
of arduous labours. He was brought into intimate relations with 
all grades of society, from the African slave on the plantations, 
to the Gfovernor and Council; and in all he was equal to 
his position. "He seems" — as one said of him, on seeing him 
pass through a courtyard — " as an embassador of some mighty 
king;" and aa such sustained his Master's cause with dignity 
and success. By his apostolical labours he had been improved 
in strength of body, activity of mind, and ardour of piety. He 
had become accustomed to take large views of things, and to act 
on great principles, with confidence, in great emergencies. 
He had learned to govern himself, and by convincing and per- 
suading to govern others. God gave him great success in his 
ministry ; every thing to which he put his hand appeared to 
prosper ; and as was said of the patriarch — " whatsoever they 
did there" — among the dissenters in Virginia — " he was tho 
doer of it." The eyes of the church, in America and Eng- 
land, had been turned upon tho dissenters in Virginia, strug- 
gling for tho rights of Christians and of freemen ; and sudden- 
ly and unexpectedly, Davies found them turned upon himself, 
and heard the voice of his brethren calling him to new labours 
and self-denial, in another sphere. 



CHAPTER XI. 



The Synod of New York met at Newark, New Jersey, Sep- 
tember, 1751. On the first day of the session — "a petition was 
sent into the Synod, by the Trustees of the College of New 
Jersey, desiring that the Rev. Mr. Ebenezer Pemberton might 



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222 SKETCHES or VIRGINIA. 

be appointed to make a voyage to Europe, to solicit benefac- 
tions for said College; and Ukewise requesting that eome mem- 
bers of the Synod might be ^pointed to go immediately to 
Kew York, to treat with Mr. Pemberton'a congregation upon 
said affair. The Synod taking the matter into consideration, 
do appoint Messrs. Aaron Burr, Hichard Treat, William Ten- 
nent, and Samuel Davies, to be a committee to go immediately 
to New York and treat with Mr. Pemherton's congregation 
upon said affair." On the evening of the next day the com- 
mittee returned and reported, — "that their attempts wero to 
no purpose in the affair of their mission." Mr, Jonathan 
Edwards, in a letter to Mr. Erskine, Scotland, July 7th, 
1752, says, — "There was a design of Mr. Pemherton's going 
to England and Scotland. He was desired by the Trus- 
tees, and it was his settled purpose to have gone last year; 
but his people and his colleague Mr. Cummings, hindered it. 
His intention of going occasioned great uneasiness among his 
people, and created some dissatisfaction towards him, in the 
minds of some of them. Since that, President Burr has been 
desired to go, by the unanimous voice of the Trustees. Never- 
theless, I believe there is little probability of his consenting to 
it; partly on account of his having lately entered into a married 
Btate." 

In 1752, an application was made to the Synod by the 
Trustees, that a collection be taken up, in all the congrega- 
tions, for the use of the College. The Synod agreed, and 
directed the collection to be made previously to the ensuing 
May. Many of the contributions, made in obedience to the 
recommendation of Synod, were generous; but the sum ob- 
tained was far from being sufficient to sustain a college. The 
Legislature had been applied to for patronage, repeatedly, and 
bad as often refused all pecuniary aid. A mission to Great 
Britain was again talked of; and the eyes of the Trustees were 
now turned to Messrs. Davies and Tennent, as their mes- 
sengers to the motherland. 

On the 4th of October, 1753, the Synod of New York, hold- 
ing its meeting in Philadelphia — "application was made to the 
Synod in behalf of the Ti-ustees of the College of New Jersey, 
requesting the Synod to appoint two of their members, viz : 
Crilbert Tennent and Samuel Davies, to take a voyage to 
Europe on the important affairs of the said College : to which 
the Synod unanimously consent." 

At this time, the College of New Jersey existed only on 
paper, and in the hearts of the Synod of New York, and a few 
pious people. There were no permanent funds, library, philo- 
sophical apparatus, faculty, building, or "local habitation." 
It had a noble President, and had been sending out { 



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COLLEGE IN NEW JERSEY. 223 

Of the fifty joung men who had received the degree of A. B., 
tweaty-six had entered the ministry, of whom five went to 
Virginia, and one aa a pioneer in North Carolina. Davies felt 
its importance. The instruction of youth in the classics and 
sciences, as well as theological and other professional studies, 
had, in all the country south of New England, with the excep- 
tion of the College of William and Mary, in Virginia, been left 
to the enterprise and benevolence of individuals. Those who 
took the lead in the education of youth were clergymen, some 
from the spirit of their station, some from necessity, and some 
from both causes combined, as teaching in some of its forms is 
the minister's appropriate employment. 

Rev, William Tennent, sen., who opened the famous school 
Neshaminy, commonly known as the "Log College," died in 
1746. Eev. Samuel Blair, his pupil, towards the close of Ten- 
nent's life, opened a similar school at New Londonderry, from 
which came Davies and Rodgers, and many other preachers. 
Rev. Samuel Finley, afterwards President of Nassau Hall, 
opened a similar school at Nottingham, which, after the death of 
Mr. Blair, was the place of instruction patronised by Newcastle 
Presbytery ; and the fame of Finley spread far and wide. In 
the meantime, Rev. Jonathan Dickinson, of Elizabethtown, New 
Jersey, was engaged in giving instruction, in the liberal studies, 
and became equally famous as a teacher and preacher. Some- 
time before his death, the members of the Synod of New York 
were impressed with the conviction of a permanent collegiate 
institution ; and applied to the Legislature for a charter for a 
a college, of which Mr. Dickenson was expected to be the Pre- 
sident, The charter was obtained October 22d, 1746, but not 
being satisfactory was never acted upon. Mr. Dickenson went 
on with his course of instruction, preparing young men for the 
bachelor's degree, till his death, October 17th, 174T. Gover- 
nor Belcher, a man admired for the suavity of his manners, and 
venerated for his piety, obtained a new charter in September, 
1748. About two months afterward, the first eommencement 
of the College was held at New Brunswick ; and six young gen- 
tlemen received their first degree. After the death of Mr. 
Dickenson, the students had been under the care of Eev. Aaron 
Burr of Newark, who, on this first commencement day was, by 
the unanimous vote of the Trustees, chosen President. 

Some of the members of Synod were not pleased with the 
second charter ; and though named in it as trustees, did not at 
first give the College their cordial support. The Eev. Jona- 
than Edwards, in a letter to Mr. Erskinc of Scotland, May 
20th, 1749, says, — " I have heard nothing new that . is very 
remarkable, concerning the College in New Jersey. It is in 
its infancy. There has been considerable difBculty about set- 



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224 SKETCHES OF VIEGINIA. 

tling their charter. Crovernor Belcher, who gave the charter, 
is willing to encourage and promote the College to his utmost ; 
but differs in his opinion concerning the constitution, which will 
tend most to its prosperity, from some of the^rincipal ministers 
that have beeo concerned in founding the society. lie insists 
upon it that the Governor, for the time being, and four of his 
Majesty's Council for the province should always be of the 
Corporation of Trustees ; and that the Governor should always 
be the President of the Corporation. The ministers are all 
very willing that the present Governor, who is a religious 
man, should be in this standing : but their difficulty is with 
respect to future governors, who, they suppose, are as likely to 
be men of no religion and Deists, as otherwise. However, so 
the matter is settled, to the great uneasiness of Mr. Gilbert 
Tennent in particular, who, it is feared, will have no further 
concern with the College on this account. Mr. Burr, the Presi- 
dent of the College, is a man of religious and singular learning, 
and I hope the College will flourish under his care." 

Rev. Mr, Gilbert Tennent had not been active for the College 
as had been expected. By this appointment for the mission to 
Europe, this honest hearted man was compelled either to set 
himself in opposition to brethren whose judgment be respected, 
and whose esteem was dear, or embrace the College as the child 
of bis afi'cctions, and the object of his labours. He chose the 
latter. Mr. Davies from his position was the most interesting 
minister in tho Presbyterian Church, His name, at home, and 
abroad was associated with thrilling incidents and reminiscences. 
Many in England desired to see the young champion of toleration 
in Virginia. The friends of Mr. Tennent wished to secure the 
services of that able man; and desired his being sent on the 
mission as a relief from the pressure of some severe domestic 
bereavements. 

While the Synod of New York was thus occupied in laying 
the foundation of the present flourishing College, Nassau Hall, 
the Synod of Philadelphia was not idle. Inthe year 1739, Kev. 
John Thompson, a leading man of the old-side, proposed to the 
Presbytery of Donegal the erecting a school to be under the 
care of Synod. The Synod, in May, of the same year, unani- 
mously approved the design, — " And in order to the accomplish- 
ing it did nominate Messrs, Pemberton, Dickenson, Cross and 
Anderson, two of which if they can be prevailed upon, to be sent 
home to Europe to prosecute this afl'air with proper directions. 
And in order to this, it is appointed that the commission of the 
Synod, with correspondents from every Presbytery, meet in Phi- 
ladelphia, the third Wednesday of August nest. And if it be 
found necessary that Mr. Pemberton should go to Boston pur- 
suant to this design, it is ordered that the Presbytery of New 



„^,.,.,glc 



MR, ALISON'S SCHOOL. 



Yort supply his pulpit during his absence." This commission 
of Synod met in August, and after much prayerful consideration, 
resolved to call the SjQod to meet the last Wednesday in Sep- 
tember, in Philadelphia,—" And that Messrs. Andrews, Cross 
and Treat do prepare what addresses, letters, credentials, or 
other instruments may he proper against the meeting of Synod." 
On the minutes of Synod for the next year is the following re- 
cord — " The war breaking out hetween England and Spain, the 
calling of the Synod was omitted and the whole affair laid aside." 
Dr. Coleman of Boston had assured the Synod of the co-opera- 
tion of tho Boston clergy in erecting the school. Here the 
matter rested for some years. 

In the year 1T43, after the disowning of the New Brunswick 
Preshytery, and the actual, though not formal divisions of 
synod, the members of the Philadelphia Synod, called the 
" Old-side," resumed tho business of the school, by a committee 
from the Presbyteries of Philadelphia, New Castle and Donegal. 
This committee resolved that the school be opened. The nest 
year the synod approved the designs, and took the school under 
its eare. Tho first article of the plan was — " that there be a 
school kept open where all persons who please may send their 
children, and have them instructed gratis in languages, philo- 
sophy and divinity." The support of the school was to be 
derived from yearly contributions by the congregations under 
the care of the Synod. Rev. Francis Alison, the finest scholar 
in the two Synods, was appointed master, with the privilege of 
choosing his own usher. " The Synod agree to allow Mr. Alison 
twenty pounds per annum, and the usher fifteen pounds." In 
the year 1746, May 30th, the synod, in reply to a letter from 
President Clapp, of Yale College, say — " Some years ago our 
Synod found the interests of Christ's kingdom likely to suffer, 
in these parts, for want of a college for the education of young 
men. Mr. William Tenncnt set up a school among us, where 
some were educated, and afterwards admitted to the ministry, 
without sufficient qualifications, as was judged by many of the 
synod. And what made the matter look worse, those that were 
educated in this private way denied the usefulness of some parts 
of learning that we thought very necessary. It was therefore 
agreed to try to erect a college, and apply to our friends in 
Britain, and Ireland, and New England. But when we were 
thus projecting our plans, the war with Spain was proclaimed, 
'which put a stop to our proceedings then. The Synod then 
came to a public agreement to take all private schools where 
young men were educated for the ministry, so far under their 
care as to appoint a committee of our Synod to examine all such 
as had not obtained degrees in the European or New England 
colleges, and give them certificates if they were found qualified, 



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22G SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

Tvhicli ■were to serve our Presbyteries insteail of a college 
diploma, till better provision could be made. Mr. Gilbert Ten- 
nent cried out that this was to prevent his father's school for 
training gracious men for the ministry; and he and some of his 
adherents protested against it, and counteracted this our public 
agreement, admitting men to the ministry which we judged 
unfit for that ofBce. While these debates subsisted, Mr. White- 
field came into the country, whom they drew into their party to 
encourage divisions. And by bis interest Mr. Gilbert Tennent 
grew hardy enough to tell our Synod he would oppose their 
design of getting assistance to erect a college wherever we 
shoi3d make application, and would maintain young men at his 
father's school in opposition to us. This, with his and his 
adherents' divisive practices, obliged the Synod to exclude him, 
and others of his stamp, from their communion. Upon this the 
Synod erected a school in the year 1744. It was agreed that 
the said school should be opened under the inspection of the 
Synod, where the languages, philosophy and divinity should bo 
taught gratis, to all that should comply with the regulations of 
the school, being persons of good character and behaviour. 
Several ministers and gentlemen have helped us to boots to 
begin a library ; and we hope that in time we may obtain assist- 
ance from England, Ireland, and elsewhere, to enable us to 
found a college. We have not obtained a charter as yet, but 
have reason to hope we may procure one, if there be occasion. 
We excluded from synodical communion the four Tennents, 
Blair, Craighead, Treat, and Mr. Wales. These, especially the 
Tennents, Blair and Treat, being the ringleaders of our divi- 
sions, and the destroyers of good learning and gospel order 
among us ; and they with a few others that joined with them, 
erected themselves into a separate body, and licensed and 
ordained men for the work of the ministry, that were generally 
ignorant and warm in the division scheme, and they have troubled 
Virginia and the New English government." In the year 1749 
the plan of the school was modified, Mr. Alison's salary was 
increased, and he was permitted to receive tuition from all, 
except those the trustees should judge unable to bear the 
expense. Mr. Alison removed to PhUadelphia in the year 
1752, to take charge of the academy in that city. When that 
institution was erected into a college he was put at its head. 
These circumstances checked the efi'orts of the Synod for erect- 
ing a college. This school flourished under the care of Mr. 
Alexander McDowell, to whom, in 1754, Mr. Matthew Wilson 
was added as assistant. In 1755 a donation of books was 
received from Dublin, with which the Synod resolved to com- 
mence a public library, under the care of their own body. 
This statement of a few facts respecting the action of the 



DELEGATION DEPARTS FOR EUROPE. 22T 

two Synods, and thoir friends, for their favourite schools, will 
throw light upon the position of Messrs. Tennent and Davies 
as delegates to Europe for the advancement of the interests of 
New Jersey College; the journal of Mr. Davies will be read 
to greater advantage; — and the perplexities of Mr. Tennent 
better understood. Mr. Tennent was at times almost over- 
whelmed, by meeting copies of his Nottingham sermon in Eng- 
land, and by the private letters sent from America calculated 
to prejudice the pious people in England against him and his 
cause. Before his mission to England, Mr. Tennent had be- 
come an advocate of the union of the two Synods, to whose 
division he had contributed no small share. On his return to 
Philadelphia, his zeal and energy contributed not a little to the 
harmony of the Church and the union of the Synods under the 
name of Synod of New York and Philadelphia. "He that 
confesseth and forsaketh shall find mercy." The Church has 
long since spread her mantle of love and sweet remembrance, 
over his memory; and a reference to his imprudent zeal will 
do him no harm, while it may be a warning to others against 
indulgence in passionate denunciation, and hasty judgment of 
character and Christian standing. 

The summer of 1753 was passed by Messrs. Tennent and 
Davies in preparations for their voyage. Davies parted with 
his family and congregation for the long absence, with great 
reluctance. Mr. Tennent, on account of his bereavements in 
his family, had less to bind him to Philadelphia. On the 3d of 
September, Mr, Davies says — " I took leave of some thousands, 
yesterday, in public ; and to-day I parted with some of my se- 
lect friends, and my dear spouse, my honoured parents, and 
three helpless children, and left them in a flood of tears." 

The departure of the delegation was delayed. On Saturday, 
November 17th, they went on board a vessel bound to London. 
Mr. Davies kept a journal. That relates to his labours, trials, 
and success. It was written in two small volumes; one of 
which was obtained from his family by Dr. Eice, and is pre- 
served in the library of the Union Theological Seminary in 
Prince Edward, Virginia ; the other was found hy Dr. Cujler, 
in Philadelphia, and by him deposited in the library of Nassau 
Hall. These two manuscripts are nearly entire, as they came 
from Mr. Davies' pen. " Of almost all the men mentioned 
by him" — says Dr. Rice, in his Magazine, vol. 2d, pp. 334, 5 — 
"we have biographical sketches, made by their acquaintances, 
since their death; and it is wonderful to observe how the hints 
of Davies coincide with the fuller accounts of others. lie 
must have possessed great powers of observation, and a won- 
derful faculty of looking into human character." 

Messrs. Davies and Tennent parted in Edinburgh : Mr. Ten- 



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228 JOURNAL OF REV. SAMUEL DATIES. 

nent, to visit Glasgow and Ireland ; Mr. Davies, the principal 
towns in England, — as he says — "solitary and sad." They 
met again in London, Oct. 1754. In Novemher Mr. Tennent 
sailed directly for Philadelphia. Mr. Davies took passage for 
York in Virginia, the same month, but on account of unfavour- 
able weather did not leave the coast for about six weeks. The 
voyage was long and unpleasant. lie landed in York, Feb. IStb 
1755 : the next day waited on the Governor in Williamsburg, 
and on the morning of the 15th reached home — " and found all 
well." 

Tho success of the mission to Great Britain surpassed expec- 
tation. A large amount of money was secured ; all doubts as to 
the permanency of the College put to flight; public sympathy 
was excited for the sufl'ering dissenters in Virginia ; contributions 
were secured for the education of pious young men at Nassau 
Hall ; and a greater interest awakened for the welfare of the 
Indians in tho provinces.- For immediate eff'ect, or permanent 
usefulness, no delegation from tho colonies to the mother country 
ever equalled that of Messrs. Tennent and Davies for Nassau 
Hail. 



CHAPTER XIL 

JOURNAL OF REV. SAMUEL DAVIES, FROM JULY 2, 1753, TO 
FBEEUARY 13, 1755. 

tho God of iny mercies constrains me to own myself 
ProYidence; as it haa generallj disposed of me in a 
manner diHerent from, and sometimes contrary to my eipeetation, my purpose and 
desire. Such an onespected and undesired eient was my separation iVom my 
brethren and settlement in Virginia ; and jet I have since looked upon it as a pro- 
vidential dispensation for the recovery of my health, to harden me against opposi- 
tion, to increase my popularity, to make me acquainted with the world, as well as 
vrith books, to supply the most neceesitoua congregation, and upon the whole, to 
enlarge the sphere of my usefulness more estensively than so insignificant a creature 

Beems to call ma to a very important embaasj for the church and for the public; 
and as it will tend much to my future aatisfaction, to have the reasons of my pro- 
cedure by mo for a review in the hour of peipleiity ; I think it espedieut to state 
the affair in writing and to keep a diary of all the remarkable occurrences I may 
meet with in my voyage, which I intend'lo begin about •**• hence, unless Provi- 
dence lay something in my way that may acquit me from the obligation which I aeera 
to lie under to undertake it. And it is my prayer to the God of my life, and the 
guide of my youth, that He, who condescends to manage even my mean affairs, 

whether it lead me to the ends of the earth, or confine me to the eiercise of my 
ministry at home. The College of New Jersey erected about eight years ago with 

and learning in three colonies,— New York, the Jerseys, and Pennsylvania,— and 



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HIS REASONS FOR THE MISSION. 21 

£3000 in Ihe college fund ; but Ihis will hardly be eufficlent for the erecdoo of p 
per buildings ; and if it should dH be laid out for that end, there wilt be nothi 
lefl for tnaiatenance of the professors and tutors, to furnish a callege library, a 
to support pious youths for the ministry, who are unable to support themseli 



Toured to employ Mr. Pen 

in his stead. After Ihis disappointment (near two years ago) some of the 
Trustees importuned tne to undertake the affair ; but considering my youth and 
other defects 1 could hardly think them in earnest. However, I mentiooed the 

renewed their application and I my refusal ; and I never espected to hear more of 
it. But last winter the Board of Trustees unanimously voted me to undertake the 
voyage. When I was informed of it by a letter ftom worthy President Burr, it 
struck me into a consternation and perplexity unknown before. All Ihe lender 
passions of the husband, the minister, the father and the son, (all which relations 
centre upon me) formed an insurrection in my breast against the proposal, and 
with these I have struggled ever since. My conjugal anxieties were increased by 
the languishing state of my tenderer and better part, which my absence for so 
long a time might perhaps increase, t was also afraid lest my dear congregation, 
whose hearts are so eiceasively set upon me, should suffer by my absence. .The 
dangers of the seaslikewisa appeared terrible; and above all, ray just conciousness 
of my want of qualifications for so important an embassy, sunk my Epirits ; and 
jel luy remonstrances on this head would not be regarded by others. After all the 
deliberation and consultation in my power, I determined to lake no notice of the 
many difficulties in my way which were superable, but to insist only on these two 
things as the conditions of my compliance ; the one for the support of my femilj, 
and the other for the relief of my congregation ; viz. that a proper person should 
be sent to supply my pulpit during my absence .' and that he should be maintained 
at the expense of the College, that my salary might run on for the support of my 
family. These proposals I sent to the Trustees in a letter per post ; but not trust- 
ing to Ihe loitering and uncertain medium of correspondence, I despatched a mes- 

tees had readily consented to my proposals; and therefore expected my compli- 
ance with their vote. 

I was aUo informed of this important incident, that Mr. G. Tennent, by the death 
of his wife and mother, had no domestic incumbrance to prevent his going : and 
that the Trustees had applied to him for thai purpose, and he had consented to the 
undertaking in conjunction with me. The expectation of so accomplished a part- 
ner in the embassy did, in a great measure, remove the despondencies arising from 
my want of qualifications, and in the mean lime confirmed the sense I had of this, 

" ' ■ ' " " " " ), of my unfit- 

orlhy and agreeable a com- 
it Mr. Tennenl was appointed, and that he had 
los about the necessity of my going: for it was 
at nrst proposeo mat i snoujo go alone ; which supposed that one alone might per- 
form the embassy; and if 1, or indeed any member of the Synod could do it alone, 
then undoubtedly Mr. Tennenl can. But these scruples were removed by such 
considerations as these, suggested by the Trustees. That the going of two would 
give an air of importance to Ihe embassy, and additional weight to our negotia- 
tions. That by this means, Ihe affair which requires expedition, would be trans- 
acted much more speedily. That this would render the voyage more agreeable to 
both : and that my refiisa! might furnish Mr. Tennent and his congregation with 
occasion to refuse too. To these I may add, what has most weight with me, that 
Ihe dissenters in Virginia lie under such intoleraWe restraints, that it is necessary 

with it. 

Another consideration that had a groat deal of weight with me, was this, that my 
congregation, my parents and even ray lender hearted weeping spouse, did either 
consent to Ihe undertaking, when it was laid before Ihera, or discovered a kind 



»,Googlc 



230 DAVIES' JOURNAL. 

of submissive reluctance. Thia diapoaition could not but estort my apiirobAtion, 
eten when it shoclied me as an omon of my going ; and it endeared the agreeable 
companion of my life eo much more to me thai so long an obaence from her will if 
possible, he still more painfnl. The varions opporlunitiaa I may have of peraonal 
improvement, and that in things in which a pedant and a recluse is most deficient ; 
the varions friendships that may be contracted which may tend mnch to the 
honour and security of dissenters here, who stand so much in need of patronage, 
are also considerable escitements. 

and at once lo hint my insufficiency for it alone and clear the way for Mr. Ten- 
nent's going too. Had providence removed hie wif" =n(1 mn.l,i.r « li.ile o-ri;^,- 
before the Trustees had pitched npon me, Ihej w 

him only; as I am couTinced nothing but nect— ..j ^„„,^„ .„^... „ 

make application to me, at eo great a distance, and bo unfit (alas 1 I feel myself 
8D) for the bnainess. Had his wife and mother died sometime after, it would have 
been loo late for him lo go ; and I mast have gone alone. If I had only written 
per post, and not sent a messenger with my answer immediately, Ihey would have 
looked upon my delay aa a denial, and coqaenuenlly employed Mr. Tennent 
alone. These and sundry other oircumatancea, I think I may without a tincture 
of enthnsiasm, look upon as providential dispensations, adjusting matters so as to 
order my going, yet not alone, which I am fully convinced, would he injurious to 

Then 

were obliged to iinderlafce a'voyago for that end alnnej at lhe"e°i-pen'ee of the con- 
gregation, it would be very burdensome lo them and me; I cannot but conclude 
that -it is with a view to thia that Providence has directed the Trustees to make 
application to me i for considering my known want of qualifications, and the little 
acquainWnco the moat of the Trustees have with me, their vote appears to me utterly 
onaocounlibie, without supposing such a providential direction. This is the more 
remarkable ; ae this seems, on many accounts, the most proper crisis to do some- 
thing in behalf of the dissenters here ; as Mr. Tennent'a influence in conjunction 
with mine, will probably be of great service in the affair; and as it will not carry 
BO selfish and irritating an aspect lo be managed, by the by, as if it were made the 
sole business. I am also encouraged from the reflection that my congregation will 
not probably saffet in my absence ; ae Mr. Wright, I expect, is well accomplished 
for the place ; and my cautiousand prudent Rev. Mr. Todd, will be so near at hand 
to assist in cases of difficulty. The Commiaaioners for Indian affaire, will be glad 
of this opportunity for the propagation of the religion of Jesns amonE the poor 
savages; and it is likely we shall succeed in raising contributions for that cud. And 
oh ! how transporting the thought, thai these barbarians may he cultivated by divine 
grace, in the use of the proper means, and polished into genuine disciples of the 
blessed Jesus. For this alone, it woald be worth one's while to spend and be 
spent. On these accounts I do geiierally conclude it will be my duty to undertake 

•' ^mbasey, unless Providence evidently acquit me of the obligation, by laying 

: u,_„. .__=_„j,„^j, 

, under this conviction of duty, I have found fre- 
iiutiii.uoBuiio ui resignation loihs Divine pleasure, and a willingness to follow the 
calls of doty to the ends of Ihe earth. At other times I have been eager for the 
undertaking, and afraid of a disappointment. At others I have been eilremely inti- 
midated, and shrunk away from the prospect; the dangers of sailing, and the difii- 
culty of the mission, the pain of a separation, and the ansieties of so long an 
absence from my people, my parents, my children, and especially my dearest crea- 
ture, have sunk my spirits into the depth of despondency, so that my thoughts, 
night and day, were hardly ever fixed upon anything else. My principal difficulty, 
at present, arises from the languishing slate of my dear wife, which I am afraid 
has some tendency towards a consumptive illness. 1 think I could break through 
the strongest complicated tiee of the paternal and filial relation, and cast mj help- 
less family upon the care of Providence ! but Ihe thought that my wife should pine 
away in my absence, without the satisfaction my company would afford her, or that 
by the anxieliea of separation, her constitution should be injured, thia thought 
seems atterly insupportable, and alarms all my tender and amicus passions. That 
whichat presentappearsduty tomeielhie.thatlshouldgoupon the mission with 
thislibertyresetved,lhatif I heat of my wile being dangerously ill, 1 may imme- 
diately return. 1 thou God of our life, with all the importunity so languid a soul 
IS capable of eierting, I implore thy gracious protection for her, that she may bo 
supported in my absence, and that we may eijjoy a happy interview again. My 
temporal affairs are much embarrassed, and if I should be removed into the eternal 



I r;, Cockle 



LEAVES HOME.— MR. WRIGHT 



limoroua apprehension. Butl woalJ cheek it ns aiguing a diffidence in Divine 
Ptovidence, and not well-rounded, for I am mortal at home, ss well ns abroad. 
My present aniietiee are collected into one point, viz., m; wife's indisposition. 
She WBB so Ian gaiehing, ai|d attended with bdcIi threatening Bymptoms of a growing 
conaumpeion, the day before yesterday, that I have been in the utmost perplexity 
ever since, till co-day that I have set dowa to atate the affiiir, and come to tSe con- 

diately. In case my wife's disorder is become dangerous. 

' JiUy 11. — Through the indulgence of Divine Providence, my tenderer half, ani- 
mae dimidiiim meae, has been considerably better for some days ; and my Billy 
and Johnny, that have been disordered, are recovered; which enconragea me to 
undertaie (he voyage. But alas! my conacience ia this day burdened with guiir, 
and I cannot apply to the pacifying blood of Christ, which alone can purge the 
conacience tVom dead works, to serve the living God. 

July 13. — Mr. Wrijht arrived here by order of Presbytery — lo know whether I in- 
tended to undertake the voyage. I wna exceeding glad to aee my former friend and 
pupil invested with the aacred character, and advanced to thehonour of an ambas- 
Bador for Jesus; bnt it cast me into considerable perplexity to find that it was his 
opinion there was no necessity for my going to Europe in behalf of tbe College, since 
Mr. Tennent waa going ; end that he »as verv opwilling to stay here any time to sup- 
ply my pulpit, and absolutely refused to stay all the time of my absence, as it would 

forasettlement.foraconaiderable time. I 'was at length freed from my perpleii- 
liea, and determined logo, by considering,— That llie Trustees are the beat judges 
of the necessity of my going with Mr. Tennent, and they are very eager for it, 
otherwise they would not continue their application to me ; for my voyage, all 
things considered, will probably cost the college more than Mr. Tennenl's, — That 
Mr, Wright'B judgment may be something perverted by his reluctance to atiy bera 
BO long,— That the affairs of the diasentera in Virginia would alone be aufficient 
reason for my going-; and possibly I might be obliged to go soon, upon this 
account alone, if I should not take this opportunity,— And that Mr. Todd, who, I 
am sure, will be uneasy in thejibsenoe of his ftiend, and who knows the stale of 
affairs here, is fully convinced that it is my duty to go. On these accounts I 
resoma my former conclusion, that it will be my duty to undertake the embassy, 
though I am FEKFLEXEn to know how my congregation can be supplied in my 
absence, unless Mr. Wright determinea to stay here, at least till next spring. 

September 3d, 1753. — This moming I felt the painful rupture of the tender relative 
ties which bind my heart to Hanover. I took my leave of some thousands yester- 
day, in public ; and to-day 1 patted with some of my select friends, and my dear, 
dear apouse, my honoured parent, and three helpless children, and left them in a 
flood of tears. To thee, O Lord, I then solemnly committed them, and now I 
renew the dedication, I know not if aver I shall see them again j but my life and 
theirs are in the hands of divine Providence, and therefore shall be preserved as 
long as is fit. My tender passions were melted into a flood of tears at parting j but 
DOW through the goodness of God, they are subsided into a calm, though at times I 
am twinged with a suddon pang of anxiety. Rode in company with my hind Friends 
Mr. Morris, Mr. Brame, and Mr. Todd, who is lo go along with me to the Synod. 

I have been nneasy for some time, to find that sundry in my congregation were 
not pleased with Mr. Wright's preaching. But now, to my unspeakable satisfac- 
tion, I find they are generally engaged to him in a tolerable degree ; and 1 hope 

uance here; though he has met with auch occasional shots as may occur in 
converaaUon, which may deserve to be recollected. Mr. Finley told me he had 
lately almost imbibed a notion which ha fbrmerly rejected, viz.-^That compassion 
proceeds from a selfish principle. Because both persons in the estremlty of 
misery— and that know nothing of misery—are incapable of it. 

Saturday, — As the committee ia to meet at Mr. Finley's next Wednesday, I 
intend to stay here till then. To-day, the hurries of my jouriiey being over, my 
thoughts can find leisure to make frequent excursions to Hanover, and tenderly 
hover around my dear wife and family. Ah ! what panga of ansiety I frequently 
feell May the Lord bless all that are dear to me, and favour me with a happy 



eell May the 1 
eturn (o them 1 
Sunday. — Preached at Mr. Pinley'a on Deuteronomy i. 

have lost the spirit with which il 



»,Googlc 



232 AT MR. FINIEY'S— MR. TENNENT'S. 

rarely retain the spirit of preaching in the hurries of a journey. The materials of 

gtuity, than to spealt the most solemn truths with a trifling spirit. Indeed, the 
incongruity appeared to me so great, (hat I was obliged to omit snndry things, 
though written before me in my notes, for want of a heart to eipresa them with 
suitable tenderness and fbrvour. There appeared some small solemnity among the 
hearers ; but oh I how far short of what I have seen in this place, in the days of 
the right hand of the Moat High. Conversed with my ingenuous and dear friend, 
Mr. Finley, in the evening ; and conimunicat 

greater than is generally supposed : which a; 

malaphor/ssS in the Scriptures to denote moral depravity] which supposes that 
the flesh, literally taken, has a special causality in it i otherwise there would be no 
ground for the metaphor, but it would be as proper to denote sin by the term spirit 
or soal, from the diSetent inclinations of the soul according to the different stales 
of the body, and as the tariely of bodily habiu may be the occasion of a variety of 
sinful inclinations, bo the habit of the body may be constantly such, amid ail its 
changes, that it may perpetually influence the mind to sin in general. 

Monday, Septeiaber 10, 1753.— Continued at Mr. Tinley's— " Stong with the 



houghts of home ; the thongtits of b 
■elieTfrr-"— ■-- -^— - -- •- 



;r from them bnt either in thoughtless levity, or in devotion. Head some part 
of the appeal in favour of the Candid Disquisitions; and never was more pleased 
with the candour, impartiality, and moderation of an author. How becoming, how 
gracefal, how advantageous is such a spirit (o the cause of truth and its advocates! 
May I deeply imbibe it ! Alas, I have been perplexed (his day with the vigorooB 
insurrection of sin in my hearts but my resistance and humilialion has not been 
proportioned. Oh! wretched man that I am. 

Tuesday.— Mr. Roan and Mr. Smith met in committee, and Mr. Finley and I in 
conjunction with thera revised and corrected a draft, drawn up by Mr. Blair, of a 
warning or testimony of the Presbytery of New Caslla against several errors and 
evil practices ofMr.JohnCutbbertson, a Scotch bigot, ordained by one Mr.McMul- 
len, who was deposed by the Ganerai Assembly of Scotland, and subscribed the 
deposition with his own hand j and one Mr. Nairn, who was one of the secedcrs, 
and afterwards aicoromunicaled by them. The errors on which the Presbytery 
animadvert, are these — That God has made over Christ and all his benefits to all 
that hear the gospel, by a deed of gift (as be affects to speak) so that every sinner 
that hears the gospel offer, ought to put in a claim of right to him as his Saviour in 
particalar— That saving faith consists in a persuasion that Christ is mine aod that 
he died for me in parUcalar — That Redemption is universal as to purchase — That 
civil government, both heathen and Christian, is derived from Christ as Mediator. 

Wednesday. — Continued revising the testimony against Mr. CuthherlBon. Preached 
a sermon on Rev. i. 7, and acted the orator; but alas ! I had not the spirit of 
preaching. Enjoyed pleasing conversaUon with my dear brothren ; but ah ! I am 
Blill stung with the thoughts of home. My dear wife frequently enters my mind, 
and raises a passionate commotion there. 

Thursday. — In the forenoon assisted in the review of the testimony against Mr. 
Cnthberlson. Rode in the afternoon to Mrs. Blair's, in company with Mr. Smith, 
and enjoyed much satisfaction in the free mutual commnnication of our Chrisiian 
and ministerial eiercises. How happy am I in having so many valuable fr 
various parts I The sight of Mrs. Blair a"'' ■"- -'■• — "- -i— -■ ^— '■-■- 
happy days of my education, raised a vuri 
mind. When I passed by the meeting-ho 
Blair, I could not help crying, " Oh I hoi 
tiian the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven." 

Friday.— Rode from Mrs. Blair's to Chester. And as I was generally alone, my 
■piriis were vary low, and my mind aniious about my dear family, my congregation 
and my approaching voyage. " Lord I am oppressed, undertake for me." 

Saturday. — Bode into Philadelphia, was kindly received by Mr.Tenoent.and my 
friends there. I visited Captain Grant, and was surprised with the clause in a letter 
ftom Mr. De Berdt of London to him, " Thai the principles inculcated in the College 
of New Jersey are generally looked upon as antiquated and unfashionable by the 
dissenters in England." A dismal omen to our embaasy, and I fear to the interests 
of religion. 

Sunday. — Heard Mr, Tennentpreach an eicelient sermon on — " Deliver us from 
evil," or as he justly rendered it "from the evil one" vm^m; in which he ei. 
posed the wiles and devices of Satan in a very judicious manner. I preached two 
sermons, one in the afternoon and one by candlelight on Rev. i. 7. In the first, 1 
was cold hearted aud abashed with the fear of man ; but in the last I had some free- 
dom and boldness. I esteem the least degree of liberty and solemnity in pteaching 



ly old V 


fa Ik 


s ahni 






If tend, 
where 1 




id sob 
ofren 


he. 


n thoughts 


eadful i 


s th 


ispla 


ce 





"•— gl^ 



IN TRENTON— NEWARK.— DEGREE OF A. B. 233 

the goapel a very great blessing in the hurries of a journey. In conversation was 
much pleased with the pioua Bimplicilj of my spiritual father, Mr. Tennent. 

Monday, S^teiaber n. — Went with Mr. Tetinent to wait on the Governor and 
Secretary ; but they were not at home. Waited on three Lutheran ministers, and Mr. 
Stanter, a Calviniat ; and was not a little pleased with their candor add Bimplioitj. 
How pleasing is it to see the reiigion of Jesus appear undisguised in foreigners I I 
am so charmed with ii, that I forget all national and religious difforenceB ; and mj 
very heart iB intimately united with them. 

Tuesday. — Rode solitary and sad from Philadelphia to Trenton. Spent the eve- 
ning with Mr. Cowel, an agreeable gentleman, of the Synod of Philadelphia ; but 
my spirits were so ejhausted that I was incapable of lively conversation, and was 
ashamed of my binndering method of talking. 

Wednesday.— Rode on, and came to Mr. Spencer's, at Eliiaheth Town, where I 
was most kindly received, and my spirits cheered by hie facetions converBalion. 

TAursdas.— Came to Newark, and was received with muchaffeclion by the worthy 
President. Was honoured with a viail and free conversation with his eicellency 
the Governor. Was uneasy to find that the Trustees seem to eipect that I should 
ftirnish myself with clothes in this embassy. With what pleasure would I do It 
mere it in my power, but alas ! it is not ; snd therefore, rotwith standing all the 
pliableness of my nature, I mtisi insist upon (heir providing for me in this respect, 
as one condition ofmy undertaking the voyage. 

Friday. — Waited on bis Eicellency, in company with the President and his lady. 
Was kindly received, and the Governor insisted that I should preach for Mr. Spen- 
cer nest Sunday come ee'en night, that he might have an opportunity of hearing 
me. O! that I may be enabled to shake off the fear of man, and preach with the 
simplicity and boldness of an ambassador for Christ. Conversed with Mr. Roes, 
who informed me of the spread of Anninianism among the rainisters in New 
England. 

Saturday. — Was employed in drawing up apetition from the Synod of New York to 
the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in behalf of the College. Conversed 
with Mr. Hoit, a pious youth at college. Was much depressed in spirit at the 
prospect of the voyage, and the thoughts of home. May the God of my life sup- 

Sunday. — Heard the President preach a valedictory sermon to the candidates for 
a degree, who are to leave the College this week. His subject was, " And now 
my son, the Lord be with thee, and prosper ihee." And I was amazed to see hon- 
readily good sense and accurate language flowed from him eitempore. The ser- 
mon was very affecting to me, and might have been so to the students. Preached 
twice in the afternoon, and in the last sermon my heart was very solemn and 
tender; and there appeared some signs of concern among the hearers. In the 
evening I had a little dispute with the President about the (rufft of one proposition, 
which 1 principally laboured to prove, " That persons in this age may be said vir- 
tually to have crucified Christ, because they have the same temper with the Jews, 
and because their conduct towards Christ, is as like to that ol the Jews as their 

Monday, S^fember 34, 1753.— My drooping spirits were eihilarated by free con- 
versation with (he President. Spent the most of the day in finishing the petition 
from the Synod of New York to the Genera! Assembly. Attended in the even- 
ing on a meeting for Psalmody, and was much charmed with the power of harmony. 
Amid the variety of new objects that draw my attention, my thoughts often take a 
sudden flight to Hanover, and hover round my Chata, and my other friends there. 
O may indulgent heaven preserve and bless them. 

Tuesday.— Was confined with a sore leg which was a little hurt by a fall out of 

and I took little notice of it for two oi three weeks, it has been so inflamed and 
irritated by travelling, preaching, &c., that 1 tbink it is now dangerous ; and some- 
times look upon it as a providential obstruction in my way of undertaking the 
voyage. 

fVednesday. — This day I delivered a thesis, {persanales dietinctiones sunt rtleTna,) 
and vindicated it in a public dispute against th ' " • -- 

honoured with the degree of Master of Arts. : 
tees. Heard Mr. Todd preach an honest sermon in the evening. 

Thursday. — Received eighty pounds proc. from the treasurer, to bear the ei- 
pensea of the voyage. Went to New York in company with Mr. Hoit, a pro- 
mising young man, and t had agreeable conversation with him upon original sin, 
the influenceofthe flesh upon the spirit to incline it to sin. Arrived at New York 
in the evening ; and lodged at my good friend Mr. Hazard's. Was sorry to find 
the Presbyterian congregation there in such confusion. 



,Googlc 



234 DA VIES— NEW YORK—THE INDIANS— THE SYHOD. 

Friday.~Vf&a coaSnci to the house by mj sore leg, and took phyeio, &c. I had 

aome dangerous and gloomy apprehensions of Ihe consequentea. Mr. Peraborton, 

Mr. Cumming, and Mr, Van Hotu paid me a visit. In the eyening look the advice 

of tha Honourable William Smith, Esq., upon ti 

H pinion was that the reversing ihe ordi 

g I bv the General Court, would be a 

E gl d ■ 

S ( liay— Waited on Mr. Cumming ; sailed to Eliiabeth Town with Mr.Wood- 

iF W pleased with the companj of mj Br. Mr. Spencer and Mr. James 

i d !(— Preached in Elizabeth Town according to his EicHllency's order, on 
J ]S, but had very little freedom or Bolemnity. 

M d i(— Took my leave of his Escellency. Rode with Mr. 8. and Mr. B. to 
M R h ds', a pious miniatet under the deepest melancholy and temptation, 
h as d th perpetual su^estions to cot his own throat. I gave him my best 
d d gave an account of my own melancholy some yeire ago. Lodged at 

M B d'9, the good missionary among tho Indians, and was pleased with his 

t 1 the progress of religion among them, though now they are scattered by 
i heir land being fraudulently taken from them. 

T d g —Took a view of the Indian town ; and was pleased at tlie affection of 

th p vages to their minister, and his condescension to them. Bode on 

d Philadelphia, and spent the time in pleasing conversation, principally on 

Ih ff fthe Indians, with Messrs. Spencer, Brainard and Brown. 

Wednesday,— Ca.aie into Philadelphia— Mr. Troal opened the Synod with a 

mon in these words ; " Who was faithful — ■•■- ■■— —"-■' •-'- ■• 

also was faithful in all his house." Saw i 
my brethren. 

rftursiaj.- Atlend-ed on the Synod. 

Friday.— Did the same. Heard Mr. Bostwicli in t 
sermon on Acta ii. U. He has, I think, the beat 
eier heard. 

SfliiirAis.— Was informed that Mr. G. T. had li 



J and used mv utmuat endeavoura 
beside Mr. Wright; and succeedi 



for my poor people, beside Mr. Wright; and succeeded so far that Messrs. 
Btainard, Rodgers, Honry, Bay, Blair and J. Pinley were appointed to go there 
four or ail weeks each. I hope this will turn to the "benefit of my dear congre- 
gation. O that God may go with bis messengers thither! The commissioaera 
trom New York made application to the Synod for the redress of their grievances ; 
and a committee was appointed to go there for that purpose — of which Mr. Rod- 
gers and I (much against my willl are to be membera. Heard Mr. Boslwick in tho 
evening on " Godlineas is profitable for all things, &c.," and was not a little 
charmed with both his matter and language. 

5 as a hearer for one Sabbath, a privilege 
ould seldom enjoy. Mr. Horton preached 
in me morning an honest judicious sermon on " Christ the wisdom of God and the 
power of God." Mr. Bay in the afternoon on " Behold the Lamb of God, that 
takelh away the sins of the world." He was much daunted and confused. Mr. 
Bostwick in the evening on " When Christ who is your life shall appear, then shall 
ye also appear with him in glory." My pleasure under his sermon was renewed 
and even increased. 

Monday, Ocloher 8ii.— Preached a scrnioi 
— and ihrougb the great merey of God mv hi 
subject; and what tende" --' - ' "'- - ' 
the venerable Mr. Tenn 

and humility appeared v„., _.... ..„ ^ ^ „ .....— .,uu„„.y ,. „ut .„^i 

gloomy sullen mortifying thing which it is generally accounted ; but a most sweet 
and pleasing grace. it is no small ingredient of the happiness of a penitent, and 
a most congtuouB ornament to a mean degenerate creature. Visited the academy 
in company with sundry of my brethren, and entertained with a view of what was 
remarkable in it. Heard some of the little boys declaim ; and though I was 
pleased with their disUncl and accurate pronunciation, I thought in dcliverino 
Bome-of the orations, especially those ofBrutua and Anthony, they were eitremely 
languid, and discovered nothing of tha fire and pathos of a Roman soul. Indeed 
this IS one defect of oratory ; a defect few seem sensible of, or labour to correct 
Bode in the evening as far as Chester on my way to the Presbytery. Sat up late, 
and wrote letters to my Hanover friends, particularly to my dear spouse, full of 
aniieUes. How atropglj does she attract my heart 1 



„^,.,.,glc 



NEW CASTLE PRESBYTERY— ST. GEORGES— C APT. GRANT. 235 

Tuesday. — Rode to the Presbytery at Fa^'a Maoor, solitary and pereive. 
Was refreshed in the company of my dear btethten. Lodged at Mrs. Blair'3, 
where svory thing Buggestad to me Ihe image of the incomparable Mr. Blair, once 

n'ednesday. — Mt. Hog, who has been discouraged by the Prosbjtory hitherto, 
lest his genius shouldnol he fit for the ministry, was licensed, having giien more 
eatisfaclion as to his abilities than was formerly eipectei). — Voted that Mr. John 
Brown should be ordained to-morrow, and that I should preside. Alas '. I am con- 
founded at the prospect of such a solemnity, as I have no time for proper prepara- 
tions, and my thoughts are scattered amid so niDch hurry. 

Thursday, — Spent two or three faonrs in study, and went and preached a sermon 
on Acta is. 28, with a good deal of inaccuracy and confusion ; though with some 
tender sense of the subject. Mr. Brown was oriiained ; and I have hardly ever 
thought myself in so solemn a posture, as whan invoking the God of heaven with 
my hand upon the head of the candidate. May the Lord be his support under the 
burden of that office which he his assumed, I doubt not with very honest and gan- 
erons intentions. Parted with my favourite friend, Mr. Todd, not without tears. 

Friday. — Continued attending on the Presbytery. Mesars. Harris and McAden 

tion. The complaints of the many vacant congregations are so affecting, that the 
growing number of promising candidates is a most pleasing sight. Rode in the 
evening in company with Mr. Charles Tcnnent and Mr. Rodgers to Whiteelay Creek. 

Saiurday. — Was much disordered with a la: and a wind cholic, and could do 
little worth mentioning. In the evening had a fit of the fever and ague. When I 
am not relieved by » humble dependence on divine Providence, I am shocked at 
the thought of being taken ill abroad. 

Smtday, — Was very much pained with the cholic, and in that condition preached 
two sermons, in Mr. Tennent'a meeting-house, to a people I formerly lived among, 
on Deut. ixix. 10 — 13. I had a little IVeedom considering with how much pain I 
spoke ; and that last night I had ver; little sle^, but was in a kind of delirium. 
Rode in the evening to my dear brother's, Mr. Rodgers, but found that even the 
pleasures of Itiendship cannot always support a sinking spirit. 

Monday, October 15. — Stayed at Mr. Kodgcrs's much indisposed. 

Tuesday. — Was somewhat easier. 

Wednesday. — Preached a sermon on laaiab livi. 1, 3— but alas I I had but iiltle 
freedom or tender affection. My soul was rejoiced to see my old friends, and ob- 
serve the continuance of their respect for me. 

Tkaraday. — Stayed in SI. George's. Read in Mathew Mahew's Sermon on the 
Death of the Christian, &c. — through divine goodness I am maoh recovered; though 
still out of order with a cold. O that my soul might prosper. 

FTida,y.—iii. Rodgers and I intended to begin our journey to New York to 
attend on the committee ; but Mrs. Rodgers was unexpectedly taken ill, and this 
morning delivered of a daughter, about a month before the expected time. I found 
a disposition to bless the Lord on her account. How great is his goodness ! My 
own indisposition, and Mr. Rodgers not going along with me, will prevent my go- 
ing to New York. Rode in the evening to New Casde, and spent spme time with 
Mr. Bedford; but alas, felt little disposition to religious conversation. I am con- 
founded when I think how I trifle away my time. 

Sa(Hrdoj(.— Rode to Philadelphia in solitude — my thoughts were trifling, or dis- 

B parcel of genriemen, I perceived myself too much a coward in the good cause of 
God. Lodged at Mr. Hazzard's. 

Sunitos.— Preached in Philadelphia, first on Jer. iisi. 18, 19, 30, then on versa 
3d, [" 1 will be their God, and they shall be my people") and in the last sermon 
had a little freedom and solemnity. Was refreshed with an information from my 
dear and valuable Oieod Captain Grant, of a person that was awakened by my ser- 
mon on Isaiah livi. 1,2. 0! it is unspeakable mercy, that such a creature is not 
wholly thrown by as useless. Had much satisfaction in a free and affectionate 
conference with Captain Grant, upon espcrimental religion, &o. Lodged at liis 
house. 

Monday, October 3S. — Visited Mrs. Johnston in sickness, and had some free con- 
versation with' her about her state. I was aecretly afraid of her piety, and yet I 
could find no sufficient evidence to diaprove it. Mrs. Rodgara unbosomed herself 
to me, and gave me an account of aome affecting, overwhelming views of tb^ wis- 
dom of God in the work of redemption, which ahe had lately had, it was really 
astonishing. How good ia God to his poor children even in this melancholy world! 
in some happy hours they rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory. Dined at 

1101,1 ,,Googlc 



236 DAVIES IN PHILADELPHIA— CHESTER. 

Mr, Mackj'a with Captain Bowen. Spent an hour at Mr. Bradford's. Saw my 
Itanslation of Cleanthu?' Hymn to the Creator, published in the Virginia G.iiette. 
Thursday, Navetaber 8.— I have been so estremelj hurried for about iftesn days, 
that I have not had leisure nur compnsure ta keep a regular diary. I most thers- 
fote content myself with a general review. Mr. Tennent treats me with the utmoal 
"friendship; and my nniieties al the 



Smapect of the voyage are much ir 
have been ■ ■ ■ ■ 



Rcommon kindness during my stay in Philadelphia by 
many: and have contracted sundry new rriendships, »oni which t hnpe to receive 
happiness hereafter, and especially lo enjoy the benefit of many prayers. 1 have 

§ reached abont twenty sernions in Philadelphia; and though my being so Ion; 
elayed was eitremely disagreeable as well aa nneipecled to me ; yet, if Provi- 
dence intended my stay for the good of but one soul, I desire to be content. In 
sundry eermona the Lord departed from me, and I know not when I have preached 
HO often with so much languor. But in ray six last sermons, I had more freedom, 
and my popularity increased, so that the assemhiiea were very large. — Last Sab- 
bath evening in particular, I was solemnized in preaching on that dreadful text, 
Hebrews yi. 7, and though I was afraid it would ehock many of the audience, that 
they would not hear me again ; lo my pleasing surprise, I found them much more 
eager to attend afterwards than before. At tlje final judgment it will be tnown 
what was the eiFeeU Mr. Kinersly and Mr. Jones, gentlemen of very good sense, 
ind of the Anabaptist persuasion attended upon my ministry constantly, and showed 
me much respect. There are a number of Antinomians in town, who have been 
long finding fault with Mr. Tennent. They generally attended and approved, 
except one sermon : and I cannot but think it somewhat remarkable, that though 
my sermons were studied three hundred miles distant, and long ago, yet they are 
generally as well adapted to oppose the Antinomian notions, as if they were 
designed for that end. To^lay I left the city, conducted by Messrs. Haizard, 
Spafford, Hall, Beaty, Chambers, Bedford, Chief, Man, seven or eight of my friends, 
and came to Cheater. Alas! I find the inautreotion of sin violent in my heart; 
and my aniieties about home are sometimes extremely severe, especially when I 
forebode a long absence. I find my heart at once so exceeding sinful, and insen- 
sible of its own depraTily, that I am really shocked at myself; and (he prospect of 
death, or the dangers of the sea, in my present temper, strikes me with a shudder- 
ing horror. It is sin, alae ! that intimidates me: and this removed, I could face 
death in its most tremendous forms, with a calmness and intrepidity. To be 
miserable and to be a sinrwr is (he same thing, and I feel that I can never be 
happy till I am more holy. 

Friday, NoBoaber 9.— Was unespecledly detained in Cheater by bad weather. 
Spent the day in pensive sadness, " stung with the thoughtof home" and distressed 
with my own corruptions—" Behold I am vile." Enjoyed Mr. Rolhwell's company. 

Sin haunts my steps, where'er I dy, 

In everyplace is ever nigh. 

As streams from mountain springs attend 



Presents 


a thousand foi 


■ms of death 


To shod 




. duty's 


path 


Wraps p' 


reaeut time in 


dreadful elot 


And dan 


ips my hope o 


f time t 




Intimidal 


les my soul as 






And mal 


resold ocean 1 


ouder r 




Gives dai 




. the s(o 




And danger a more ahi 


icking f 




Companii 


on dire by Ian. 


d or sea 




No bliss, 


no calm, till 


freed fn 


)mth 


And chat 


ige of place is 


change 


ofm 



Saturday, Nov^nber 10. — Rode from Chester to my dear friend Mr. Rodgers, 
thoughtless alas, of the exceeding depravity of my heart. Fell into company with 
Mr. RosB, an Episcopal minister, who asked me what objections I had against being 
episcopal ly ordained, and when I mentioned some of my objections in the most calm 



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MR. RODGERS— WAITS TOR THE SHIP. 237 

Sandily, Hotcmher 11.— Heard Mr. Rodgcre presch a very good sermon on tliia 
test, " Herein is love, not Ihal we loved God, &c.," and my mind was deep)]? im- 
pressed wilh Huch Ihoughls as these, " We have heard a great deal of the eitreme 
sufferings of one Jesus ; and what effect .has the pathetic repreeenlatiou upon Iho 
hearers 1 Why, the generality hear it with diBpasaionala negligence and stupidity, 
though a few here and there drop a te» at the relation. Thus it is when the agonies 
or the Redeemer are represented ; hnt were we informed that a dear friend or re- 
lative was seised by a company of ruffians and put to the most eilreme tortore j 
what horror would striite us I what lender passions rise in every heart I Why (hen 
are we no more affected with the suiTerings of this Jesus ! Who is he I is he some 
worthies? being that we are no way Goncerned with I Or is [he] a criminal that 
deserved all the agonies he Buff'ered J If this were the case our stupidity would 
not be strange. But how strange must it appear, when we are (old thai this Jesus it 
the man that is God's fellow ! the Saviour of sinners ! crucified for our sine !— Re- 
ceived the Lord's supper with some degree of dispassionate solemnity and calmness 
of mind, and counled it my happiness to have an opportunity of joining in bo solemn 
an ordinance with my dear Mr. Bodgers. Preached in the eveniog on John vi. 37, 
in an unstudied, confused manner; yel some seemed encouraged by it to go to the 
Redeemer. 

Monday, Nocember 12. — Went to see my relations in the tract; and when I 
passed by the places where I had formerly lived, ot walked, it gave a solemn turn 
to my mind. Ah I how much have I sinned wherever I have been I and what 
solemn Iransactions have been between God and my soul in these my old walks ! 
Visited two graveyards in my way, to solemniie my mind among the mansions of 
the dead. I how solemn eternity appeared I how frail and dying the race of 
mortals ! and how near my own dissolution • Returned to Mr. Rodgers', and 
unbosomed ourselves loeach other wilh all the freedom of Christian friendship. 

Tuesday, November 13.— Went to Mr. Stuart's, at Reedy Island, in company with 
my dear Mt. Rodgers, to wait for the ship coming down. Had a free conversation 
with him about my religious exercises. My worthy friend, Mrs. Dushane, desired 
me to write an epitaph for the tombstone of her sister, lately deceased, and I had 
neither leisure not composure, I wrote three, leaving it to the friends of the 






Ye that in beauty oi 






Wednesday, November 14, — Continued waiting for the ship, and the delay made 
me uneasy ; as I have been now about ten weeks from home, and yel my embassy 
is as much undone as when I leil home. I And the enterprise to which Providence 
seems to call me more and more difficult; for my aniieties about my dear &mily, 
and about my life ns necessary to their comfortable subsistence, are hard lo ha 
borne. May the God of heaven support me and them I Communicated to Mr. 
Rodgers some new thongbta of mine about the Divine government, as adapted to 
the nature of man, and about the Divine Providence towards men and angels j with 
which he was pleased. 

Thursday, November IS. — The ship is not yet come down, and the wind is con- 
trarv, which affords me some uneasiness ; though blossed be God, I feel myself 
habitually resigned to his Providence. ! that I might, with cheerful fortitude, 



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238 DAVIES— ON SHIPBOARD. 

endnre the painful ruplute or the tenderest bonds of affection for his sake, and 
Friday, iVouemier 16.— Mr. G. Tennent is come down hern to wait for the ship ; 



'ived with h 



: spirit 



Saturday, Noeember 17. — On board the London. — 12 o'clock, A. M,, the ship 
cams down, and we went on board ; and as I wont along endeavoured to commit 
mjself to God, and to implore his blessinj^ and protection in this voyage. Perhaps 
I may never gel foot on shore more, till I land in the eternal world ; solemn 

new state of eiistehce, when I leave my native land, and enter upon the dangerous 
element of water. May I live to God while tossing upon it! may the sickness of 
the sea, which I espect, be sanctified to me I and may our conversation and 
preaching be usefnl to the company f 

Sanday, November 18—6 o'clock. A: M.— The wind blew up fair and we set sail. 
The novely of my situation and the noise on deck hindered my sleeping, so that I 
am heavy and indisposed. I bid farewell to my native shore with a kind of pleas- 
:>r ; pleased that Providence has given as an opportunity of sailing al^er so 



delay, and shocked witl 
rticulariv my other self. 



»nd psrticulariv my other self, any more. I cannot but he deeply sensible of the 
kindness of heaven in ordering my father and friend, Mr. Tennent, to be my com- 
panion in the'emhassy, not only for the right management of it, but for my social 
comfort. ,0 that I may retain a consciousness of integrity in the cause of God, 
and universal devotednesa to him I It is this, I find, cm best support me amidst 



Tempest are zephyrs, or a gentle gale. 

^rote some letters, particularly ona of fiiendship to Mr. Rodgera. I never 

day with him. We retired, and each of us pcayed in the tenderest and most 
pathetic manner, giving thanks to God, for ihal peculiar friendship which has sub- 
sisted between us, and committing each other to the care of heaven for the future. 
The hurries of prepiration for the ocean deprived Mr. Tennent of an opportunity 
of praying, and speaking to the company ^ and I was incapable of it by reason of 
seasickness. About 3 o'clock, P. M.,tho pilot lell us, and we entered the vast 
Atlantic. 

Mmday, Hovcmher 19.- We are now out of sight of land — Calwn undique ft 
undique pontus. It would be particularly pleasing to me to survey the wonders of 
the majestic ocean ; but have been confined to bed most of the day, and am eo 
much out of my element that I am neither St for conversation nor curious obeerva- 
tion. However, I feel calm within, and resigned to the divine will— Lord, bless 
my dear family. 

Tuesday. — Continued in the same condition as yesterday. — Fair weather.— In the 
Gveuing was very low spirited, and had most solemn thoughts of niy own slate and 
the eternal world. Alas! how shocking a companion is a'sense ofguilt. 

Wednesday, Nov. 81. — The wind is contrary, and the waves run high. My sea 
sickness continues ; and I am a very heavy companion to Mr. Tennent, which is 
particularly afflictive to me ; bnt through the goodness of God he is cheerful and 

Monday, Nob. 26. — I have been so eilremely sick and low spirited, and the sea 

now through the great goodness of God, I am somewhat recovered, and the vio- 
lence of the winds and waves is somewhat abated. Thongh my bodily disorder has 
not been very painful, it has.ulterly indisposed my whole frame, and in all my iife 
I never felt such a degree of lowneas of spirits, proceeding not from any gloomy 
imaginations, but entirely from the disorder of animal nature. I affected solitude, 
had no relish for conversation, no tender passions, no lively aniieties about any 
thing, but seemed dead to all things in the compass of thoueht. I had no appetite, 
and the little I eat I vomited up immediately; and the smell of the ship, whenever 

a tittle cheerfulness, but it was wholly nnnatural. The perpetual motion of the 
ship, which vastly exceeds ail the ideas I could form of it upon land, kept me in a 
constant confusion, and I could neither walk nor stand nor sit with safety, nor lie 



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THE VOYAGE— THE OCEAN. 239 

rreqnenlly dashed over the ahip; liut cm Salurdaj' the violence was greatly in- 

mouiilaina, that seemed insutmoun table. This vast ship so deeply laden is tossed 
about like a little cork, aad the passengers reeled like dninken men. This morn- 
ing we had no wind, though the waves swelled high ; but about ten o'clock il blew 
fresh and fair. My spirila ate more lively, and mv appetite is someihitig better, 
though I am still universally disordered. There is one thing 1 have reason to 
bless God for, in a particular manner, viz. that though the ocean was eitromely 
turbulent, and dangers threatened on every hand, and though my spirits were sunk 
to such an unusual degree of dejection, yet I was hardly at all terrified with dan- 
ger, but calm and resigned. Yesterday Mr. Tennent sung and prayed, and made 
a psrlinent, plain address to the sailors, and they scorned attentive. Yesterday 
and lo-day we prayed together alternately in our room; and felt some tenderness 
and importunity in so doing. O that wc may in this inactive season be laving up 
proper furniture for active life upon shore! It is a most majestic survey, to see 

conflict ; and it is most amazing how we can possibly live upon so turbulent an 
element. To form and rule such an ocean is a work becoming a God. 

Tuesday, November 37.— Since yesterday, in the afternoon, I have had a tolerable 
flow of spirits, and been pretty well, escept a lingering fever. The time begins to 
pass away agreeably in conversation with dear Mr. Tennent, and the captain, who 
is a very pleasant companion. The wind not very hard, and we have a little 
respite from the intolerable perturbations of the angry deep. Prayer in our rooms 
ti^ether, in the morning and aftemoon, with some freedom. , 

Wednesday, November 28. — Was more refreshed with sleep last night, than since 
I have been on board, and find myself to-day more free from fever than yesterday. 
Blessed be the God of my motsiee. It is almost quite calm, and the little wind 
that blows is not fair. We are now and have been— [Here a leaf is entirely lost, 
and the comer of another so torn aa to render it impracticable to decypher it.] 

Friday, November 30.— To-day so much distressed with a sense of guilt that I 
have no turn for reading or religious conversation, nor am 1 anything but a burden 
to myself. This evening the wind is fair; but we have had soma dangerous 

squalls. We now sail about knots an hour. Read an account of the 

shipwreck and the amaiing deliverance of Joseph Bail y and company; and was 
more aensible of the goodness of God in our preservation. 

Saturday, Defember 1. — I am in- better health tfian since I have been on hoard. 
Slept comfortably last night. We have sailed before a fair wind for about thirty- 
siilionrs and have made good way. Read a sermon of Mr. Taylor's to young men 
against the errors that some Antinomians maintain, and Mr. Dickinson's able de- 
fence of his sermon in answer to Mr. Beach. 

Sunday, December 2.— This day has passed by very unprofitablj, as we had no 
opportunity of carrying on any thing like public worship, till about seven o'clock 
in the evening, when I sung a psaim, gave an eihortation to'the company and 
prayed. Had some sense of divine things, and a desire to aifect the hearers, but 
no freedom ofspeech in proportion. Read a chapter in the Greek Testament, and 
Mr. Dickinson's second vindication of sovereign grace. To-day I have been much 
discouraged with a view of my unqnali Redness for the important business I am 
going upon. Had sundry intervals of tender thoughta about my dear family. 

that my painful absence from Ihem may he of service to the public '. this would 
be more than a sufficient compensation. To-day (he wind is squally, but drives ua 
on our course seven or eight knots an hour. Last night was very turbulent, and I 
could sleep but very little, which made me indisposed to-day. 

Monday, December 3.~Was out of order. The wind turbulent, and the sea run 
high. Alasl how unprofitably my life glidea by in this state of inactivity. 

Tuesday, December 4. — Had very little rest last night by reason of the violent 
tossing of the ship. I laboured under a sense of guill, which made me very 
fearful of the dangers of the sea. God pity me of little faith. Read Mr. Dickin- 
son's Vindication of Sovereign Grace, Stc. Since I noticed it last, Mr. Tennent and 

1 have prayed each ofus twice in our room, and one of ua alternately in the cabin 
in (he evening. The tossing of the vessel is otterly inconceivable to one that 
never fell it. 

Wednesday, December 6. — The wind favo 
than usual. II undoubtedly rains more upoi 
one day (that I remember] since wa left the capes, du 
am very pensive about my dear family and congregati 



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240 DA VIES ON HIS VOYAGE. 

thB Bf[tiali coast ! and may I be purged in the furnace of nffliclion ! ''lt']"vc°y 
u'pTn'^hUboi^re'n/Srep""""""'" ^'"'- " '' """"'^"'"^ ''' "" •"" ^^"""^^ 

Friday December 7— The «ii,d is contrary and the seas run very high. We are 
obiiged 10 lie by, and make no progress in our way. 

Saturday, December 8.— Was indisposed and low spirited, unfit for readine or 
society, and afected a sullen retirement. Alas ! how my days pi^ss by in a stale of 
inaefvity r Unless I gain more life upon my arrival, I shall be buJ a cypher, ..r 
sn incumbrance to Mr. Tennent in our embassy. May I be enabled to show mv 
resignauon to the Divine will in my present slate, by cheerful passive obedience, and 
may It be a preparative for active obedience when my circnmatances admit ofil ' 
Bead Mr. Prince's aicelJenl sermon upon the agencv of God in dronght and rains, 
«hich sirggesled lo me a .ariety of nen- thoughts, theological and philosophical! 
It IB the best discourse upon aoch a subjeenhat I eter saw. Read some in Harris's 
Collection of Voyages. About ten o'clock at night my spirits were somewhat eihi- 






freedon 



al in intercession for my dear absent friends, particularly for Mr. Rodeers. and 

, Chara, whom I promised particularly to remember on Saturday evenings. How 
m, heart longs and pines after my dearest creature, and the little pledges of our 
mutual love! Oh ! when shall I see them aoaln I It is much warmpr on bps r],=.. 
land i for «e have not needed Gre above two or three drssin^e^eha.e boon on 
^"^^'^^ ^'T ''t K^" P'""''' "^^"^^ "> *■« '««" ^" •"" 'his ocean. 

Sunday, Decanber 8.— Have made but little or no proficiency in knowledire. or 
holiness, or any valuable acquisition, this day, by reason of indisposition and low- 
ness of spirits. Alas 1 of how little importance or usefulness am I in the world ! 
My soul is mortified to reflect upon my own insignificancy. — Read some of my old 
notes, particularly on Psalms is. 11, and Lute jiii. 3, and was both pleased, and 
surprised to find that eyer any sentiment of importance has proceeded from a mind 
now so barren.— Read a sermon of Mr. Kenedy's, of Belfast, on the conclusion 
of the last peace, on the words of Heiekiah, " Good is the will of the Lord, since 
peace and truth shall be in my days." It is out nnhappiness, on board, thst we 
cannot get opportunity of preaching to the crew twice on Sunday. However, in 
the evening, Mr. Tennent preached on John iii, 5, and the discourse was judi- 
cious, plain, pungent and searching, and well adapted to do good. that the 
power of Gorf may attend it to the consciences of the company 1 I would bless 
the Lord that while I am useless, he enables my dear partner to do some thine for 
him. At night Mr. Tennent prudently gayo the conversation a religious turn and 
I endeavoared to keep it up. But alas i how ungrateful are such snbiects I with 
what dexterity will men avoid them, or diysrl the discourse from them I Rainv 
weather.— Wind S. E., and a high sea for the most part of the day. My dear 
Chara has oHen recurred to my tloaghts, and ti-equently I imagine myself talkine 
with her. It IS a mercy that God has made any of my fellow creatures of import- 
ance to my happiness; but my absence from- them afibrds me addiUonal uneasi- 
nees. Thus the sweets of life have their stings. 

Monday, Deeaaber 9.— I spent the day chiefly in reviewing and improvinc my 
notes ; but the violent motion of the ship, and my indisposition, rendered nie in- 
capable of doing anything to purpose. In the evening the seas run very hiuh, and 
broke over the deck with prodigious violence. While we were at eiening wor- 
ship, we shipped a sea which was like to wash the carpenter overboard It is 
really an instance of the vigilant cara of Providence that we are not swallowed up 
in these lurbnleat waters. 

Tuesday, Bscanher 10.— Was employed as yesterday. The wind moderate but 
not from a favourable quarter. Read in Harris's Collection of Voyaoes concerninir 
the Dutch settlement in the East Indies, which are -i^ty large and flourishing 

Wednesday, December 11.— I hate nothing new or remarkable to take notice of 
with regard to myself. The wind fresh and fair N.W. 

Thursday, December 12. — My mind has been in a very uneasy, timorous situation all 
the day, especially in the evening. Every shock the ship received from the dashing 
waves gave an equal shock to my spirit. Guilt made me afraid of sinking in these 
boisterous waters. How timorous a thing is guilt I It trembles at imacinarv dancers 
and fears, where no fear is. We have sailed seven, eight, nine, or ten knots an 
hour for about forty hours past, and it is expected we are about one hundred leagues 

Friday, December 13.— Mnch disordered and low spirited. I am quite dispirited, 

™=— glc 



ON THE COAST OF ENGLAND. 241 

when I reflect upon my own insignificancv, and am arraid I shall be of little or no 
eeryiee in our embassy. Wind fresh and fair, and we have sailed about three hun- 
dred and fifty miles these last forty-eight hours. Sounded at i o'ctotk, P. M,, and 
found ground at ninety fathoms, saanded at 12 o'clock at night, and found bottom at 
seventy fathoms. Read in Harris's Collection of Voyages the shocking account of 
the barbarities of the Dutch, eiercised upon the English, at Aniboyna, iu the East 
Indies { qiiid turn morlalia peciora cogis auri sacra/ames ? 

Satur&iy, December 14. — Much indiEpcsed in body, but peaceful in mind. Sounded 
freqaeatly, and fonnd groond from siityliie to fortyliTe fathoms. It continues 
cloady, and we can make no observation j so that we know not where we are, 
though the captain conjcctutes weate in the British channel. There is great danger 
of running aground, or upon rocks, but the Lord reigneth,and we are in his hands. 

Sundaj, &centber 16. — We find to-day that we have run up the channel, and 
gone past the Scilly, and as far as the Start point, before we knew where we were, 
Thus Providence has been our pilot, and we have run our course as directly, and 
free from danger, as if we could have made observations of the latilude, which we 
have not been able to do for sundry days. Saw sundry ships, spoke with one of 
them, a Danish Tessel, which laid us where we were, viz., about twenty miles 
S.W. ofthe Start. Was much indisposed, despondingand inactive in the forenoon; 
but in the evening was somewhat revived in discoursing to the ship's company from 
Luke xiii. 3. I had more freedom of solemnity than I eipected, and the company 
seemed seriously attentive. I am often afraid I have done, and shall do no service 
to these precious immortals on board ; and I am yet uncertain what will be the 
event. I have this evening made a feeble but sincere attempt, and I leave it in the 
hands of God ; not eipecting ever to speak to them more. Weather moderate, 
though cloudy, and the wind tJiit. 

Monday, December 16, — Found in the morning we liad passed by the Isle of 
Wight, in the night, we soon saw land at Beachy Head ; went on towards the 
Downs, &c. 

Tuesday, December n. — Wo entered the Downs in the morning, where lay about 
thirty-three ships. Heard that one Captain Davies, from Philadelphia, was cast 
away about an. weeks ago, a little before us in the channel. We came up with 
Captain Mesnard, who sailed from Philadelphia eight days before us. I looked 
upon it as a favourable providence, that we did not take oar passage with him, as 
it would have been longer. This is the more remarkable, as his ship was famed 
for sading fast, which ours was not. Sundry boats came to us, and I was shocked to 
hear the infernal language ofthe boatmen. Alas, the whole world lieth in wicked- 
ness. Was entertained in taking a view ofthe coast, as we sailed along. Saw Dover 
Caetteand town, and a seatof the Duke of Dorset. It is a pretty large town; and so 
is Dale, which we saw a little after, where there is a castle, and at Walmcr. Passed 

cular view of it. How pleasing does the land appear after so long a confinement 
upon the ocean ! especially as the landscape is beautifully variegated with lawns, 
churches, windmills, forests, green cornfields, &c. We passed the N. Foreland, 
and cast anchor to lie all night; and the winds being contrary, the days very short, 
and the darkness hindering us, it is eipected that it will take ns some time going 

from hence to London, a distance of about seventy miles by water, and by 

land, which is very disagreeable. But I am heartily sick ofthe sea. 

It is just four weeks and four days since I left the American shoro ; and though I 
have hardly ever had a more melancholy time, yet I have great reason to take 
notice ofthe goodness of Providence to mo in my voyage, both as to its shortness, 
safety, plenty, and indeed the moderateness ofthe weather, considering the seasoa, 
Alas, that I find myself so little disposed to make grateful returns. I am really 
shocked at myself as a monster of ingratitude. Though I am now above three 
thousand miles from home, and have been near four months absent, my thoughts 
are often walled thither upon eager wings, and hover round the dear objects of my 
love. Whether I shall be again conducted over this spacious ocean, and see my 
friends, is wholly unknown to me ; but I forbear — for I can hardly bear the an<iety 
of separation, and the thoaght of never enjoying another interview with them, 
' especially my other dearer half. We are about twenty souls aboard ; passengers 
Mr. Tennent, Mr. Matt. Clarkson, Miss Shirley, John Crosby, and a little girl in 
the cabin, and two in the steerage. This morning the pilot came on board, one 
Grovenor, who was captain of a little privateer in the late war, and behaved very 
gallantly. At night when all were gone to bed, enjoyed an hour of most pleasant 
and friendly conversation with dear Mr. Tennent, upon the arduous duties of the 
ministerial office. I relate things just as they occur to a careless mind, without 
any order; and though my principal design is to make religious remarks, yet, for 
my future amusement or improvement, I shall take notice of the curiosities of 

31 



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242 DAVIES— ON THE COAST OF ENGLAKD. 

natnre and art. The English oysleta differ from those in America. They are 

Whiting, wbicb is very delicate. The banlis along the shore from Beachy Head to 
this place are chalk. 

Wed/tesday, December IB Lay at anchor, the wind and tide being against us. 

Wonld willingly have gone to London by land, but Mt. Tenneiit did not choose it. 
Nothing remarkable occurred to-day. 

Thwiday, December Si). — We weighed anchor and endeavoured to pass through 
the Narrows, getting np a beacon and two buojs to push (he ship along ; but the 
wind and tide being against us, we were obliged to cast anchor again, and lie by. 
The Church of * • * • • is opposite to ua, it has no steeple. Read the memoirs of 
the " Fortunate Country," a romance that has a better tendency than most that are 
in vogue. I think it an evidence of the chimerical taste of the present age, that it 
runs mad after these romantic pieces. Read a part of Roiana, the history of an 
abandoned prosiitule, pretendedly penitent. Was shocked at the wickedness of 
some of the ship's crewi and sorrjour endeavours had so little effect upon them. 

Friday, December 21.— In the morning weighed anchor, and passed through the 
Narrows with safety. The passage is but a fevf yards wide; and though it be 
soniewhat of an obstruction to the English trade, as it is attended with danger, to 
pass, &c., yet this is more than compensated by its good natural fortiScation against 

a kind of town upon sea, and live in good neighboarhood. About 11 the tide failed 
us, and we were obliged to cast anchor, having passed by a land bank called the 
Spaniard, where there is a buoy. We now lie off Shippy Island;, the land appears 
high and hiily. By calculating our eipenses hither we find that they have amounted 
to more than £135, which will be very burdensome to the College unless our appli- 
cation in Great Britain be successful. In the evening the tide mvouring though the 
wind was contrary, we weighed anchor, and sailed by the Nere, where there is a 
vessel instead of a lighthouse, with lights Hxed to her masts, as it appeared to me 

at a distance. The Note is about miles above the mouth of the river Thames. 

At 11 o'clock we cast anchor. 

Saturday, December S2. — We weighed anchor about? o'clock In the morning and 
sailed up within about four miles ofGravesend, and the tide filing we were obliged 
to cast anchor. We now see land on each side of the river, and the landscape is 
beauufully variegated with green fields, forest, houses, &c. We passed by the 
little town of Lee. Head in " the Spirit of Laws," an ingenious performance, with 
many new and valuable sentiments. In the evening my lieart spontaneously dic- 
tated the following lines : 



While objects varioijwiBnge and new. 
In numerous proapectS rnsh to view. 
The thoughts of friends, the thoughts of homi 
Engross my heart and etill find room. 
Chara with what strange, magic art, 



Can raie thine image from my heart. 
I shrink to view those days to come. 






While cruel absence is my doom. 












And give my aniious bosom ease. 






Sunday, DcceMer 23.— We weighed anchor in the n 
Gravesend, a little town that has an agreeable appearance 
fort, I think caUed Tilherry. We also passed by Northfle 
villages. Saw a gibbet and the remains of a malefactor ha 
sight '. Pirates that commit great crimes on sea are eiei 
seamen may see them. The churches on both sides of the 


SE 


d passed by 
to which is a 
fa, two small 


aging on it 
river are ve 


.A shocking 


They seem old gothic structures with square-steeAi 


1 without 


spires. The 



;ndered the sanctification of this holy day eitremely difficult. The Lord help 
le 1 Spoke with a ship from Virginia, Capt. Whiting { prepared a short letter for 
ly dear, and overtook the ship below Gravesend. As we returned the boatmen 
ad occasion to go ashore at Gravesend, where an odd aflkir happened, fit to be 
lentioned among the adventures of a knight errant. We staid in an ordinary a 



I iv, Cockle 



few minuleii ; but as 1 had bi 
we went down to take boat 
called and hallooed for her 



and confounded wilh an empty p 



jliged to go to London by land, without any thing to bear my espeni 
id aal till about 7 o'clock the boatman with joy pictured in his i 
line and told me the acceptable news thai he had found the boat. 



immediately held him lo his word and lent him hie boat to go and look fot her. 
As we were going up lo the ship, it was so dark, that mo could not see her, and 
went about a mile above her. The old boatman and his son fell a scolding about 
the place where the boat lay, and to decide the difference we called at two ot 
three sloops that lay at anchor ; but after bawling sulheiently we could find no- 
body ; and wo were obliged lo grope on till we got safely to the ship. And the 
relation of our adTenture afforded no email entertainment lo the company. While 
I was al Graveaend there came in the room a company of sailors belonging to the 
East India ships, who cursed and blasphemed in the most infernal manner that ever 
I heard in my life. My spirit was quite oppressed to hear them. Alas ! to what 
a shocking degree of impiety may human nature arriie ! We have passed five or 
— "-il India ships m the river ; they are very large and magnificent, immensely 

P»"y. I . , -. 

ot a Sabbath among sauoj 

no good is to be-4one the > _, 

Monday, Decemer 34. — We set sail in the morning and passed by Greenhive, a 
little village near which Lord Concannon has a seal ; we also passed by a seat that 
formerly belonged to Lord Baltimore. Through Divine goodneaa, I find my body 
recovered to uaual health ; and I believe the fresh provisions, we yesterday re- 
ceived from shore, were conducive to it. Passed by Woolwich, a town on the left 
hand, beautifully varied with sundry kinds of buildings. Here is the king's dock- 
yard i fifteen or twenty men of war lay at it. Here also is an office of ordnance, 

the wharf. Passed by Blackwall, a town on the tight hand ; where lay two men-of- 
war, and a great number of East India ships in repair. We counted no less than 

Passed by Greenwich on the left hand, and took particular notice of the hospital 
there, which ie one of the most sutely edifices I believe in the world. It consists 
of two vast buildings fronting one another, and the governor's house above, seems to 
join them. Here lay four of the king's yachts, one of which is the most beautiful 
vessel that art,can form, and in it his Majesty sails for Hanover. Hamstead House 
is in sight, upon a hill above Greenwich. We aaw the steeple of St. Paul's below 
Blackwall. We cast anchor at Deplford, along side of a man-of-war. At Deptford 
there is another of the king's dock-yards. From hence sundry of the passengers 
went to London; but Mr. T. and I determined to stay tilUo-morrow. In the even- 
ing we heard that Mr. Deiinys Do Berdt had been very inquisitive about us, and 
probably provided a lodging for us. 

Tuesday, December 25. — We sailed up the river, and were not a lillle struck with 
the prodigious number of ships in view. Their masts look like vast forests. About 
10 o'clock Mr. Neave, one of the owners of the ship came on board and asked us 
to dine at Mr. Neatea, his partner, where we were kindly received. We came up 
by the tower, in sight of London bridge and landed. As it was Christmas day the 
bells in all the churches were ringing, and formed a concert of the most manly, 
Blrong and noble muaic to my ear, that I ever heard. The steeple of St. Dunstan's 
is of such curious archileoture, that when the bells ring it ahakes like a tree shaken 
with the wind, though it consists of stone. After dinner our friends Capt.M'Pber- 
son and Captain M'Callock conducted db to Mr. De Berdt's, who is a most amiable 
nious gentleman and entertained us very kindly till we could provide a lodging. 
TUr. Tennent was eitremely low spirited and silent, which afforded me no small 
concern ; and I was afraid of conversing freely, while ho was silent, lest I should 
seem to arrogate (he preference. 

Wednesday, December 26.— Were yisited by Mr. Hall, a venerable old gontleman, 
>uthor of some of the Lime street Sermons, who seems to be of a truo puritanic 
pirit and full of religion. WeV>«sited by Mr. Gibbons, my dear ccrresponiienl, 
who informed us of the general apostasy of the dissenters from the principles of the 



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244 MR. WHITEFIELD— VISITS 

■which ho had ivtilten, Ihclrina filia virtus; and of the other, Filia matre pulddor. 

of books to be distributed among the poor in Virginia. Mr. Whitefield having sent 
UB an invitation Jast night to make his house our home during our 9tay here; we 
were perplesed what to do leat we should blast the success of our mission among 
the dissenters, who are geoorally disaifected to him. We at length concluded with 
the advice of out friends and his, that a public inleroourae with him would be im- 

kind reception he gave us revived dear Mr. Tenneot. He spoke in the most en- 
couraging manner as lo the sucoeas of our mission, and in all his conversation dis' 
covered so much seal and candour, that I could not but admire Ibe roan as the 
wonder of the age. When we retiitned, Mr. Tennent's heart was all on fire, and 
slier we had gone to bed, he suggested that we should watch and pray; and we 
roae and prayed together UU about 3 o'clock in the morning. 

Tkarsday, Dtcember 27. — Spent the lime cheerfully in private. Conversed with 
Mr. Loyd, a serious man, and dear Mr. Gibbons, who spent the evening with us 
revising Mr. Pearsal's Meditations for a second edition. 

Friday, Decembir 28. — Went up the monument, a vast pillar, in memory of the 
dreadful fire in 16G6. It has a Latin inscriptioti signifying tlie beginning, and pro- 
gress of the condagratioa. Another as far as I remember in these words: — Furor 
papislicas, gai horrenda, patravil, nonJum resiingulttir. And another tn the same 
import in English. I went up to the top along winding stairs, in the form of a screw. 
From thence I conid take a vie* of this vast overgrown city, and the people in the 
streets seemed degenerated into pigmies. Went to the Virginia coffee-house to in- 
quire for letters, &c., but alas I none were arrived. We took up out lodgings at 
Mr. Thomas Coi's in Winchester street, a sober religions family ;— bleased be God. 

Saturday, — Continued retired, preparing for a public appearance. 

SuTiday, December 30, — Preached in the morning for Mr. Winter, assistant to Mr. 
Hall, on Isaiahlsv). 1,2, bat alas! i was dull and senseless. Dined with Mr. Sal- 
vage, a most valuable christian, in company with a pious youth, one Mr. Eliislon, 
who is at learning for (he ministry, and was for some time under Dr. Doddridge's 
care. In the afternoon I preached for one Mr. Dews who was indisposed, in a 
Baptist congregation, with some freedom, on Jer.iui. 18,20. It is grievous to sea 
how small the congregations are in this vast oily. Spent the eiening at one Mr. 
Edwards's, a Turkey merchant, who treated us very kindly. He is a member of the 
committee for the management of the civil atfaita of the dissenters. I find Mr. 
Stennet, a Baptist minister, has most influence in court of any dissentingminister, 
Mr. Tennent preached in the afternoon at Mr. Hall's, and in the morning went to 
hear Mr. Chandler. I find it is the custom here for the clerk to choose the psalm, 

Monday, Dec, 31. — Went according to his lordship's appoinlroent to wait upon 
the Marquis of Lothian ; but as we did not know the distance we did not come 
soon enough, and the Marquis was gone out. We went through 6(. James' Pari;, 
which is a beautiful place. Passed through the King's palace, where we saw the 
footguards in wailing. Went to see the new bridge of Westminster, which is the 
most noble piece of workmanship ofthe kind, I suppose in the worid. It consists 
ofPortland stone neatly hewn, Went into Westminster Hall, a spacious old build- 
ing, where courts are held. Though the roof is so long, it is supported without one 
pillar. The walls of London are generally demolished, but here and there they 
remain ; and above the gates are buildings of gothic structure. There is such a 
vast number of beggars here, that one cannot walk in the street without being 
pained with their importunity; for he cannot supply them all, and there aro so 
many impostors among them that It is hard to distinguish real objects of charity. 
Dined at one Mr. Lloyd's, a solid, humorous, religious old gentleman in South- 
wark, who seems a hearty friend to our mission. There are so many parties here 
that il is very perplexing (o us how to behave so as to avoid offence, and not injure 
the business of our embassy. The Independents and Baptists are mote generally 
~ ■ ■ 1, than the Presbyterians ; though I fear some of them are tainted with 



Tuesday, Jan. I, 1764.— Went to hear Mr. Chandler in Saltets' Hall, and was 
pleasingly entertained with a sermon on the parable of the unjust steward. Mr. C. 
IS undoubtedly a most ingenious, accurate gentleman; but I did not discern so 
much of experimental religion in this discourse as I could wish. Went afterwards 
to the Amsterdam coffee-house, where the Congregational and Baptist ministers 
meet on Tuesdays. Was introduced into the conversation of venerable Mr. Price, 
Dr. Watts' colleague; and then went at Mr. Gibbon's invitation to dine at Mr. 
Shuitiewood's in Trinity House, where the corporation meets that has the care of 
lighthouses, &c. for the direction of sailors. Was entertained with sundry curiosi- 
ties, vii. two Indian canoes, one of the bark of a tree— Iwo very large globes— the 
Mctutea of sundry who have been benefactors ofthe society. Went in the evening 



MR. CHANDLER— THEIR VISITS— MR. BOWLES. 245 

to hear Mr. WbiteEeld in the Tahernade, a large spscious building. The assem- 

parable of the barren % tree, and though the discourse was incoherent, yet it 
•eemed to me better calculated to do good to mankind than all the accurate, lan- 
guid discourses I have heard. After sermon enjoyed bis pleasing conversation at 

Wednesday, Jan. 3.— Wailed on the Marquis of Lothian, at hia honse, and were 
verj kindly received. The unaffected grandeur of the nobleman, and the simplicity 
and humility of the Christian, cast 3 mutual lustre on each other. He gave all the 
encouragement in hia power with regard to onr ambassj. This was the first time I 
ever appeared before a nobleman, and I have reason to be thankful that I was not 
at all (lashed with the feat of man. My Lord Leven came and dined with us, 
and we laid before their lordships the state of the College. Lord Leten told ua 
that he had delayed an application in favour of some foreigner till the ensuing As- 
sembly, and was afraid that if he ehould be appointed to be bis Majesty's eommis- 
Bioner for the ensuing year, that aifair would interfere with ours. But upon the 
whole theit lotdahipB gave us encouragement by intimating that they were sensible 
of the importance of the design, and had it at heart. We continued with their 
lordships till about five o'clock, then took coach and went to Mr. Godwin's, a 
serious and reserved gentleman in conversation, but very fluent as I am told in the 
pulpit. We laid before him our design, and he seemsd sensible of its importance. 

Thursday, Jamtary 3. — Breakfasted with Mr. Chandler, a Presbyterian minister 
of uncommon sagacity and readiness. He has been formerly suspected of Aimi- 
nianism and Socinianismj but now he appears to be a moderate Calvinist. He 
promised his influence in favour of our design. We afterwards wailed upon Dr. 
Guise, and informed him of our business ; but he seemed to discourage us, on 
account of the many annual eipenses lying upon the dissenlers in this city,- for the 
relief of the poor; for tho support of ministers in the country, the education of 
youth, &c. Spent the evening very agreeably with Mr. Gibbons, in company with 
Mr. Crutenden and Mr. De Berdt. I laid before them our business ; and they can- 
didly gave me their best advice. We find it a disadvantage that we have so few 
letters to the Presbyterians here, who are the most numerous and rich. For tho 

Tennent went Ibis 'evening to good Mr, Hall's. 

toothache, that I had but little sleep theso th 

three o'clock in the morning. As no enjoyed the happiness on board to pray 

together in our room twice a day, Mr. Tennent and I determined to observe the 

same method in our lodgings, beside the stated devotion of the family, 

Friday, January 4. — Being much indisposed with the toothache, I was obliged 
to stay at home. Wrote a letter to my dearest with uncommon solicitude. when 
will these days of cruel absence be over ! Mr. Tennent went and introduced the 
affairs of our mission to Mr. Spilsbury, Mr. Stennct, and Mr. Bradbury ; and had 
some encouragement from them all. 

Saturday, January 5, — Mr. Tennent being indisposed and laligued, I visited Mr. 
Bowles, the famous print seller, in the morning. He is a gentleman of good sense, 
but of uncommon humour ; and I verily thought, by the reception he gave the 
affair of our mission, that ha would be no friend to it{ but before we parted he 
surprised ma with a present of a map nf London, and a promise of five guineas 
to the college. Dined at Mr. Jasper Mauduit's, the hearty IViend of the diseen- 

affairs of the dissenters in court. He promised me something farther, if possible, 
should be done on their behalf, before my return. We communicated the affair of 
the college, and Mr. Tennent happening to mention repeatedly the Calvinists as the 

pute with Mr. Mauduit's brother, upon the Calvinistio principles. We found they 
were both of latiludinarian, anti-Calvinistic principles, and would not countenance 
the college, unless it were upon a catholic plan. We showed them the charter and 
they were satisfied. One of them informed ua that the king has given a considerable 
sum for the support of English schoolmasters among the German Protestants in 
Pennsylvania, and if we could make it appear that our college might be useful for 
the education of such, we might probably have a share of it for that purpose. We 
were also informed that the society here for Propagating Christian Knowledge, 
would probably give something out of their fund, in case a number of Indian youth 
"■'""' ' atcd in our college. Both these proposals would have a happy ten- 
hey be carried into execution. But we ate afraid the Philadelphia 
interfere with the former. In the evening wrote a letter of thanks to 

leMarquisofLothian, and another to Lord Leven, enclosing a copyof our insttuc- 

~-ls which his lotdship had desired. 



lency, could th. 
Academy will in 



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246 CROMWELL— STENNET—PENN— JENNINGS— EARLE. 

Sunday, January G.- Hcatd Mr. Newman, a Pteabyterian in or near Charter 
House Square, on Psalm civi. 16, " Lord truly lam thy servant; Iain thy ser- 
vanl," and thnugh I am informed ho is an Arminian, I was much pleased, with hie 

Bowe's Mrain Chan any sermon I ever heard. He is a minister of the congrGgaLion 
of which good Dr. Wright wae pastor. Preached in (he evening in Mr. Gibbon's 
meeting'house, on Luke ii. 34, 36, and had some freedom and solemnity. Con- 
versed a little with the great grandson of Oliver Cromwell ; and I remember a few 
days ago, I drank tea with his great granddaughter, oue Mrs. Field. Drank tea 
with two granddaughters of the famous Sir Henry Ashurt,the friend of the ejected 
ministers. Mr. Tennent preached for Mr. Chandler, and was kindly treated. I 
ini BO hurried that I have no time to wrilo my journal, but about twelve o'clock at 
night. Therefore I am obliged to be very short. 

Monday, January 7. — Went to visit Mr. Oswald and Mr. Bnckland, boolisellere ; 
but the former was not at home. In the evening visited Mr. Winter, a Con grega- 

deviated from rigid Calvinism, were disagreeable to mo. Heard good Mr. White- 
field in the evening on " Who hath delivered ue from the power of darkness, and 
hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son."— In the morning Mr. Tennent 
ftnd I waited on Mr. Newman, and communicated our business. He is a grave gen- 
tleman, and treated us kindly. He inlimated that the Academy which the Presby- 
terians are about to nrect, nould probably interfere with our concern, and gave us 
ground of discouragement. 

Tuesday, January 8. — Dined at Mr. EJeazer Edwards's, a Turkey merchant in 
Devonshire Sqoare, of the Baptist persuasion. There we enjoyed Mr. Stennet'a 
company, and his sons. Ha is a judicious, prudent, and candid gentleman, and 
has more influence in court than any dissenting minister in London. Mr. Tennent, 
having visited Mr. Partridge, the agenl of Pennsylvania, was advised to apply to 
some of Che conrt, particularly to the Lord Chancellor, Lord Halifai, and Mr. Pel- 
ham ; and he seemed inclined to do it. But to me it appeared very doubtful ; I was 
afraid that in case (he college should be discountenanced by them, they would find 
some flaw in the charter, and so overset it, and that a refusal at court, would have 
■ bad influence on those that might otherwise contribute towards it. We con- 
Bullad Mr. Stennet, and he was fully of mj mind. He gave us an account of 
theafi'airofthe glebe in New England, in which the Episcopal party was cast after 
a trial of some hours in the privy council. Ho also related a conference he had 
with the Duke of Newcastle, and the Archbishop of York, about the mission of 

euch things. In thn evening we visited Mr. Ward, the bookseller ; who appeared 
B zealous friend to the college. At night flnished a letter to my dearest, with such 
tender affection, us I could hardly bear. 

Wednesday, January 9.— Waited on Mr. Penn, the proprietor of Pennsylvania. 

of (he Academy in Philadelphia, which he apprehended himself under peculiar 
obligations to promote. Went thence to Kensington to see Mr. Ziegenhagen, his 
Majesty's German chaplain, a good old Lutheran minister. He has much of the 
solemnity of the Christian, and a tender concern for the church of Christ in general. 
Dined at an inn ; bul when we called for the reckoning, we found the generous old 
gentleman had prevented us, and sent word that he would pay for all our ejpensos 
there. Called at Mr, Pitiuis'a, at the Savoy, a Lutheran minister, but he was not 

Thursday, January 10. — Visited Dr. Jenning's, and wore kindly received. He 
appears a sociable, affectionate, and pious man. He keeps an academy of about 
twenty students. He seemed to &vaur our design ; but was apprehensive that the 

ErivilegBs granted in our charter, were so ample, that he feared, if it were known 
I court, they would be curtailed ; especially, since the government here would not 
allow thecollegesinNawEngland the power of conferring any degree above A.M., 
though it was granted Ihem, by a law ol their own province. Spent the evening 
sgreeably at one Mr. Gibson's, in company with Mr. and Mrs. Do Berdt. 

Friday, January 11.— Visited Dr. Earle, an old Presbyterian minister, of a good 
character, but of a stern, incomplaisant behaviour. He received us dryly, and 
would not so much as read or hear our recommendations ; but allerwards cordially 
promised that he would inquire of Mr. Stennet and Mr. Chandler, about the aA'airs 
of our mission, and that if they approved of it, he would concur with them in pro- 
per measures to promote it. Visited Mr. May, a Presbyterian minister, but he plead 
that he had no inHuence, his congregation was much in debt, &c., &c. ( and absolutely 
refused to concur. Went to the New England coffee-house ; conversed with Mr. 
Partridge, the agent for Pennsylvania. Spent the evening at Mr. Ward's, where I 



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GIBBONS— GUISE— PIKE— LARDNER—GROSVENOR. 2 

had a shorl interview with one Mr. Thompson, a youni; minister. I forgot lo m 

tinn thai in [he morning wo wailed on Belchier, Esq., member of Parliami 

and gave him a letter from Governor Belcher. He treated na kindly, and promi 

Saturday, January 12. — Wen 
Spent an hour in agreeable cm 
Guise. Dined at Dr. Belchier'a, bul wag low-spirited, snd so unsociable that I was 
ashamed of myself. There is such a number of ministers here, that it is raro for a 
stranger to be inviled to preach ; and we have little prospect of usefulness that 
way as yet. The Presbyterians particularly, being generally Armenians ot Socl- 
nians, seem shy of ub. 

Sunday, January 13.— Heard Mr. Lawson in the morning, on Job i. 12, and he 
seemed to aim honestly at ejperimental religion, and delivered himself eitempore 
with fluency, though not with a great deal of accuracy. In the afternoon preached 
for Mr. Gibbons on these words, " I will be your God and ye ehalt be my people." 
I had a good deal of readiness and vivacity, though alael bul iittle tender solemnity. 
Spent the eteningin pleasing converaation with dear Mr. Gibbons, who was much 
affected and pleased with my sermon, and propOBed to me to publish it with a. 
collection of his, which he intended forthe press. He showed me an incomparable 
elegy of a minister upon his daughter who died in her 1 1th year, which was com- 
monly ascribed lo Mr. Howe, and indeed is worthy of him. He told me that Dr. 
Trapp composed an epitaph for himself, in which were the two linos addressed lo 
his people, 

"If in my life 1 tried in vain to save. 
Hear me, at last, hear me from the grave." 

He read me a few letters of one Mr. Thomas, whose life he has published ; which 
were as eicellcnt as any thing 1 eyer heard of the kind. Mr. Tennent preached 
for Mr. Gibbons, A. M., and for Mr. Stennel, P. M. I find a good number of Ihe 
people are displeased with his using notes. 

Monday, January U.— Visited Mr, LawBon, the minister of the Scotch Church, 
and had a very friendly reception. Spent an hour with Mr. Whitefield. Ha 
thinks we have not taken the beat method to keep in with all parlies, but should 
" come out boldly" as he eipresaed it ; which would secure the alTections of the 
pioiiB people from whom we might eipect the most generons contributions. Dined 
and spent the evening tery agreeably with Mr. Crultenden, who is a most hearly 

Tuesday, January 15. — Heard Dr. Guise in Pinners Hall preach a judicious ex- 
perimental discourse on these words,- "And the peace ol' God shall keep your 
hearts through Jesus Christ." It was well adapted lo comfort the people of God ; 
but the languor of his delivery, and his promiscuous undistinguishing manner of 
address, seem to tske away its enei^y and pungency. Dined at Mr. Jones's, a 
pious, jndicions Christian, and spent the evening there with Mr. Whitefield, Mr. 
Gibbons, &c, Mr. Tennent's heart was opened for free religious conversatiou, and 
we spent a few hours very profitably. In sundry places here, we hear of Mr. 
Hudson, a good minister that was lately here from Carolina, and preached with 
uncommon acceptance. 

Wednesday, January 16. — Mr. Tennent went to visit Mr, Oswald, and visited Mr. 
Pike, in Horten square, an Independent minister. He appears ••••]„ prin- 
ciple, and a great friend lo eiperimental religion, and promised to promote the 
college. He has a penetrating, philosophical genius, and is properly a man of 
books. He made me a present of his PAitosoplda Sacra, and his sermon on "charity 
and zeal united." Spent about two hours in learned and religious conversation 
with him. I found Itis method of examining any doctrine is, to read ovor the whole 
Bible in the original, and having eitracted all the tests that refer lo it, lo form a 
judgment upon the whole. 1 nest visited Dr. Lardner, the celebrated author of 
" The Credibilily of the Gospel History,"- and I waa roallv surprised al the sight 
of him, as be dilfered so much from the idea which I had formed of so great a 
man. He is a little, port, old gent, full of sprightly conversation ; but so deaf that 
he seems lo hear nothing at all. I was obliged to tell him my mind and answer 
his questions in writing; and he keeps a pen and paper always on the table for that 
purpose. He treated me very kindly, and constrained me to dine with him. I 
neit visited Dr. Grosvenor, a venerable, humble, and affectionate old gent, who, 
under the infirmity of old age, has declined the eiercise of his ministry for two or 
three years. I have hardly seen a man that discovered so much tenderness and 
very aepect. He ofi'ered me Baiter's or Williama's works ; bul I 
if the College, and in that view 



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248 AVERY— PRICE— THE NOTTINGHAM SERMON. 

orhis. Tor mj own private use, vii : The Monrner, and an Easay on Health. Spent 
the evening in writing to raj dear brother Mr. Todd. 

Tliursday, January 17.— It being rainy, we stayed at home preparing a petition 
in behalf of the College. 

FYidai/, January IS. — We submitted our petition to Mr. Chandler's correction. 
He advised ua to represent in it the use of the College " to keep a sense of religion 
among the German Prolestanl emigrants, settled in the British plantations, to 
instruot their children in the principles of oar common Christianity, and to instruct 
them in the knowledge of the English language, chat they may be incorporated with 
the rest of Hie Majesty's sgbjecta." Mr. T. approved of the addition; bnt I could 
not help scrupling it, beoauBO the College is not immediately intended to leaoh the 
English language. However, I submitted. 

SutvTdaytJantiary 19. — Visited Dr. Avery. He is an amiable gentleman, very 
affable, of a soft, ready address ; and eecms qualified by Divine Providence design- 
edly to act for the dissenters in court. He said he thought it hiaduty, as he is now 
on the confines of another world, to withdraw from the public management of their 
affairs ; that they might learn to manage without him before he goes nff the stage. 
He seemed diffident about oar success in our mission, on account of the prodigoua 
expenses lying upon the dissenters on variona accounts. Went to St. Dunstan's 
coffee-house, where we had some friendly conversation with Mr. Smith, ayoungcier- 
gymanof the esUblished chnroh, the author of the poem upon visiting the Philadel- 
phia Academy. Hedidnotappear sogreatanenemy toourdesignaswe eipected. 
At 3 o'clock we were sent for by a company of lords and gentlemen, who have the 
disposal of the money lately given by the King for the support of schools among 
the Germans in Pennsylvania. Mr, Chandler, who is the company's secretary, 
introduced our affair, and our petition was read. There was no time to consider 
it, and it was deferred till their neit meeting. For my part, I have no hope of 
Buccess, Spent part of the night in great perpleiity, not knowing what to preach 

Sunday, Jairuary SO.— Preached for Mr. Price, a Presbyterian minister, on 

of my subject. Heard Mr. Tennent, P. M., preach an honest and plain sermon ; 
and while I waa pleased with its simplicity, I was uneasy lest ita bluntneaa might 
he offensive. Dined at Captain Gibson's, with Mr. Price, &c. Went in the eve- 
Bing, and heard Mr. Price preach at Salter's Hall, to a large auditory, (a thing 
rarely seen here) on " My yoke is easy," &c. He is by far the beet orator I have 
heard in London ; and eicep^ng a few Arminian sentiments, his sermon was truly 
excellent. He is an affable, affectionate gentleman, and is the likest man to Mr. 
Pemberlon, both in conversation and in the pnlpit, that I have seen. Returned 

sought relief in conversation with' dear Mr. Tennent. I am afraid I sha'u do 
little good in this city. The congregations are so small that it is enough to damp 
one's zeal in preaching to (hem. 

Monday, January 31. — Spent most of the day in revising and transcribing a peti- 
tion in behalf of the College, and we resolved to soften the terms in the clause 
about the German Protestants. Spent the evening at Mr. Gibbons', where Mr. 
tlmellen and Mr. Stcnnet, jr., were met for improving conversation, and I find it 
is their method to meet every Mooday night. 

Tuesday, January 32. — We went to Mr. Chandler's, with a design to submit our 
petition to his correction. We found Mr. Slaughter and Mr. Smith there, when we 
introduced the conversation about the Germans, and observed that our College 
would be a happy expedient to unite the Calvinieta among them with the English 
Presbyterians. Mr. Smith replied that a union would not be desirable ; for a sepa- 
ration would keep up a balance of power, Mr. Tennent answered, that an union 
in a good thing is always deairable. Upon which Mr, Chandler says, " I have seen 
a very estraotdinary sermon against union," and he immediately reached Mr. Ten- 
nent his Hottingham Sermon. It threw us both into confusion, and gave such a 
damp to my spirits, as htought me in mind of my mortifications in the General 
Court in Virginia. Mr. Tennent went about to vindicate himself, and when 1 had 
recovered from my consternation, I put in a word. Bnt all had no effect. We 
found that sermon and the examination of Mr. Tennent's answer to the protest, had 
been put into Mr. Chandler's hands ; and he had formed his judgment so precipi- 
tately from a partial view of Ihe case, that he told us "he would do nothing for us." 
Mr. Smith alleged that the College was a party design, that though the charter waa 
calhohc, vet so many of the trustees were Presbyterians, that they would manage 
matters w'ith arbitrary partiality, — that the trustees in New York city complained 
that there wore not more trustees of other denominations. We went away per- 
plexed, and heard an excellent sermon in Pinner's Hall by Mr. Rawlins on a subject 



I iv, Cockle 



DIFFICULTY WITH MR. CHANDLER AND OTHERS. 24' 

very aeaBonahU to us, " He will rsgard Ihe prayer of the destitute." Went to th 
Amsterdam coffee-house, where the minialera meet, and afterwards dined at Mi 
Ward's. Returned home, and prayed together for direction, and coneulled wha 
meaBnres we should lake lo remove Mr. Chandler's prejudices. The Lord direc 
at in this dlHicalt alTair ! I am shocked to think of the inveterate mnlicnity of th 

Synod ofPhilldelphiaivho have sent th-- ■>—>■- "■ '" 

fFfdntsdaj), Jaauai-y 93. — Waited on 

that it liept me awake part of last night, and mingled with my amious dreams. Mr! 
Tennenl made honest, humble concessions with regard to the Nottingham Sermon, 
as — "that It was written in the heat of hie spirit, when he apprehended a remarka- 
ble work of God was opposed by a set of minieterB— that some of the sentiments 
were not agreeable to his present opinion— that he had painted sundry things in 
loo strong colours— and he plead,— that it was now thirteen years ago— and (hat 
einoe he had used all his influence to promote union between the Synods; of which 
he produced his Irenicum as a witness — that if the sermon was fhully, it was but 
the fault of one man, and should not be charged upon the whole body." We 
showed him the minutes of our Synod, lo give him a viewof the slate of the debates. 
As he disapproves of all subscriptions of tests of orlhodosj, he disapproved of our 
adopting act. I eierted all my powers of pathetic address, to give Mm a movinK 
represenuUon of the melancholy case of Ihe churches under our care— of the 
dreadful consequence of a disappointment in our mission — of the hardships we had 
eiposed ourselves to, in prosecuting it, &c. Upon the whole he seemed something 
softened, and promised that he would not use his influence to blast our design but 
^ould himselt^contribute towards it. He invited me lo preach for him ne« Sun- 
day come se'en night, which I did not espect. Waited upon Dr. Lawrence, a 
Presbyterian minister, who Wealed ds with great freedom and friendship. He 
advised us lo prepare petitions, one for the Presbyterians and one for the Inde- 
pendents ; for the animosities among some of them were so strong, that the very 
sight of the names of one party would hinder the other from subscribing; and the 
Independents would cry it was a Presbyterian project, when they saw the petition 
recommended by Presbyterians, and vice versa. Dined with good old Mr. Pierce, 
Dr. Watts' former colleague, in company with Mr. Savage, his assistant. He is an 
humble, affectionate gentlemen, and seemed lo have our mission at hearti but ap- 
prehended we should have little success here at present, because the collections tor 
their own funds are just at hand. We requested him lo recommend our petition ; 
but he declined it at the time. From the present view of things, I think if wo can 
but clear our eipenses, we shall be well off. Went in the evening to Mr. Brad- 
bury's. He is still sprightly and gay, and sings a lane now and then, though so 
Terj aged. He subscribed a recommendation of the petition, and seemed particu- 
larly concerned for its success. 

Thursday, January 24.— Went lo Dr. Guyse, Dr. Lardner, Dr. Benson, and Mr. 
Price, 10 get our petition recommended ; and they all complied. Dr. Guyse is a 
steady, deliberate gentleman, and now appears more in our interest than upon our 
first application. Dr. Benson talked in a sneering manner of the account of the 
conversions in Northampton, New England, published here by Dr. Walls and Dr. 
Guyse. He is a gentleman of great abilities, but counted a Socinian. Mr. Prior is 
a sociable, sprightly, generous gentleman, of laliludinarian principles, but a hearty 
friend to every laudable institution. He uninvited subscribed ten guineas to the 
College. We wailed also on Mr. Hall, but he declined subscribing then, to make 
way for his seniors. He is an Israelite, and bitterly laments the declension of the 
times. In th^ evening I wrote to Mr, Wright, &c. But alas ! I am so hurried that 
I have no time for correspondence. 

Friday, January SS.—W tot with much hesitation to Mr. Chandler's and he to 
our agreeable surprise, recommended our petition. This will have a happy efi'ect, not 
only as his name will have influence with many, but as it will bind him to secresy 
with regard to the calumnies spread about Mr. Tennent, for he cannot with a good 
feoe give Injurious representations of a design which himself has recommended. 
We went neit lo Mr. Slennet's, and he also subscribed. But Mr. Newman, a 
Presbyterian minister, chose to have more time to consider. Dr. Lawrence, one of 
the few CalvinisUc Presbyterians, did also cheerfully subscribe ; and so did Mr. Raw- 
Jins, a good old independent miniater,»hom we wailed upon in the evening. Dined 
with Mr. Bradbury, who baa been in the ministry abont fifty-aeven years. He read 
US some letters which paaaed between Mr. Whitefield and him in 1741; occasioned 
by Mr. Whilefield's reproving him in a letter for singing a song in a tavern, in a 
large company, in praise of old English beef. The old gentleman sung it lo us, and 
we found it was partly composed by himself, in the highflying days of Queen Anne. 



,:.. Google 



MR. PrKE— DR. JENNINGS. 



But for my part, I would s; 



Saturday, January 26. — Spfint the morning in writing 
- . .. ,■ ....... " .Bowles, who treated us liindl J, : 



., . , . in Berry street; when I 

enCared the pulpit, it filled me with reverence to reflect that I Blood in the place 
where Mr. ClarkBon, Dr. Owen, Dr. Watla, &o., had once officiated. My subject 
was Jer. isii. 18, 19, 20. I was favoared with some fi-eedom. Blessed be God, I 
hiTB not been disturbed with the fear of man, since I have been in this city. Dined 

lO treated me with all the lender afiection of a father. 

I chnrch in Founders' hali, where Mr. Lawsoa is min- 
ister, on Rev, i, 7. I was encouraged to see a crowded auditory, of persona from 
various congregations ; and though I had not much solemnit}', v»s enabled to speak 
gracefully and oratorically. Drank tea at Mr. Mauduil'si who is a very candid 
aerioas man, though a frieml and occasional hearer of Dr. Benson. He gave me 
some encouragement that something would he done in favour of the poor dissenters 
in Virginia. Heard Mr. Furnace in the evening on the case of Felii, an ingonious 
discourse. 

Monday, January 38. — Waited on good Mr. Pike, and he readily subscribed our 

fetition ; but had it much at heart that only pious youth, should be admitted to 
:arning for the ministry ; a method that has been pursued here for some years, by 
the King's head society. He told us, that he believed all that would be given by 
his friends, must be appropriated for this purpose ; and that they would give upon 
no other footing. The venerable Dr. Grosvenor also signed our petition. Dined 
St Dr. Lawrence's, an open hearted candid gentlemen ; and went thence to Mr. 

what could be got among his fiends, he would take the trouble to collect himself. 

.er, who amid all his pre- 

Tuesday, January 29. — Went in the morning to Dr. Jen 
sible gentleman, who keeps an acai' 
to preach for him. Went Ihence to 



e gentleman, who keeps an academy. He signed the petitii 
■ " •■ — ■ ■■ ■" all, and h " - 



judgment, and what he said had a tendency lo do good. I waited on him and Mr. 
Barker, a celebrated miuister, in the vestry room, and though the old gentleman 
treated me, as he does every body else, with his natural sternness, he and Mr. 
Barker readily signed the petition. Wont from thence to Hamlin's coffee-house, 
where the Preabyterinn ministers meet on Tuesdays, and there Dr. Allen and Dr. 
Benson subscribed. Dr. Benson did it with this sneer, << That he was no friend to 

an Arian, or a Socinian, would be admitted into our College. The reason of his 
inquiry was, that the charter says " that all persons of all dtniaaiTuitions shall be 
admitted to equal advantages of education ;" and he apprehended that an Arminian 

honest Independents at the Austrian coffee-house, and got sundry namee. Dined 
at Mr. Holmes', a courteous gentleman of Mr. Newman's congregation, in com- 
pany with dear Mr. Gibbons, a great grandson of Oliver Cromwell. I was much 
pained with a wind cholic. In the evening went to the Amsterdam coflee-house, 
where the Independent ministers met for friendly conversation, and to consult 
about the affairs ofthe churchesj for they have no other associations, ns the Pres- 

exercised jointly among either of them. The English Presbyterians have no eiders 

with the church of Scotland.' I find the Calvinistic Presbyterians, as well as the 
Baptists, choose to frequent the Independent coSee-bouse, rather than associate 
with their Presbyterian brethren of Arminian or Socinian sentiment, at Hamlin's. 
Mr. Halford and Mr. Towle subscribed to our petition ; and the rest present, par- 

Wednesday, January SO. — We waited upon Dr. Gill, the celebrated Baptist min- 
ister. He is a serious, grave little man, and looks young and hearty, though, I 



::,Go0^lc 



DR. GILL— LOW SPIRITED— MB. PRICE. 251 

ition, thoogh he modestly pleaded that his 
It the Baptists in general wore, unhappily, 
ignorant ortheiniporUnoe of learning. Went thence to Mr. Price, and got his 
subacriplion. At 13 o'clock, wailed on tha qommittae, of which Dr. A?erj is 
chairmaa. We laid before them our credentials, and requegted them to recom- 
mend oar petition ; but they apprehended it woald be improper. They cordially 
gaTe US their best adiice. They had no time to consider the case of the oppressed 
dissenters in Virginia ; but promised il should be done at their nest meeting. There 
were fourteen present. Spent the evening in writing letters ; at night waited on 
Mr. Savage, who is famed for his liberality to all pious undertakings. I fonnd the 
good man was cooled towards us, because we associated with the rich and great, 
and persons of all denominations promiscuously ; — and did not keep a more public 
intercourse with Mr. Whitetietd, and employ some house to preach in frequently. 
He seemed also insensible of the necessity of learning in a minister { and was 
doubtful whether he would give any thing towards our College. 

Thursday, January 31. — Visited Mr. Richardson, an Independent minister, and 
Mr. Walker, tutor of the oriental langoages in Dr. Marriot's academy, who readily 
signed our petition. Mr. Tennent went to Mr. Denham, but had no aiimiaeion. 
Dined at Mr. Hall's, and was cheered and ediRed with his facetious and yet hea- 

Friday, Felmiary 1.— Took a walk to Westminster, to get the names of the 
Scotch ministers to our petition ; but could find none at home but Mr. Craokshank 
and Mr. Patrick, who readily signed. The farmer was indisposed, and I had not 
much conversation with himj but he appears an aiTectionate humble man. Mr. 
Patrick appears a serioos man, and deeply lamented the declension of religion in 
London, among the dissenters ; and said that the revivals of religion which they 
had were chiefly in the Church of England, by means of Mr. Whitctldd. In my 
return I took a walk through St. James's Park, and find it contains a vast quantity 
of land. 

Salurday, February 2. — Wont to Westminster, and got Mr, Klppies and Mr. 
Oswald to sign the petition. Mr. Klppies was a pupil of Dr. Doddridge's, and is a 
very modest ahd affectionate youth. He succeeds the late Dr. Hughs. Mr. Oswald 
seems to be a derout humble man. He is acquainted with Mr. Ersklne, Mr. 
McLaurin, and sundry good ministers in Scotland, his native country. Dined at 
good Dr. Gniae's, in company with his son, who is also a minister, and a sociable, 
pleasant companion. Went (hence to Mr. Burroughs, an Arminian Baptist, with 
whom the late Dr. Foster was colleague for some time. Spent the evening with 
Mr. Edward Cal am J, the fourth of the name. He is a sensible, pleasant gentleman, 
but has imbibed the modish divinity. He has declined the exercise of hia ministry 
for about three years, by reason of indisposition, 

Sunday, Felruary 3.— Preached A. M. for Mr. Crookshank on Luke liii. 34, with 
considerable freedom, and the assembly appeared attentive, and some of them 
affected. Preached P. M. in the old Jewry for Mr. Chandler, on Luke ii. 24, to a 
very brilliant assembly, but a blander I made in mentioning teit, threw me into 
confusion, which I did not recover throngh (he whole discourse; and I felt more of 
the fear of man than since I have been in this city. Drunk tea with Mr. Chandler 
at one Mr. Adair's ; but was so mortified with a rcTiew of my sermon, that I had 
DO heart for conversation ; and I returned home exceedingly dejected. I was afraid 
that my poor management would bring disgrace upon religion, and the affairs of 
our mission. In short, I have not had so melancholy an evening for a long time. 
The Lord help me < 

Monday, Febmary i. — Visited Mr. Denham, a Presbyterian minister ; but he was 
GO affected with the gout that he could not give me an audience ; but put me off till 
nest Monday. Went thenee to Mr, Prior's, and spent an hour with him in free 
conversation. He is an amiable, candid and generous gentleman. He gave me 
ten guineas for the College ; and he is a learned and ingenious man. I think that 
the Trustees should compliment him with (he degree of A. M. as a reward to his 
merit and generosity. He made me a present of three discourses of his, one of 
which I heard him deliver at Salter's Hall ; and I presented him with one of mine, 
preached before the Presbytery. Dined with Mr. Muir, a Scotch minister, settled 
in an Independent congregation ; a very affectionate man, and he seems to have a 
serious sense of religion. Went to Mr. Mitchel's, who is also a Scotch minister 
of an Independent congregation, but not so sociable as the former to me. They 



fully signed the petition 



,i,a,Coogle 



252 POEMS— SUCCESS— AEGYLE— RAWLINS. 

agreeably at Mr. Towle's, an ingenious joung minister ot the Independent per- 
BUasion. We interchanged our thoughts on sundry Bubjecla, and particularly I 
communicated to him my thoughts on Ihe Divine government as adapted lo (he 
nature of man, the beaaty of iBctoral justice, and various methods which God has 
wisely taken to display il, fee. He advised me to digest my thoughts upon these 
Buhjecta, and publish them because they were new. I find lo mj surprise, that my 

rems and sermon before the Presbytery are very acceptable (o sundry here ; and 
bare been pressed by some to let them pass an edition herej but I am afraid of 
every thing that might be looked upon as ostentation in my present circnms lances. 
Mr. Towle proposed to keep a correspondence with me for the future ; a proposal 
very acceptable to me. 

Tuesday, February 5.— Heard Mr. Rawlins at Pinners' Hall, on his former teit, 
" He will regard the prayer of the destitute, &c.;" and though his delivery is heavy, 
I have "heard very Eevv preach so qoHd. iifrllrinnn. pnA (kvn^^rimpntti q AiBi-n„raa 
Went among the Independent n 



tained threi 



ir petitioi 



Hayward. Dincd^at one Mr. Charles Bnckslone's, with Mr. Gibbons, who treated 
m6verykindly,and gave me five guineas for the College, without solicitation. We 
have now got sixty names to our petition, which I think quite snfficienti hut Mr. 
Tennent thinks we should get the recommendation of the principal ministers, 
round about the city, as well as in it. BM this, I am afraid, will take up so much 
lime, that we cannot finish our applications for pritate contributions before we are 
obliged to set out for Scotland. I think it is a remarkable smile of Providence, 
that we have so much success in getting the ministers of the city lo recommend 
our petition, as it will have weight, not only here, hut with the General Assembly. 
Spent part of the evening at Mr. Maudait'a, who had sent for me, to advise me to 
draw up a more particular account of the College ; and the sum necessary to carry 
It to maturity, that people might regnlate their donations accordingly. 

Wednesday, February 6.— Went to Mr. Stennet's, who went with us to introduce 
us to the Duke of Argyle, to deliver Governor Belcher's letter. We found eight 
or ten gentlemen and noblemen waiting in his grace's levee. His Grace took us 
into his library; a spacious, elegant room, about forty feet long and twenty broad, 
furnished all round with books, philosophical instruments, curiosities, &c. His 
Grace told us, alter reading the letter, that as the college related to the plantations, 
»B onght first to apply to the lords of trade and plantations, and if they appro? ed 
of it, he would willingly countenance it, both here and in Scotland. He advised 
us to apply to Lord Halilas, or Lord Duplin ( and Mr. Stennet accordingly went to 
the latter, (white we staid at a coffee-house;, and showed him our instructions from 
the Trustees, and the petition we bad drawn up. Mr, Stennet told him he applied 
to his lordship in confidence ; and his lordship assured him he would do nothing to 
injure ds. He thereupon told him we had our charter only from a Governor ; and 
asked him whether he thought it would be deemed valid in court. His lordship 
replied that he doubted it ; but he would soon satisfy himself, by inquiring into the 
extent of the Governor's commission. And in case it appeared valid, he would 
advise us to lay the matter before the Atehbisbop of Canterbury, and he himself 
would go with Mr. Stennet to Mr. Pel ham, in our favour.- and so introduce the 
matter in coort. For my part, I am afraid of all applications in that quarter, lest 

, who gave ns five guineas 
an appTica^on to the lords 

Saturday, February S.—tSj hours are so interrupted, that I cannot every day 
keep an account of my proceedings. Providence has smiled upon our undertak- 
ing so far, that we have about eighty guineas promised, twenty of which are from 
the Rev. Mr. Rawlin, who has a large estate without children, and a heart pro- 



•rtionably g< 
Sunday, Fe> 
.1 

me Antinomian notions, particularly that no 
nade lo the unconverted, because they are dead in sin. 



■y 10. — Preached in a vacant Baptist congregation, which formerly 

_ j.__ .i_. ■ ■ - If _ They have generally, as I am informed, 

articularly that no offers of grace should be 



o Mr. Bendy foe their minister. They have general! 



, ached before and aflernoon on Isaiah xlv. 33, with some freedom ; but 
as my sermon was full of exhortations to sinners to look to Christ, I suppose it did 
not well suit the taste of the people. Dined with good Mr. Savage, who used a 
very inoffensive freedom in making remarks upon my sermon, whicTi he seemed to 
think was not suflicientiy evangelical.— Preached in the evening at Shakapeare 
Walk, to a very crowded auditory, on Zech. vil. 12, 13, and had unusual free- 
dom, though ray body was much cjbauBted, and my voice broke by a bad cough, 
with which I have been afflicted ever since I left home. My subject was terrible, 



Ho=,i.dr.:. Google 



DENHilM— B ARK ER— ANDERSON— SUCCES S. 253 

and I was afraid it might be offenaive; but the uncommon security of this place 
requites an alann. The people seemed eagerlj atteolive ; and tbete appeared a 
greater prospect of suoceaa than I have had in this eity. This lecture is attended 
altcrnaletj by the ministers of the town ; and ie intended to support a charity 
school of thirty children. I addressed myself to the little creatures and they 
seemed very attentive. 

Monday, February II. — Visited Mr. Mill and delivered Mr. Donald's letter. 
He and his partner, Mr. Oswald, advised us lo apply lo the lords of trade lo en- 
courage onr embassy. But I am afraid of the consequence. Went to Mr. Den- 
ham, a Presbyterian minister, and had a long and difficult dispute with him, about 
the importance and necessity of our College, — the validity of the charter without 
the Royal approbation. Etc., which he managed with great deilerity. It was my 
happiness to have my thoughts ready, and I made such a defence as silenced him. 
His name is of great importance, and 1 was solicitous to obtain it to our petition; 
but had lost all hope of it, when, to my agreeable surprise, he subscribed. Visited 
Dr. Jennings, who took me to his academy, and showed all his philosophical curi- 
osities, two orreries, — an experiment to show that all the colours of the rainbow 
blended form a white,— a mushroom petrified,— two or three Testaments in MS. 
before the ;Brt of printing, which were very elegantly written, — sundry stones Iq 
the shape of a coiled snake, — shells, minerals, bolus's harp, a plica pilonica, be. 
He has a most curious and philosophical turn, and is very sociable and Gommoni- 
cative. He promised five guineas at least towards the College. — Spent the evening 
agreeably with Mr. Savage, Dr. Watls's successor, and sub-tutor with Dr. Jennings. 

Tuesday, F^. 12.— Went to Salter's Hall, and heard the great Mr. Barker, on 
these words, " Not as though I had already attained," &c. His sermon was very 
accurate and judicious, and in the Calvinistic strain. 1 find, that though real reli- 
gion, and the principles of the Reformation are better retained among the Inde- 
pendents, and though there be a considerable number of learned and judicious 
ministers among them, yet the greatest number of learned and polite men are 
among the Presbyterians,- and sundry of them deserte the character, who Armin- 
ianiie and Socinianize very much. Went to the Presbyterian coffee-house, as it is 
called, and got Mr. Fumeaui's name to the petition. Dined with my serious friend, 
Mr. Manduit, who promised five guineas to the College. Had a long conversation 
with Samuel Dicker, Esq., a notorious deist. 

Wednesday, Feb. 13.— Waited on Mr. Ti 



much that we staid at home P. M.j and Twrote a rew"letler8 to my 
IS all that is dearest to me in the world. 



friends at Hanover. That c 



Thmsday, Feb. 14.— Waited on Mr. Stennet to hear Lord Duplin's opinion of the 
lalidity of our charter ; but he was indisposed, and had not waited on his lordship. 
Visited Mr. Brine, a Baptist minister, who is reputed a speculative Antinomian, 
though a good man. Dined with Mr. Anderson, of the Sooth Sea House, a friendly, 
polite gentleman, and a secretary of the correspondents here with the Society for 
propagating Christian knowledge in Scotland. I find his uncle was the grandfather 
of the Andersons in Hanover. Visited Dr. Avery, who treated me with the most 
Dureserved candour. Spent the evening with Mr. Thomson, jr., an ingenious 
young Baptist minister, who though educated a strict Calvinist, baa imbibed the 
modern latitndinarian principles. I had an amicable dispute with him about the 
lawfulness and expediency of subscribing tests oforthodoiy beside the Scripture. 

Friday, F^. 15.— Visited the venerable, stern Dr. Earley, and he gave me five 
guineas for the College. Went then to Mr. Spilsbury's, Presbyterian minister at 
Salter's Hall. He seemed reluctant to assist, and put me off. Dined with 
Mr. Bowles, jr., and had a very agreeable conversation with the old gentleman, 
though my spirits were very tow, and I had no list for action. He made some 
candid remarks upon my sermons, and told me that he heard Mr. Chandler and his 
people were not well pleased with my sermon there, but thought it too rigidly or- 



Satarday, February 16. — We have reason to observe the goodness of God in 
the success we meet with in the business of our mission, having already got near 
.£200, which I really thought at first would be as much as we could get in all. 
Our obtaining the attestation of so many ministers to our petition (in all siiiy-seven) 
appears the best expedient wc could have fallen upon; and as they are of the 
three denominations of dissenters, it gives us access lo people of all these denomi- 
uations. — We have concluded to print live hundred copies of our petition, to put into 



» Google 



254 CRITICISM— COLLECTIONS— DIFFICULTIES. 

.the hands of our friends, to dispose among such as might contribute to the de- 

This morning I waited on Dr. Latdner, Mt. Pilie, and Mr. Guyse, who gave me 
ahout seven gnineas hetneen them towards the College. — Had some conversation 
with Mr. Guyse, who is a free sociahle gentleman, though very low spirited to 
day. I hardiy think there has been one in London these many years, who has 
contracted so extensive acijuaintance with the ministers oC (his city, as I have, in 
less than two months. I am sometimes low spirited and bashful, especially in 
company with my seniors, that I cannot behave so as to recommend myself. 
However, I hope to settle such correspondence as may be for my future advantage. 
Dined at Mr. Wright's, aon-iu-law to Mr. Mauduil, and spent the al^ernoon at 
home, preparing for to-morrow when I am to preach for Dr. Jennings. I find 

time for thoughtfulness and retirement have dissipated my thoughts, and deadened 
my devotion, t am eitremeiy nneasy in my situation. I long to he at home in 
my study, and with my dear family ; for the character of a recluse student suits 
me much better than that of a man of businesa. But it is the providence of God 
that called me to this instance of seifdental, aud I must submit, nay I would cheer- 
fully acquiesce in it. Though I take but too superficial notice of ilkyet alas I 
I feel sin still strong in me. Calrnn, non aninaiM mutant, giri Irons mare 
curruat. When I seriously think how depraved I am, 1 hardly know what con- 
clusion to draw about myself. God pity me, the vilest of his creatures. 

Sunday, February 17. — Heard Dr. Jennings, A. M. on Rom. viii. 7, 8, and he 
spoke in the language of the eouvictive preachers of the last age, to my great 
satisfaction. Dined with one Mr. Eads, a very serious good man. Preached P. M. 
on Fs. icvii. 1, with usual freedom and clearness to the great satisfaction of the 
good Doctor. Spent the evening with him,' and he is so tree and communicative 
of knowledge, that his company is very entertaining and instructive. I meet with 
none in London like him in this respect. He read me a dissertation of his upon 
the tree of life. A late writer supposes that the word rendered tree, though sin- 
gular, has a plural signification, and mean; all the trees of the garden, except that 
of knowledge. So the Greek fMor, and the English wood has a t>lural signification. 
The author supposes that all the trees in Eden might be called a !coii<t of life, 
because they were sufficient for the support of life without the other productions 
ofthe earth, which are raised by labour. The Doctor supposes that there were 
other trees of pleasure and innocent luxury, but not absolutely necessary for 
Adam's subsistence, and that the tree of life was a particular species of tree, the 
fruit of which was the necessary support of life, as bread is now, &c. 

Saturrfijy, Feftruars 32. — This weet I have been so hurried, that I could not keep 
B dailyjonrnal. Last week we dispersed our petitions among the ministers to give 
away among their people. We have been diligent in making private applications ; 
but met with many disappointments, partly jirom gentlemen being from home, or in- 
disposed, or unwilling to contribnte ; and partly by the prejudices raised in the 
minds of some by Mr. Tennent's Nottingham sermon, which is dispersed through 
the town from hand to hand very officiously. Mr. Tennenl was so damped with it 
yesterday, that his spirits were quite sunk and he gave up (he hope of success, and 
wished himself in Philadelphia again. But this morning we had reason to observe 
the remarkable interposition of Providence, in raising us up after a dejection. Mr. 
Tennent waited on Wm. Belchier, Esq., a churchman, that socras to have no sense 
of religion ; and from whom we expected littie or nothing ; but he surprised us by 
subscribing £50. Blessed be the God of heaven, who has the hearts of all men in 
his hands, and rules them as he pleases. I went to Hackney, about three miles off; 
had an interview with Mr. Hnnt, one of the ministers there, a serious, sociable man. 
Waited on Samuel Lesingharn, Esq., a gentieman in great respect among the dis- 
senters ; and Stamp Brookshank, and Sheafe, Esqrs., the Utter of which gave 

me a very cold reception. Hackney is a very agreeable place, where there are 

sundry magnificent seals and gardens. This week I have waited on Lamb, 

Esq., Mr. Benjamin Bond, sen., Mr. Hollis, Sir Joshua Van-Neck, and spent 

last Wednesday night very agreeably with Mr. Stennet, iun., an affectionate Baptist 
minister. Dined yesterday with Mr. Robert Keen, in (he Minoriea, a pious affec- 
tionate young gentleman, in company with good Mr. Cruttenden. We have been 
solicited to preach a charity sermon next Wednesday for the dissenting school in 
Bartholomew Close ; and as Mr. Tennenl refused, and cast it upon me, I was obliged 

ministers that may attend, &c., the prospect strikes me with horror. May God 
prepare me I Dined last Thursday at Mr. Brine's, a Baptist minister and a warm ad- 
vocate for the doctrines of Calvinism, with something of Antinomian tincture. 
Sundav, FebniaTy 34.— Preached the morning lecture at Mr.Godwin's meeting- 



iD. Google 



WATTS— HOUSE OP LOKDS— CASE OF DISSENTERS. 255 

house, in Little St. Helen's, at 7 o'clock, the earliest that ever I preached Id my 
life. There was a considerable assembly considering il was so early. My subject 

of pnblio worship, I could handle'it but superficially. Took a coach and went to 
Mr. Oswald's meeting-house, where I preached both fore and afternoon. My sub- 
ject A. M., was John iii. 6, and P. M., John iii. 3, 1 spoke with eome fteedom 
But das I the spirit of awful solemnity, so commanding and impressing to an audi- 
ence, which has frequently animated my sermons, seems now to be departed from 
me; and when I epeak on solemn eubjecta, with anairof nnconcernednessjOr mere 
natural vivacily, 1 feel guilty, and seem to myself to make a very ridiculous ap- 
pearance. Such preaching, alas .' has but little weight with an auditory. The con- 
gregation in the afternoon was very full, which encouraged me. 
[Here smne is laanting.] 

Monday, FAruary SS.— Went to Hackney, but were disappointed of waiting on 
several we intended. Went thence to Newington, and visited Mrs. Abney, daugh- 
ter of the late Sit Thomas Abney, a courteous humble lady. The steward showed 



oks were taken 
e"''1n''o^nroVwll 


°5Ssi£:. 


ud he 
, nolbi 
-dertht 
ththe 


i 

Dr'i 


te bi 

pleai 


It little 
iCd me 
left lh£ 
1 hand. 


.of 


Est locus plurit 














me doctorum pr 


opria dignabitur i 


imbra. 










)octot tenderly describes in his 
■enerable oats and elms, Stc. 

1, the prospect of which is very 
lOrds, withthaRen. Mr. Thompso 


elegy upo 

S, preparii 
terrifying 1 


ig to preacl 
.o me. We 
1 introduced 





Tuesday, February 36. 

P. M., to the°HoiisTo"t 

a Mr. George Baskeriilli 

in the evening. He is Ine most lacetious mortal i ever conversed with ; and 

sometimes he gives such a loose to his wit that one would think he had no respect 

to any thing sac ted ; and yet he gave five guineas (o the College, and talked at 

times very pertinently on divine subjects. The House of Lords is but an ordinary 

ceive. It was opened by aprayer read by the youngest bishop ; at which all but mem- 
bers were ordered to go out; but Mr. Thompson and I were conveniently con- 
cealed behind a curtain, and were not eicluded. The bishops made an odd 
appearance to me in their dress of black and while 1 The judges were to give 

and I was charmed with their clear reasoning : and one of them had a handsome 
address. 

ire(in#sdaj,Feiriiarj/37.— Preached a charity sermon at Mr. King'smeeting-house, 
on " I will be their God, and they shall be my people." There was a large auditory, 
and a considerable number of ministers, viz. Dr. Guyse, Mr. King, Mr. Gibbons, 
Mr. Guyse, Mr. Hlcfcman, Mr. Brine, &c. I have hardly ever preached with 
greater disadvantage j partly by reason of a fright, occasioned by searching my 

Sockets sometime before I could find my notes ; and partly from my great hurry ; 
•r I fonnd after I had consented to preach, that the committee that have the man- 
agement of the secular aifairsof the dissenters, were to meet on the same day ; and 
Mr. Mauduit wrote to me to gel Mr. Tennent to preach for me, (which he would 
by no means do) or conclude exactly at IS o'clock. These things cast me into a 
perturbation of mind, and yet I had as much freedom and tenderness as I have had 
in the city ; for which I desire lo be humbly thankful. The ministers thanked me 
heartily for my sermon, and seemed well pleased with it. Immediately after ser^ 
men I took coach and went to Pinner's Hall, lo wait on the Committee. They had 
been consulting the Virginia laws, and reading the papers I had sent them ; and 
Ihey told me they were al! heartily engaged in my interest, but after the best 
deliberation, they were apprehensive that the Act of Toleration was not 30 adopted 
as lo become a proper law of Virginia, but only one paragraph was received, which 
eiempts dissenters from penalty for absenting themselves from the ealabliehed 
church. This surprised me ; as I still think my reasons for my former opinions are 
unanswerable. They at least advised me lo gel a petition drawn up to the King 
and Council, and subscribed by the dissenters in the frontier counties, which they 
apprehended would be of more weight than one from Hanover, because they were 
educated dissenters, and were a good barriaragainst the French and Indians, They 



l.dr.;. Google 



RANDOLPH— HALFORD— SERMONS. 



God smile on the attempt. 



i sited Mr. Wnngh, the 
ItMr.Mau' ■- 



in convBrsatioo upon the case of the dissenters in Virginia. 1 iind Pejton Ran- 
dolph, Esq., my old adversary, is now in London; and will no doubt oppose what- 
ever is done in favour of the dissenters in Hanover. 

Ttiesday, March 6.— Wa determined to publish a larger account of the rise and 
present state of the College; as we Iind some are not fully satisfied with the short 
account given in our petition. This has cost us some pains, and the more so, as 
Mr. Tennent's style and mine are eo different. Went to tho Amsterdam coffee- 
house, to ses the ministers, and spread our petitions, about I o'clock. 

Wednesday, March 6. — Heard Mr. Halford preach a charity sermon in Mr. Chan- 
dler's meeting-honsB for the fund to support the widows and children of dissenting 
ministers. Hia test was, " Whalsoevef Ihy hand findelh to do," &c. His matter 
was tolerably good, bat delivered In a most wretched manner. I met him at the 
door, as he was coming into the meeting-house, and asked him bow he did 1 He 
answered, " I am in fear and much trembling," and when I told bim, that I hoped 
the Lord wonid be with him, — the good man burst into tears. This gave me occa- 
sion to reflect upon my own presumption, who preached there with much less diffi- 
dence. Yisited Mr. Jackson, who was educated a churchman, but is now a dis- 
Benterj who has had the reading of all our papers relating to out mission, and 
would do nothing implicitly. He said he was afraid our College would fall into 
Episcopal hands ; and that he was not well affected to Governor Belcher's charac- 
ter, for accepting of the place of Governor of New England, and espousing the 
interests of the court, when he was sent over as agent to oppose them. But to ray 
agreeable surprise he gave me ten guineas for the College. Waited in the evening 
on Mr. Blackwell, whom, through mistake, I took to he a dissonler, but found to 
be a churchman, and one of the contributors to the Society for Propagating Chris- 
tianity in foreign parts. He made as wide a mistake, and took me to be a Mora- 
Tian, till I undeceived him. He appeared a very candid gentleman, and took the 
affair under consideration. I have been more than usually ansious this day about 
my dear wife. Oh ! that I knew how she is 1 I find that neither tme nor distance 
can erase her image from my heart. This day the Honourable Henry Pel ham, 

has left a general good character behind him ; and the court is puzzled to know 
whom to choose in bis place. 
(Some wanting.l 

Saturday, March 16. — Last Sunday, I preached A.M., for Mr. Gibbons, on these 
words, " So then is neither he that planteth any thing, &c„" and as I was deeply 
sensible of the withdrawing of Divine influences, and the inefficaciousuess of the 
means of grace without them, my tender passions were frequently moved through- 
out the sermon, and in the conclusion burst out into a flood of tears. Sundry of 
the hearers were tenderly affected, particularly. Mr. Cromwell, great grandson of 
the famous Oliver ; who gave Mr. Gibbons three guineas for the College, after 
sermon, thanked me for my diacourse with tears in his eyes. He afterwards con- 
ducted me to Dr. Slennet's, and talked freely and warmly of eiperimenlal religion. 
— Dined at Mr. Samoel Stennet's, in company with his brother, who is also a min- 
ister.— Preached P. M., for Dr. Stennet, and my spiriu were so eihansted with my 
forenoon discourse that 1 had not much tender solemnity. Spent the evening with 
Mr. Stennet, jr., who seems a pious ingenious youth. We have determined to 
publish a larger account of the college for the satiefaolion of such as have a his- 
torical curiosity, or desire to be informed of it as a matter in which they are con- 
cerned aa 'contributors; and we have been busy this week in preparing and 
Bpreading it through the town. Spent the evening very agreeably with Mr. Crut- 
tenden, who read me an ingenious dissertation of his in thvour of Dr. Watts'e ver- 
sion of the Psalms, and upon my request made me a present of it. Spent another 
evening with that heavenly man, Mr. Hall, whose conversation is an agreeable 
^■..•,,,e of piety and wit. Had an interview with Mr. Wm. Hervey, brother to the 
_^ .i_ ,..j:.-....- xTg jj J modest, humble gentleman, and 
alous regard for the exploded doctrines 
card Mr. Read last Tuesday, at Salter's 
Hall, on these wo^s, " Enter not into judgment with thy servant," &c. But 
there was such a legal spirit diffused through the sermon, that I thought it rather 
calculated to promote the security, than the conversion of sinners. I could not 
help thinking of a pun I have beard of a minister, who preached a sermon upon 



SALTER'S HALL— MR. PRIOR. 257 

the,e words " Salt is good, but if Ihe (rait have lost its savour," fee. and when he 
was deeired to publish it, he said '< Ho believed he would, and dedicate it to the 
Plnfo/ibel^sea.™' iL vir'bia ^"d'ca ''*»'"'""e-"-Ve°tZ; fdr^w up a 
death of Mr. VC,-the proapwl T/e^nding a biahop1.ve7lo'' Ameri'^^ -the 
confusion between the Governor and AeBembly in Virginia,— and Mr. Raodpln'h mv 
old adversary being now in London, are all great obsiructions at present to the re- 
lief of mj oppressed people. And the committee, on these accounts, think this a 
very improper tinie to make any application In their favour. As Dr. Stennet haa 
a great deil of iniluence m court, I gave him, last night, a particular account of 
tbe rise and progress of the dissenting interest in Virginia, and the restraints and 
emnarraasmenta the people laboured under from the sovernment. Ha was ver» 
much "noved with the account, and promised me his utmost influenoe ia their fa- 
fl^nfw?t \ T" ^"^^"'f-J "■"'i"B ^P"" ">e Duke of Newcastle, to condole the 
death of his brother, and tolcl me that it was the most trairical scene he ever saw 
Diiied at Mr. Wm. Stead's in company with Mr. Cornfliwaite Js minister a 
Sei'enth.day Baptist Sooinian, Had an interview a few days ago with Mr. Grant, 
minister in Nortbamptonahire. He has no learning, but is a very solid, judicious 
and pious man, and I am told popular and successful in his ministry. ' 

Sunday, March 17.— Preached A. M., for Mr. Lawson at Fonnder'a hall i.nnn 
Ltike ,iii. 24, and the hearers were attentive, though neither they nor myself, vC 
.olemn. Preached P.M.al Unicorn Yard, for Mr. Thomson, on Psalm scvii 1 and 
acted the orator with a tolerable grace. Preached an evenmg lecture on Jeremiah 
Txx,. 18-20 for Mr. Mitchell, at Mr. Hitkin's meeting-house, and the sight of the 
audi ory, the most crowded 1 have seen in London, cast me into an agreeable fer- 
ment, and constrained me to pray in the pulpit for Divine assistance ; and I hope I 
was answered, for I had more than usual freedom and solemnitv. 
[Some watting.] ' 

TMSday. Hai-ch 19.— Went to the Amsterdam coffee-house among the Baptist 
and Independent ministers, where I enjoy most satisfaction. Receivid the thinks 
of Ihe governors of the char^tj; school, in Barthoiomew'sClose, for my sermon there 
which were presented to me in a very respectful manner by Dr. Guyse, as their 
deputy. Though it ba hard to repress the workings of vanity, even in a creature 
BO unworthy as I am, under so much applause, yet I think my heart rises in sincere 
gratitude to God for advancing me from a mean family, and utter obscurity into 
Bome importance in the world, and giving mo so many advantages of public useful- 
Bess, Indeed I hardly think there is a greater instance of this in the present ace 
Alas 1 that I do not belter improve my opportunities. Went lo Hamlin's coiTee^ 
house among the Presbyterians, where they are generally very shv and unsociable 
to me. They have universally, as far as I can learn, rejected all tests of ortho- 
doiy, and require their candidates, at their ordination, to declare only their belief 
^l ''^^ ^fT^'^%- ^'- *'■;'?'■■"'!"' "■« appearance of great uneasiness, told me 
that be had heard we would admit none into the ministry without subscribing to the 
Westminister Confession ; and that this report would hinder all oar success amonir 
the thends of liberty. I replied that we allowed the candidate to mention his 
objections against any article in the Confession, and the judicature judged whether 
the articles ohjecled against were essential to Christianity ; and if Ihey judged they 
were not, Ihey would admit the candidate, notwithstanding his objections- He 
seemed to think that we were such rigid Calvinisls that we would not admit an 
Arminian into communion, &c. I proposed to converse with him another time for 
his satisfaction. Alas [ for the lainess that prevails here among the Presbyterians 
Quanlam O mulati! Spent yesterday evening with Mr. Maud nil, who had been 
waiting upon the House of Commons to obtain a repeal of a clause in a bill that 
might be injurious lo the dissenters, though levelled against the Jacobites : and ho 
succeeded ; the members of Parliament, especially now before the election, beinir 
very unwilling to disoblige the dissenters. The court is all in confusion about 
choosing one to fill up Mr. Pelham's place j and the king is much petpleied. 
He says he hoped to spend his old days in peace, but all his peace is buried in Mr. 
Pelham's grave. As I have received no letters, as yet, from Hanover, I am ejtremely 
^niious about my dearest creature, my family, and congregation. Did they know 
my uneasmess, they would write lo me, I am sure, 

Sttaday, March 24.— Preached for two gentlemen of very different sentiments 
Dr. Cuyse and Dr. Benson ; at the former's meeting-house, A. M., on Matthew 
III 1. 37, 38, and Romans viii. 7 j at the latter' s, on Psalm scvii. 1. Dr. Benson's 
people make a very polite appenrance; but 1 could sea little signs of solemnity 
among them ; and alas I I neither had nor thought it proper to indulge a passionate 
Bolemnity. Last Thursday evening, I preached a lecture at Depthfoid, on Isaiah 
livi. 1, 3, to a number of poor, honest people. Lodged at Mr, Salway's there. 



ID. Google 



258 PETITION TO THE KING. 

Called in my return at Deckam, and i-iaited Dr. Milner, who keeps a boarding 
scliool of about twenty boys. He ia a gentleman of gond powers and eitcnsive 
learning, especially of the clasBlc kind. I find he ii the anthor of the large gram- 
mare of the Latin and Greek, which were bo Serviceable to me, when at learning. 
Preached yesterday P. M., for Dr. Slennet, in a small conBregation of Seven-day 
Baptists, who seem Tery serious people. 

[Stmn wanling.] . 

April 7, 1754.— We have had most surprising SQCcesa m our mission ; which, 
notwithstanding the languor of mj nature, I cannot review without passionate 
emotions. From tho beat information of our friends, and our own observation upon 
out arrival here, we could not raise our hopes above i300 ; but we have already 
got about £1200. Our friends in America cannot hear the news with the same 
surprise, as they do not know the difflinlties we have had to encounter ; but to me 
it appears the most signal interposition of Providence I ever saw.. Preached last 
Sunday A. M., for Dr. Benson, and P. M., for Mr. Gibbons, and jcsterday for do. 
I have sent a petition to Virginia, at the direction of the committee, to be sul)- 
scribed by the dissenlera there, >nd transmitted to be presented to the King in 

Sunday, April 14. — The same objects occur, and the same bnsinesa engages my 
attention, with little variety. Last Sunday, I went to Hackney, and heard my good 
friend, Mr. Hunt, on these words, " Ye are brought nigh by the blood of Christ." 
With pleasure received the sacrament, administered in a form I have not yet 
seen. Preached in the afternoon in the pulpit where Dr. Bates and Mr. Henry 
once stood, and found some fraodom, (1 John iii. 3.) Lodged at niy kind friend's, 
Mr. Bowles, and oifered a few eiterapore thonghla to the family at his request. 
Isaiah, iW. 22. Waited upon Lord Leven, Judge Foster, Sit Joseph Hankley, fiic. 
The business of our mission goes on with surprising success. Spent the evening 
with Dr. Benson, and had a friendly dispute with him about subscribing articles of 
feith. Had an interview with Mr. Prior, and endeavoured to satisfy him about the 
Catholicism of our College. Seeeived a letter from ray dear brother Mr. Todd, 
which informed me of the welfare of my sjiouse and family. The verj sight of it 
threw me into a passionate ferment, that did not soon subside. O how kind la 
God to me and mincl To-day I preached for Mr. Towle, A. M., Genesis ili. 
" Escape" Stc, and P. M., for Mr. Kippis, Matthew siv. ult. Had an interview 
with Mr. Walker, a minister lately come from New England, who is no friend to 
Mr. Tennent, but has been representing his character in an injurious light. 

Sunday, April 21.— Preached at Peokham, (a village about three miles from 
London), for Dr. Milner, on Psalm icvii. 1, and 1 John, xiiil. But I had not much 
freedom or solemnity, though I found some of the people were pleased with 
the discourses. Lodged at Dr. Milner'a ; but as he was not at home, I spent the 
time in conversation with his son, a Doctor of Physic, an ingenious philosophical 
youth. 

Simday, April 2S.— Preached for Dr. Allen, at Dr. Earle's meeting-house, on 
2 Cer. iii. 18, with much oratorical freedom j but alas 1 not with much Christian 
solemnity and affection. My address caught the attention of tho auditory ; but I 
am afraid the truth had not a proportionable impression on their hearts. The old, 
good, stem Dr. Earls was one of my hearers, and cordially expressed his appro- 
bation. Went immediately to assist Mr. Oswald at bis sacrament, and served two 
tables, and communicated myself according to the mode of the Church of Scotland. 
Preached P. M. on John sii. 32, 33, with some freedom. But amid my incessant 
hurries, I had but little concern about my own immortal state. My nature is quite 
fetigned and eihausted with the labours of my mission in this vast city ; and I am 
•ftaid my constitution will be broken with them. I was last week pleasingly enter- 
Uined with an artificial aviary, &c. 

Newcaetle-vFOn-Tyne, May 7, 1754 — The General Assembly in Scotland draw- 
ing near, and the hurries and confusions of the election of members of Parliament 
for London rendering the additional applications we might otherwise have made 
ineipedient at the time, we set out for Edinburgh in a post-chaise, last Friday. 
This method of travelling is very eipeditious, as we have change of horses at every 
twenty or fifteen miles. We have been nnder the special guardianship of Provi- 
dence, both by sea and land, over since we left home ; but never more remarkably 
than in this journey. We were twice in the most imminent danger of death ; last 
Saturday, near Caiton, by one of the horses becoming unruly, and his running and 
kicking, breaking the shafts, harnessing, &c., all to pieces ; and yesterday, by the 
hostler suddenly pulling back the top of the chaise while we were in it, which 
caught Mr. Tennent's head and pulled him back with such violence that he was 
very much strained, and the blood gushed out of his nose. Providence, no doubt, 
has aonte important design in these slariaing trials. Maf the; prove seasonable 



d.yCoo'^le 



short day of life; but to be 


iostrumental in laying 


to mankind, DOt only iu the 


present but in future ; 


proapact : aod if my ueefuli 
ID Iho most valuable respec 


»e»s should thus survL^ 


We passed through a gn 


!al many villages on c 



JOURNEY TO EDINBORGH, 259 

morlificatioDs before estensive success, which might otherwise exalt ie above 
msasure ! 'Tls an hnnour to be employed in puhlic service i and I have cause o( 
grateful joy rather than complaints. But I never engaged in such a series of wast- 
ing fatigues and dangers aa our present mission is attended with. And what painful 
aniietiea about by wife, family, congregation, and the euccBsa of our applications, 
have disturbed my breast, this heart only Ii news, which has felt them. I have 
oflen walked the tedious crowded streets of London from morning to evening, till 
my nature has been quite exhausted, and I have been hardly able to move a limb. 
It was but seldom that I could relai myself in convetaation with a friend, by reason 
of incessant hurries : and when 1 have had an opportunity, my spirits have been so 
spent, that I was but a dull companion. My hurries have also denied me the 
pleasure of a curious traveller, in taking a careful view of the numerous curiosities 
of nature and art in London. But all these disadvantages have been more thaa 
balanced by the success we have had, having collected about £1700, iiotwithstandins 
the ungenerous opposition made agaioat us by the pretended friends of liberty and 
Catholicism, which is matter of the utmost astonishment lo our friends as well as 
lo for God, during the 
ion of eitensive benefit 
ns, is a most animaUng 
^all live to future ages 

Newcastle, but none 
very remarkable. This town is considerably large, and has six diaaenting ministers 
in it, viz., Messrs. Ogilvie, Athrin, Arthur, Murray, Rogetaon, and Lothian. The 
two last are colleagues, and have imbibed the Arminian and Socinian sentiments. 

popular preacher. The other four, especially Mr. Ogilvie, appear very affec- 
tionate, serious and good men. They were all unanimous to promote the business 
of our mission, and treated us with uncommon respect. We are going tn the General 

Lord our God is in the heavens : he doth whatsoever he pi eaaeth.— Dined last week 
at my affectionate father's, Mr. Price, with Mr. Thomas Morgan, of Langhore, 
Carmaeth an shire, in South Wales ; a very agreeable young minister, who preaches 
generally to about two thousand poor people. We agreed to correspond with each 

Thursday, May 9 — Arrived safe in Edinburgh. Passed by Preston Pans, where 
Col. Gardiner was killed. Saw his seat, and the field of battle, which struck me 
with a melancholy horror. Passed through Berwick upon Tweed, a considerable 
town. Scotland makes a better appearance on the way that we travelled tliaipl 
eipected : though there are a great many of the poorest huts that ever I saw. My 
mind is perpleied about the success of our mission here, and all appears gloomy 
before me. My spirits are generally low, though I feel a kind of stupid serenity 

lYiday, May 10.— Visited the Rev. Mr. Webster, who received us with great 
candour and ftiendship, and gave us his best advice about onr design. We find it is 
likely to be diflienlt to succeed with the General Assembly, not only by reason of 
the opposition that may be occasioned by Mr. Cross's malignant letter, but also on 
account of the three general collections that have been successively made of late, 
and the application expected this year from Holland. We waited on Dr. Cumming, 
who had received one of Mr. Cross's letters, and showed him our credentials, &o., 

design, after reading Ihem, we had reason to hope we had succeeded. Visited Mr. 
Kobertson, Professor of the Oriental Languages, who showed us uncommon friend- 
ship, and seemed to know the heart of a stranger. He introduced us to Mr. 
Hamilton, the Professor of Divinity, a simple, candid gentleman, who was friendly 
to our design. Took a view of the Royal Infirmary, Harriot's Hospital, &c., which 

TTiTiTSday, May 16. — We have visited Professor Hamilton, a very modest, pious 
man, Principal Gondie, Mr. George Wishart, the favourite preacher of the polite in 
this city, Mr. James Watson, an affectionate minister, Mr. Johnston, minister in the 
Castle, Mr. Lindsay of Leith, and some ministers wham we have occasionally seen. 
They all treat us with great respect. Last Monday dined with the Lord Provost, 
and his lordship gave us a very friendly reception, and promised us all the services 

eicellcnt lecture and sermon ; and Dr. Cumming in the afternoon, on the Preface 
to the Lord's Prayer, who preached pretty much in the strain of our fashionable 
modems. Supped with our eioellent friend Mr. Webster. Heard Mr. Clog open 
the Synod Of Lothian and Twoedale on Tuesday on these, words, " Lord, I am 



ir;. Google 



SYNOD OF LOTHIAN— GENERAL ASSEMBLY. 



Ihy aeiTant," &c. Hia aermo 


n waa simple and honeat. Waitod on 


(he Synod, 


and was surprised and grieved 


o aee so much altercation about the pi 


ce of Clerk 


to the Synod, which is here a 


ucrative post. In the heat of the deb 




Hume, a jonog minisler, fiung 


out some intolerably severe reflections 


on 'the Pres- 


bjtery of Dankeith, on accoun 


of their proaecuting one Mr. Logan, 


candidate. 


for false doctrine. He said tha 


the PreabyteryofDonkeith had been u 




of inhumanily and persecution 


in (heir treatment of as worthy a y 


^ulh'aaever 


honoured the doth, and ho wa 


glad to find them now upon the side o 


f humanity. 


though in the meantime of ioj 






eeculion againat him, and it 


aiaed a prodigioos ferment in the Syr 


od"^. But at 


length the parties withdrew wi 


h a committee, and at length Mr. Hum 


e gave them 


satisfaction, and Bubmitted to 


n opcii rcbnke from the Moderator. 


Alas I there 


appears but little of the auirit o 
Patronage Act is like to be ru 


fserious Christianity among the young c 


ergy. The 


nous to the Church of Scotland) for o 


f nine hnn- 


dred and eighty parishes in 


, about seven hundred are in the gift 


of the kii^. 



power, tempting the deigy to cringe to the i 

the churches. Yesterday preached an evening 

xxii. 13, 19, 20. Sundry minislera were pret 

Castle here, which is amazingly fortified by n. 

of the whole city, and could soon lay it in rui 

and to-day in writing an answer to Mr. Cross's letter; whicn we nna is line to naie 

a bad effect. There is one Mr. Logan here, who shows ua great respect. He has 

been a preacher for many years, and preaches sometimes still; but has never 

accepted of a congregation, and therefore has not been ordained. He seems to be 

an escellent, holy, humble man. 

Sunday, May 19.— Preached in the Tolbooth church to a very crowded auditory, 

Burprise, I found afterwards that many were greatly pleased and edified ; only some 
did not like my using notes. Preached P. M. for Mr. Wishatt in tha Trone chorch 
on Rev. i. 7, with a little more freedom to- a verr gaj and crowded auditory, and 
afterwarde sopped with him, who treated me very kindly. Yesterday went to Lord 
Drummore's country seat to wait upon him. I waa pleased with his motto on the 
side of his hoitse, as well suited to a rural seat. 

The plough, and greatly Independent live. 
A*oTe which was written, 

Deo, Fatrin, Amicis. 

Last night received a packet from Haoover, the very sight of which raised my 

fassiona to such a ferment, that they are not yet subsided. Alas ! I find my dearest 
as been very ill; but is happily recovered. I am .ifraid my friends conceal ths 

about her 1 Last Friday visited Mr. Gilbert Elliot, a lawyer, who is also a member 
of the Assembly, and has received a letter to our prt^udice from his brother in 
Philadelphia. He promised us that he would review itj and if there were any otrjec- 
tions that required an answer, he would inform us of them. Waited also on tha 
Rev. Mr. Kay, who was very friendly, though he bad seen Mr. Cross's letter. 

Thursday, May 23.— The General Assembly met. The Lord Commissioner went 
in state from his house to the church, attended by a great number of the nobility, 
and the streets were lined with ranks of soldiers. The crowd was very great, both 
within the church and without. ' The sermon was preached by Mr. Webster on 
Psal. ciiivii. 5, 6, and a very maaterly, oratorical discourse it was j delivered with 
■ manly boldness and fluency. Professor Hamilton was chosen Moderator, neia. 
cm., and then the King's commission to the Lord Commissioner was read, which 
was in Latin : and also the King's letter to the General Assembly. Then the Com- 
missioner made a speech, which the Moderator answered in a very handsome man- 
ner. Then followed a long debate about the lime when they should determine a 
debale between Mr. Edmunatone and the Rev. Mr. Hindman about the Clerkship. 
The Earl of Marchmont made a very animated speech upon the occasion. — 
Mr. Tenuent being confined by a sprained fbot, I waited yesterday on the Earl of 
Marchmont ; and in the evening we both waited on the Lord Commissioner, where 
we also found the Earl of Fiodlater. Thev road our credentials, &c. and treated 
ua liindiy. Saw our dear friends, Messrs. McLaurin, Gillies, John Erskine, &c.. 



"•— gl^ 



VOTE ON PETITIONS U^AHIMOUS. 261 

SatvTday, May 35. — Altendad upon the General Assemby, when the debate about 
the ClerkBhip was determined in favour of Mr. EdmanBtona. Sundry long speeches 
were made upon (he occasion bj Dr. Cumming, Mr. Tremble, Mr. Trail, Mr. Mc 
Clagen, Pror. Murr^BOn, Prof. LumBden, Lord Drummore, the Earl of Breadalbine, 
the Earl of Marchmont, Mr. Webster, Mr. Gordon, &c., and moal of them spoke 
with surprising readiness, pertinency, and argument. . Yesterday we waited on the 
Committee for Bills, where the petition from the Trustees was read, and it was 
agreed that it should be (ransmlttod to the General Assembly, with the opinion of 
the CommitleB in its favour, which is a happy omen. To-day it was determined 
that the matter should be heard on Monday neit. We find Mr. Cross's letter put 
iulo sundry hands, and sundry are prejudiced against Mr. Teunent, on account of 
his Nottingham Sermon, which is industriously spread here. 

Sanday, May 26.— Preached A. M. in the Cannon-Gate Church, for Mr. Watson, 
when a groat number of ministers were present. My subject was 1 John, iii. 2, 
and blessed be God, I was not dashed, but had considerable freedom and solemnity. 
In the afternoon, heard Mr. Eallantine, who surprised me with a torrent of strong 
sense, poured out extempore, without interruption, from beginning to end. I think 
Scotland may boast a greater number of good speakers, than any country I have 
been in, and I believe their accustoming themselves to speak eitempore, has been 
of great service to them in it. Drank tea at the Bev. Mr. Blair's, in company with 
Mr. Shaw, Frofessor of Divinity in St. Andrews, &c., who conversed with apparent 
friendship about the design of our mission, and proposed that a part of the collec 
tion should be applied to the support of poor pious youlh for Uie ministry, which 
motion he promised to make in the Assembly. Supped with the Rev. Mr. Gatdine, 
_.,.. :..: ^.,... t ._j.L_ --inibly would be divided in f ' - 



accoXgastf 



Moaday, May 27.— Last night was so full of anxieties about the success of our 
application, that I could not sleep. To-day the petition from the Trustees and the 
Synod of New York, and our credentials, were read, and Mr. Luraisden, Professor 
of Divinity at Aberdeen, got up to speak. As I knew not whether he was a friend 
or foe, my heart palpitated whon I saw him rise i but I soon found he was a hearty 
friend. He made an ineonious speech upon the importance of a learned ministry — 
the necessity of the College of New Jersey for that end— the duly of the General 

byterians in those Colonies, " who (says hel are part of ourselves, having adopted 
the same standard of doctrine, worship, and government with this church." Mr. 

and I could not forbear darting up my grateful praises to Heaven, for so remarkable 

present, (the Duke of Argyle, ie Earl of Breadalbine, Lord Drummore, the Marquis 
of Lothian, Sir George Preston, Mr. Dundas, &c. Sic.), and we knew there were 
sundry among the laity and clergy, that were not friendly lo our application, but 
they did not mutter a word. The collection for the German emigrants in Pennsyl- 
vania, I am informed, met with opposition, and perhaps this was the first petition 
of the kind, that ever passed item, con., though I hardly think ther 
appearance of opposition. The approbation of tlie General 
attended with many happy consequences, patticula 
to (he world, and wipe off the odium from the Synoo 
Bobismatics. It must, no doubt, bo mortifying lo Mi 
ceeded, notwithstanding his ungenerous, clandestine efforts against ue 
the Marquis of Lothian, at Lord Ross's, who treat ' '' " '' 

freedom of a friend. Lady Ross appears a sinceri 

mendation for a national collection ; but they left 

of Dr. Cumming, Mr. Webster, Professor Shaw, Mr. McLa 





1 all the ki 


ndnesa a 


nd 


a wo 


man. We 


nt with the 






and reoQ 








, consist 


ing 


Lag. 
ndcr 


in, and Bai 


lie Ingra 
letter fr 


om 


with the most 


passion; 








tomy h 


ap- 








ith 


hse. 


sms remark 


ably pro 





my dearest, which I could not but read over and ovet 
emotions. How good is God to me in preserving her li 
piness, notwithstanding of threatening sickness. Ther 

dential, viz; that Mr. Yalt, minister of Camfire, who intenaeo to present a petiuoa 
for the SaUburgers, and which would have interfered with ours, did not arrive Utl 
last Saturday, when ours had been presented. 

Thursday, May 30. — Wailed on the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, 
of which the Marquis of Lothian is Preaidenl, and, at tbeii request, gave them our 



ID. Google 



262 ADAIE— ERSKINE— THE CHARACTERIBTICS— MR. TENNENT. 

beat adriee about the best method of conducting the miaBioD amoog the Indiaiw. 
They also drew op a leiterrecummeoding the College of New Jersey to be anneied 
to the General Aeaembly. Dined with hia grace, ^e Lord Commissi one t, wliere 
we had the most splendid entertainment I have eeen. 

Stmday, Jane 2.— Preached A. M. for Mr. Gardine, in Lady Easter's, on Luke liii. 
24, and P. M. al Sooth Leilh for Mr. Walker, on Hebrews vi. 7, S. I liad some 
fteedom at Leith, but much afraid lest so shocking a eubject should give oifence ; 
and yet I could not Ect my mind kept from it. Lodged with Mr. Walker, who is a 
most humble jndiciouB man, and I am told one of the best preachers in Scotland. 
He is shortly to be removed to the High Church in Edinburgh. 

Monday, June 10.— Preached yesterday A. M. for Mt. Kinlocli in the High Church 
beforo the Lord Provost aod the magistrates, on 2 Cor. iv. 18. But my head was 
confused and ray heart languid. Preached P. M. for Mr. Glen, in the Little Kirk 
on Psalm icvii. 1, with much more livacity ; though without a tender solemnity. 
Last Friday epent a fow hours with Lady Francis Gardiner, who gave me an account 

and hardly rises out of her bed, eicepling to go to public worship. Last Saturday, 
dined with Dr. Gumming; and had snndrj boors of free conversation with him. In- 
formed him of the apposition of thedisseoters in Virginia, and solicited his interest 
with the Duke of Argyle ; which he freely promised me. Spent an evening with 

-J I.J.. tr .^Ijq j^ j pattern of hamility and piety in high life. 

le OrienUl languages, is a pions learned man, and I 
■-It Thursday preached in the College Church 



Mr. Rami 


say and lady Hume, wl 


Mr. Robe 


rtsoo, professor of the 


am often 




on Isaiah 


livi. 1,2, with freedo 




ecially among the relif 


society ol 


ragreeable young gent 



spent an evening at Mr. M'Lagan's in a 
lo meet for singing hymns and instruelive 

conversation. 

Satarday, JanvaTy \6th, 1754. — I left Edinburgh the day before yesterday in 

companv with my excellent friend Wra. Ramsay, Esq. Passed through Lithgow, 

DOW going to ruin. Called at the Rev. Mr. John Adair's of Falkirk, who insisted so 
earnestly upon my staying till Monday, and preaching for him, that I could not 
refuse. He is a most J iidicious pious minister, and a friend lo the liberty of man- 
kind in opposition to the eiorbitant claims of church power which the high-flying 
clergy have run into. His wife, a great-gtand-daughter of the famous Mr. David 
Dickson, is a gentlewoman of uncommon sense and piety. In short, I have hardly 
been so happy in conversation since T loll home. I met with more Christian 
friendship in Edinburgh than any where in Great Britain, There is too general a 
decay of eiperimental and practical religion ; and yet there is a considerable 
number of pious people in the city. I preached twice again in the college-kirk, and I 
haie had repeated information, that my langnid ministrations have been remarkably 
blessed to many. I have been at Culross visiting Mr. Erskine. He really exceeds 
the high character I had heard of him for a hard student, a growing genius, and 
uncommon 2eal for the public good. In short, he promisee much service to the 
Church ofScotland.— I hnd a great number of the clergy and laity have of late 
carried cbnrch-power to an eitravagant height, deny to individuals the right of 
judging for themselves, and insist upon absolute universal obedience to all the 
determinations of the General Assembly. I heard sundry speeches in the Housa 
on this head, which really surprised me. The nobility and gentry who are iay- 
elders, are generally high-flyers ; and have encroached upon the rights of the 

are enjoined by the authority of the General Assembly, and there is no prospect 
of a redress, — There is a piece published under the title of the Ecclesiastical 
Characteristics, ascribed to one Mr. Weatherspoon, a young minister. It is a 
burlesque upon the high-flyers under the ironical name of Tooderate nten .- and ( 
think the humour is nothing inferior to Dean Swift. Mr. Tho, Walker has also 
written well on the subject. Sundry overtures were brought into the General 
Assembly: particularly — for eiamining into the qualifications of ruling eiders — 
for re-eiamining ministers, licensed or ordained by other churches, before they 
are admitted into this — altering the form of deposition according to the nature of 
the case, and making a distinction between deposition from the office of the 
ministry, and deposition from the exercise of it in this church as an establishment. 
I found by sundry speeches on the last overture, that even Dr. Owen or Dr. 
Doddridge would have been deposed, bad they lived in the Church of Scotland. 

Mr. Tennent set out for Glasgow, and thence to Ireland on the 1st inst., to 
attend on the General Synod there ; and I am left solitary and sad to take a tour 
through the principal towns in England. I am generally so eitremely low-spirited, 
and full of aniietjes, that 1 can hardly live. This disables me flom pursuing m; 



d^yCOO^IC 



GLASGOW. 263 

miBsion with proper viganr and alacrity. My dear wiffe and Tamtlj dwell upon my 
heart nigtit and day; and I am nneaay aboot my congregatioa leel they shoald not 
be well supplied iq my absence. 

Monday, June 15. — Was conducted by Mr. Adams on my way to Glasgow ; and 
I have rarely parted with a friend with so much reluctance. Yesterday pteacbed 
for him to hie congregation, which is very numerous (about three thousand) A. M. 
onJer. ijsi. 18—20; P.M. on Heb. yi. 8i in the eyening on Josh, iiiv.—" Choose 
je this day whom ye will aerye." In the two last sermons, I was helped to address 
myself solemnly and conyictiyelj to impenitents; but I could see no appearancea 
or any promiaitig impressions. Mr. Toung, assistant to Mr. Adams, is a man of 
great seriousness and esLensiye reading. Passed Ihroagh Kirkuntilloch, a small 
town where Mr. Erekine was formerly settled ; but Mr. Sloddard, the present min- 
ister, being abroad, I had not the happiness of an interview with him. Passed by 
Kileythe, where good Mr. Mobe was minister, and the very sight of a place, where 
the power and grace of &od was so illustriously displayed, solemnized my mind. 

Friday, Jaiy 5.— Lodged in Glasgow at Mr. Archibald Ingram's, one of the ma- 
gisiralea of the city, where I was treated with uncommon hospitality. I slaid in 
Glasgow about ten days, and I never was in a place where I received so many 
evidences of public respect. I spent Sunday evening in company with the Lord 
Provost and the other magistrates, who met on purpose to put honour upon me. 
They conferred upon me the usual ceremony, the freedom of the city, and confer- 
red the same honour upon Mr. Tennent and Mr. Burr. In Glasgow there is a con- 
Mr. McLautin is a most affectionate, public-spirited gentleman, of a most facetious 
torn in conversation, and an uncommon genius, though his modesty denies the 
world the advantage of it. He has a surprising dexterity of introducing into prayer 
all the remarkable occurrences of conversation. Mr. Gillies is a most lively image 
ofChristian simplicity, and is uncommonly zealous and laborious in his ministry, 
Mr. John Hamilton is a man of clear judgment, and a graceful address. I heard 
him preach an eicetlent sermon on the love of God in sending his Son to be a pro- 
of solemnity. Mr. James Stirling is aserioua, judicious man, more fit for the closet 
or the pulpit, than for conversation. Mr. Cralf, whom I had not opportunity of 
seeing, is the favourite of the polite. Professor Leehman is a very modest, bash- 
ful gentleman, but very accurate and judicious, and hia candour is acknowledged 
by all, thongh suspected by some of verging towards Arminianism. I spent near 
a day in his company; and he showed me all the curiosities of the College. The 
library-room is large, but not well filled. The most striking curiosity that I saw 
y»aa a collection of pictures lately imported from France. One was the picture of 
the dead body of Christ taken off the cross and carrying to the sepulchre. The 
prints of the nails in his hands and feet, the stab of the spear in his side, the effn- 

popish devotion in me. I preached six times whilst in Glasgow; thrice for 
Mr. Gillies on Jer. i«i. 18—30, Jer. IM. 33—" I will be their God," &o. ; and 
on Luke ii.— "Behold this child," &c. ; once for Mr. Hamilton on Isaiah Isvi. 3. 
Mr. Hill holds his sacrament in the Baronry church; there were two sermons 
within and without on Saturday and Monday; and a great many sermons in the 
tent on Sunday, cue of which I preached on Rev. i. T, on which text I had also 
preached on Saturday. There were twenty-three tables, two of which I served. 
The assembly at the lent was also very numerous. There appeared a general at- 
tention; but no great afTectinn or solemnity. I had an opportunity once more of 
comniuuicating ; but alas I I felt but little of the fenoar of devotion ; and in all 
my ministrations in Glasgow, I perceived more of the man than the Christian, and 
I could not see the same assurances of success as in Edinbut^h. One thing is re- 
markably commendable in this city, viz. the condact of the magistrates in general, 
who very punctually attend on public worship, not only on Snndays, but week-days. 
While in Glasgow, I was very much indisposed with a lingering fever, and so 
languid and low spirited that 1 was hardly fit for any of the purposes of active life. 
Sometimes I was afraid I should nover see my native country, nor enjoy the com- 
pany of my earthly all. I found, to my agreeable surprise that Governor Dinwid- 
dle had kindly recommended me to his friends, particularly to the Provost, his 
brother, and Mr. M'CuUoch, his brother-in-law. I spent a night with the former, 
and he and his family showed me the most friendly respect. I was also a night 
with Mr. M'Culloch, at Cambuslang, the obscure village so famous for the late 
estraordinary revival of religion. He is a humUe, hofy minister of Christ, not 
famed for popularity ; which is a strong presumption that the late religious com- 

DncommoBl; judicious, pious woman j and hia only eon, a youth about foarteen, i* 



»,Googlc 



264 HIS SERMONS— LEITH— BERWICK— ALNWICK. 

very affectionate, and parted with 
is ha that planteth anything," &e. 
circumstanoeB of the people. I had not much senaible fie'edom, and I could not 
see any uncommon signs of approbation or success among the people ; only they 
heard with gravity and attention. The neit day they sent a messenger to Glas- 
gow, with a letter to me, signed by near thirty in the congregation, thanking me 
for my sermon, and requesting a copy of it to he published, or at least for their 
own use. The last part of the proposal, I consented to. The repeated solicita- 
tions 1 have met with in Amorico, in London, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Sic., to publish 
some of myBermooB, have made me think setiouslj of finishing and publishing x 
colleolion of them, if Providence ever grant me a return. Perhaps they may bo 
of service in places far remote from the sphere of my usual labours. There are 
Bii churches in Glasgow. The New Church is a fine building, but not yet finished. 
The High Church ia an ancient structure, very largs, and contains three distinct 
congregations under one roof. I had a long conversation with Mr. M'Cnlloch upon 
the atTairs of the dissenters in Virginia,- particularly their oppressions from the 
government. I have reason to believe that Governor Dinwiddie would favour 
them, were il not so opposite to his interest. Mr. M'Cnlloch consulted me about 
a donation of i;200 for propagating the gospel among the Indians. &c. Having 
alayeil in Glasgow about ten days, I returned through Edinhuixh j saw sundry oT 
my dear friends, and preached on Sunday for Mr. Webster, A. M., and for Tti. 
Geo.LindaayofLoith, P.M. ; in theJrst discourse I was fervent and solemn, in the 
second languid and eihausted. In Edinburgh, there are sixteen ministers; and I 
think all the churches but two are collegiate. In Leith there are two churches 
and three ministers. I had the honour of the Earl of Leven and hia family for 
my hearers last Snnday. 

Monday, July 1. — Parted with my friends in Edinburgh, and as many of them, 
particularly Mr. Hogg and family, are very dear to me, 1 have scarcely felt such 
strong emotions of friendship since I left home. Rode to Haddington, about 
twelve miles, in company with one Mr. Diion, a serious, devout man, from Edin- 
bui^h, who assiated my judgment about the propriety and lawfulness of joining in 
the sacrament with Mr. Gillespie, who was deposed by the General Assembly. Hia 
excellent friend, Profeasor Robertson, conducted me about sii miles. He is one 
of the beat linguists, eapecisily in the oriental languages, in Great Britain, has an 
insatiable thirst for knowledge, and has travelled far to gratify it. His soul is 
formed for friendship. Lodged in Haddington, at Provost Dixon's, who treated 
me with hoapitality. Had an interview with the Rev. Mr. Stedman, one of the 
ministers of the town ; who, I find, is one of the high-flyarsi but he promised me 
his friendship in the business of our mission. 

Tuesday, July 2. — Passed through a well-improved country, beautifully variegated 
with hills and valleys, and the aea frequently in sight, and arrived in Berwick in 
the evening. 

Wednesday, July 3.— Waited: on Mr. Somerville, and Mr. Turner, ministers in 
Berwick ; and proposed the business ofmy mission. The former has given up his 
charge, partly on account of his indisposition, and partly on account of the divi- 
sions in his congregation, occaaioned by one that was formerly his assistant. The 
latter has bnt a small part of his former congregation, the rest having chosen his 
assistant, Mr. Monteith, for their minister, and rejected him because he woidd not 
receive him for his co-pastor. These reasons discouraged him from soliciting col- 

would raise a public collection. I went to visit Mr, Thompson, minister of Spitta], 
about a mile from Berwick, but could not see him. However, I waited on Mr. 



Shatton, the principal m 
to Mr. Thompson, beggi 


an in his c 


ongregation 


.,Bnc 


1 secured his interest. 


and 


wrotfl 


ng he won 


Idendeavo. 




have a congregational 


colli 




Berwick had two la.^a c 


longregatii 


>ns of disse 




1, formcriy ; but they 
ided with high walla I 




sadly 


weakened by their divisi 


onl. The 


place is su 




ndm 




and has sundry garrisons 


1. The ru 


ins of the 


old 


castle are very majestic. 


The 


bridge is near as long as 


that of L. 


Dudon, and 




ains fifteen arches. 






Thursday, July 4.— Set out for A 


Inwick. Rode; 


.bout ten miles on the 






which ia a very good road when it 


is not high 




r. Saw Holy-Ialand i 


ibout 




miles off, where is a cas 


itle, that n. 


lakes a co. 


isido 








Alnwick is a pretty largi 




lb sundry ve 


irygi 


>od houses, a msjestic 


old. 




of great dimensions, sur 






Thi 








in it; Mr. Sayr and Mr. 


WauRh. 


The latter - 




lOt at home ; and I h( 




other 




to him but 


"byl 


eaving a letter for hi 




gainst 


his return. I waited on 




who appei 




judicious old gentli 




. He 


proposed to make a publ 


iccollecth 


on. Wrote 


to Mr. Buckham, minist< 


Er of Bran- 


ton, requesting the eame 


: favour. 













'— ^Ic 



KEW CASTLE— MR. BOWES. 265 

FHdayfJulyS. — As I passed through Morpeth, I called upon Mr. Atcliinaon, the 
dissenting minister, who seemed willing to make a collection in his place. When 
1 came lo Newcastle in the evening, I found a comedj called the Careless Husband 
was to be acted, and ae I apprehendedl should not be known, and consoquently 
give no offence, I went to gratifj m)' curiosity. But the entertainment was short of 
my expectation. 

Saturday, July 6,— Wailed on Mr. Rogerson, Mr. Lothian, Mr. Atkin, &c. I 
fonnd they had affected nothing in a«ourof our mission ; but they promised to con- 
cur with me now. My indisposition ofbodj, the diaeipation of mind occasioned by 
constant company, the fatigues and ansieties that attend the prosecution of my 
mission, and my solicitude about my dear family, and American friends, hare so 
weakened my body and depressed my spirits, that I am hardly able to walk the 
streets, or keep up my part in conversation. I am often so mopish and absent in 
mind, that I am heartily ashamed of myself, as making a very ridiculous figure. What 
would 1 now give to spend an hour in my study, or in the endearments of society, 
with my Chara, my earthly all ! Were I more strongly aotaaled with the impulses 
of a public spirit, my labour would be more tolerable ; but, alas, that languishes 
in the present depression of my mind. I am plagued, amid this languor, with the 
vigorous instirreclions of sin. I hardlyknow a truth attested by such long uninter- 
rupted eiperience as this, that no change of climate, no public character, no 
eiercisBB, no company, and in a word, nothing that ever I have tried, can extirpate 
the principle or suppress the workings of sin in this depraved heart. Spent the 
evening with Michael Muniies, Esq., a very pious gentleman, who was once a 

Sunday, July 7. — Preached A. M. for Mr. Ogilvie, who was out of town i on 
Isaiah livi. 2, and had some sense of the subject. In the afternoon for Mr. Roger- 
son, on Paalm icrti. 1, to a very gay congregation, with some freedom ; but my 
apprehensions that the peculiarities of the gospel would be disagreeable to their 
taste, laid me under a painful restraint; lest their being offended should prejudice 
my mission. Indeed, I am puiiled lo know what is duty in this case. Spent the 
esening at Mr. Louthian's, who is a very friendly ingenious man ; but has unhap- 
pily imbibed the aentimenls of Dr. Foster, and Mr. Taylor of Norwich. I had a 

difference was, that those secret tendencies and workings of the heart, and that 
languor in religion, which Hooked upon to be sinful, he thought entirely innocent, 
and apprehended that man by complaining of these, complained that they were 
men and not angels ; and murmured that they were placed so low in the scale of 
being i and he was of Mr. Pope's mind- 



Aspiring to be gods, if angels fell j 
Aspiring to be angels, men rebel." 

Friday, July 12. — I have been busy in waiting upon sandry persons to solicit 
their benefactions ; and I have got about thirty guineas in the English congrega- 
tion. The ministers of the Scotch congregations, which are five in number, are very 
friendly, but their people are poor. They intend to collect what they can, and 
transmit it after me to London. Yesterday, the Right Honourable Lord Ravens- 
worth coming to town, hearing of the design of my mission, sent for me ; and I had 
a long conversation with his lordship about it. He found fault with our not first 
applying to the government, kc., tc. ; and I was afraid from his forming so many 
cavils that he would oppose. But as I took my leave of ids lordship, he compli- 
mented me with five guineas. 

Salurday, July 13. — Went in company with Mr. Muniies to wait on James 
Bowes, Esq., member of Parliament for the county of Durham. He is a gentleman 
of a vast estate ; and he took an ambitious pleasure, like Hezekiah, tn show me all 
his glory) and indeed, I never have seen so fine a country-seat in any part of 
Great Britain. Here a wilderness eihibils all the rude beauties of uncultivated 
nature. There stately rows of trees disposed by art, appear in regular uniformity. 
Here artificial mounts rise, and valleys descend. There verdant walks and pas- 
lures open far to the view. Hero rises a pile of buildings in the antique form { and 
Ihen an obelisk lifts its head on high. He showed me bis plate, a part of which 
is gilt with gold, and the value of the whole is computed to be £17,000 sterling. 
But alas ! he gave me but five guineas. He is of an ancient family, famous in the 
days of William the Conqueror. He advised me to wait upon the Bishop of Dur- 
ham, which afforded me a great deal of anxiety, lest I should take a wrong step. 



», Google 



265 HOME— BISHOP OF DURHAM— HULL. 

Sunday, Jvly 14.— Preached A. M. for Mr. Atkin, oq Jeremiah nji. 18, 20, and 
P, M. for Mr. Louthian, on 2 Corinthians, iv, !S, and in the evening for Mr. 
Ogilvie, on Romans vi. 13 ; the last to a very crowded auditory, and with great 
freedom, and appearance of Bucceaa. Received a packet from Hanover, which 
raised al) rny friendly passions into a ferment. I had a very eotl, ingenious letter 
IVom my Chara; and her generous self-denial in not desiring me to hasten home 
till I have finished my mission, gave me an agicanble surprise, and made me reflect 
with shame upon my own impatience. I find my favourite friend Mr. Rodgers 
(who still dwells on my heart] has been universally acccptahle, and hopefully suc- 
cessful in Hanover. And that my honest brother Mr. Wright, is eitenaively ser- 
viceable ia and about Cnmberlnnd. May God lake to him his great power, and 
reign! 

Wednesday, July 15.— Rode to Durham, and took a view of the stately Cathedral 
there. The art of painting in glass, which is lost among the moderns, discovers its 
beauties on the windows in sundry pieces of Scripture history. I am still puiilcd 
whether to wait upon the Bishop or not. 

Tuesday, Jiily 16.— Delerminad to wait on the Bishop, and his lordship gave me a 
condescending reception. He particularly inquired whether the Church of England 
had any share in the management of our College— complained of the intolerant 
principles of the dissenters in New England — asked me if I had waited upon the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, or obtained the approbation of the Society for Prppaga- 
ting the Gospel in Foreign Parts ; and told me that till I had done so, he codld not 
in a public character do anything in bvour of the design. But he gave me five gui- 
neas as a private person ; which aflbrded me no small satisfaction, as it may open 
the door lor further benefactions in the EsUblished Church. It is matter of pleasing 
wonder to me, that notwithstanding the present languor of my spirits, and my na- 
tural hashfulness, I can with freedom and composure converse wl^ these greatmen. 
Rode to Darlington-, a fine little town ; and came in the evening to Northallerton, 
which deserves the same character. As the way is tedious without company, and 
my time precious, I read as I ride, and while I am waiting ; which is both instruc- 
tive and amusing. I have read, since I lell Berwick, an eicellenl piece of history, 
entitled a Short Critical Review of the Life of 0. Cromwell. Among other things new 
to me, I find that Cromwell had some thoughts of restoring the king, until he found 
him treacherous — that he had the offer of the title of king himself, but thought it 
impolite to accept of it. I am now re adine Dr. Watts' s eicellent piece on the Hap- 
piness of Separate Spirits, &c. Wrote a letter to my Chara. 

Wednesday, July 17. — As I heard there is a great number of rich people that re- 
sort to the medicinal waters of Scarborough this season of the year, 1 determined 
to go thither, in hopes of some benefactions. Arrived there in the evening, having 
ridden about fifty miles, through a great number of little villages, Helmaay, Picker- 
ing, Bratton, &c. Supped with a disagreeable company of young rakes, and was 

ThMTSday, July 18.~Waited on the dissenting minister, Mr. Whittaker, a serious 
old gentleman. I found his congregation was very inconsiderable ; and that they 

will be lost. Scarborough is a fine little town, situated on the sea shore, where 
they bathe, and drink the medicinal waters, which I found purgative. An old caatls 
now in ruins stands upon an eminence, something like that in Edinbui^h, and is of 

Friday, July 19,— Rode to Hull, in company with a friendly gBntlcman, Mr. Ellis, 
minister of Cove, one of Dr. Doddridge's pupils, who like many others of them, 
has imbibed the modern sentiments in divinity. The word Orthodoi is a subject of 
ridicule with many here. The dissenting ministers here tako greater liberties than 
I should choose. They make no scruple of gaming, attending on horse races, 
mingling in promiscuous companies on the bowling-green, &c. The town of Be- 
verly, through which we passed, is pretty large, and looks new and flourishing. 
It has a stately ancient minster or cathedral (for I know not the diff'erencel of a 
very delicate structure. 

Sunday, JiHy 21.— I have waited on Messrs. Wildboar, Withers, Cunningham and 
Dawson, ministers in Hull ; and solicited them to raise a public collection in their 
congregations i but they seemed to hesitate about the proprietyof it, which afforded 
me no small discouragement ; for I can neither take tinje, nor do I think it worth 
■while to make private applications. I begin to fear that my cipenses and fatigues 
in travelling to the principal country towns will hardly be compensated; and there- 
fore think it will be best for me to return directly to London. But I am quite un- 
oipedient. Preached A. M. in the Presbyterian meet- 
and P.M. in the Independent 'meeting-house for Mr. 
, especially at the former. But alas ! the solemn af- 



MR. TENNENT'S SUCCESS— LEEDS. 267 

fectionale addresses which once I was capable of, I eeeia now to hiive lost; and I 

The Presbyterian congregation here is upon the decline j and I am [old, an unhappj 

the PreebjterianB have gone off from the good old docttinee of the Reformation! 
Hull, (or as it is properly called, Kingston-apon-Hull) is a large populous town, 
surrounded with a wall and three trenches. The buildings are generally good and 
new. The harbour very commodious. The rivet Humber, into which the Hall 
empties itself, is aboul two-and-a-quarter miles over j about twenty miles from the 
sea. There is an old castle where the invalids of the army are placed as a garrison, 
■with sundry pieces of cannon. Had a long conversation with Mr. Cunningham, Mr. 
Wiidhoar's assistant, a candid friendly youth, educated in London nnder Dr. Mar- 
ryae. Ha appears a hearty friend to eiperimenlal religion. How do I long for re- 
tirement in my study, and the company of my Chara ! 

Monday, July aj.— I went to visit sundry gentlemen of the established church ; 
but thej were geoerally from home ; only Alderman Purratt gave me two guineas. 

T^esda;/, Juii, 33.— Received a lelUr from my father and friend, Mr. Tonncnt, 
informing me that the Synod of Ulster and the Presbytery of Antrim had agreed to 
make a coHeclion throngh all their bounds, and that he was advised to make pri- 
vate applications in Dublin, which he hardly hoped to Snish this month. How 
solitary shall I he *il! the happy hour of our meeting I After repeated importu- 
nities, the ministers in Hull seem determined to make public collections ; ouly Mr. 
Withers complains that he is not able to be active in ihe affair, and Mr. Dawson, 
bis assistant, seems very cautious, and apprehensive of imposture j and upon the 
whole, I have no raised cipectations. Mr. Cunningham is more and more dear to 
me, as I converse with him. Had an interview with Mr. Harris, minister of Bev- 
erly I but I could not determine whether he purposed to make a collection in his 
congregation. 

Thursday, Jiily 25.- Having arrived in York last night, I took a view of the city 
this morning, in company with the Rev. Mr. Root. The city is large, about four 
miles in circumference, surrounded with a wall, along which there is an agreeable 
walk. The Cathedral is very magnificent, and the paintings in the glass arc curi- 
ous. There are twenty-three parishes. The bouses in general have but a mean 
appearance, and are not so close as in most other cities. The gaol is the most 
stately building for the purpose that I have ever seen. Mr. Root, a bold, mercu- 
rial gentleman, promised to make a collection among his people. But here I mSy 
make a remark which may ha applied to all such cases. That as I know the natu- 
lal negligence of mankind in the absence of the solicitor of such charities, I have 
but little hope that any thing considerable will be transmitted alter me to London. 

Friday, July 36.— On waiting on Mr. Whitaker and Mr. Thomas Walker, minis- 
ters in Leeds, (where I arrived last night) I find they have had collections in their 
congregations very lately, and are now about another ; and consequently nothing 
can now be done for my mission ; but they promise to make a collection four 
months hence. Mr. Walker is a solid, judicious man, though gone off from the old 
divinity. Ho has the character of a very popular preacher. 

Saturday, July 37,— Went to Wakefield, and proposed the affair of my mission to 
Mr. Ouidrid, minister there, who, upon consulting Messrs. Mills, his principal 
hearers, gave ma encouragement that they would do something j though they had 
lately expended a great sum in building a meeting-house. Had an interview with 
Col. Beverly, from Virginia, and my old pupil, Thomas Smith. Returned to Leeds 
in the evening. 

Smiday, July 38.— Though I have had a more lively flow of spirits since I have 
been in Lseds than for some time ; yet being engaged to preach for Mr. Whitaker 
in the morning, I was so much confused in the prayer before sermon, that I was 
obliged to break off abruptly, lest 1 should speak nonsense, or run into repetitions. 
I hardly remember that my understanding was ever so suddenly clouded ; and I 
was really afiaid lest the Lord was about to take it away from me. In the sermon 
I a little recovered my senses, and spoke with uneipected tVeedom. Preached, 
P. M. for Mr. Walker, and hardly ever found my mind emerge so suddenly out of 
darkness and confusion ; or my body and mind belter disposed to act the orator. 
The dissenting ministers here havo so generally imbibed Arminian or Socinian sen- 
timents, that it is hard to unite prudence and faithfljlness in conversation with 
them. Thej are many of Ihem gentleman of good sense, learning, candour, and 



They deny the proper divinity and 
1 are founded. They ascribe a dig 
. state, contrary to my daily sensalic 
i influences as I find I must be. 


nity 


Are 



:,Googlc 



268 REFLECTIONS— SHEFFIELD— EPITAPH. 

they or I mistalen I Is the miatake in such circumstances essential f It is with 

The denial of the ditinilv of Christ introduces an essential innovation into the 
Christian system ; and jet the grealeal nnmber of the dissenting ministers under 
the Presbyterian name in England, as far as I have obssrved, have fallen into that 
error ; and the people love to faa>e it so ; and what will be the end of these things t 
It is a strong preautn|)tion with me against these new doctrines, that I have observed 
wherever they prevail, there practical serious religion, and generally the dissenting 
interest too, declines, and people become caretass about it. Some of them go off 
to the Church of England, and others fall into deiam. And it is matter of com- 
plaint thai the deists generally, if not universally, are of (he Whig-party, and join 
■ation with (he gentlemen of the new scheme, I am generally upon the reserve 
about my own principles, lest it shonld prejudice them against Che business of my 
mission. But when I reflect upon it, I seem to despise myself as a coward. My 
the Low-Churchmen. Aias ! how are the principles of liberty abused ! Inconver- 
conscience indeed does not generally accuse me of guilt in this respect; but a 
eense of honour or pride, or I know not what to call it, makes me look mean and 

Tuesday, JiHy 30.— Communicated my business lo Messrs. Raines and Wads- 
vorth, ministers of Sheffield, about thirty miles from Leeds. They are gone off 
into the new scheme; and I apprehended their suspecting me lo be of the old- 
fashioned faith, rendered them more indifi'orent about my business. They cnm- 
Slained that their people were poor — that they were just about raising a collection 
ir a neighbouring minister. However, they faintly promised they would try to do 
something among their people about Christmas. Sheffield is a large town, rich in 
cutlery ware manufactured in it. 

IVednesday, July 3] .—Waited on Mr. Pye, who was yesterday out of tovra. He 
is minister of the congregation that separated from that where Messrs. Haines and 
Wadsworth now officiate, about forty years ago, on account of their innovations. 
Mr. Pye appears a serious man, and deeply concerned about eiperimcntal religion ! 
and I believe will show himself a hearty friend to our mission. Kode to Chester- 
field, a little town about twelve miles off; bat Mr. Haywood, minister there, not 
being at home, I could only leave my printed papers lor him, and write to him. 

Thirsday, August 1. — Rode about twenty-seven miles over the Peak of Derby- 
shire, and came to Derby, which ia a very agreeable town, with stindry very good 
houses in it. Mr. Bogerson, the Presbyterian minister, gave me encouragement 
that he would collect something amnng hia people. I waa delighted with an 
inacriplion upon a monument on the side of the church, erected by a tender hus- 
band for his wife, who died in her siitielh year : 

Think what a wire should be, and she was that." 

The longest epitaph would not have been so striking and aignilicant lo me : and 
it brought my Chara to my mind. Though I hurry on as fast as I can, yet I find it 
taliea a long time to negotiate my business at so many places. I often think of 
Bristol with aniiely.where, I am afraid, I shall be long detained. And I am often 

that I am afraid these transient applications will turn to little account. I suspect 
Ihey will be foi^otten when I turn my back. And this renders my itinerations 
more discouraging. 

Friday, August 2. — Breakfasted with Mr. Rogerson, at one Mr. Crompton'a, who 
belongs lo his congregation. He seemed diffident of the recommendations, be- 
cause they were in print ; and would do nothing till he received the recommenda- 
tion of Mr. Lawrence, &c. from London, Rode to Nottingham, about siiteen 
miles. It is a lat^e town, and the buildings are generally good, and some of them 
magnificent, though I have seen none equal to some in' Derby. It is situated on 
the river Trent, which is navigable for small vessels. The Arian and Arminian 

"is people 

ons. They both 'received my mission favourably; and I hope will do 

I n favour of it. Dr. Eaton is a very grave and contemplaUve man, of a 

I giaterial behaviour. I find there are some serious people here who 

ouse the doctrines of grace. I spent this evening agreeably in a small 

them, and I met wiih one Mr. Wetis, a pious youth of the Academy at 
i Hal), who is very friendly, and kindly attends me whereverl go. Here 

B of an old castle, with many sabterranean edifices ; and in Uie midst. 



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MR. DEAN— DR. DODDRIDGE. 269 

the Diike of New CfibiIp has a stalely palace. The castle was demolished by Oliver 
Cromwell ; and I was surprised tg observe from what a great distance he flung his 
bombs. 

Salarday, August 3. — Visited Mr. Hatross, Dr. Eaton's assistant, and engaged 

public collection. Had an interview also with Mr. Radford, a good old minister 
who has for some time declined the eserciso of his ministry ; and with Mr. Wil- 
liams, who has a largo estate lately fallen to him, and therefore he preaches only 
occasionally. 

Sunday, August 4.— Preached A. M. for Mr. Ross with some degree of freedom ; 
and P. M. for Dr, Eaton to a very crowded congregation, with the usual restraint 
proceeding from a fear of prejudicing them against my mission by a solemn Cal- 
vinistic sermon. After sermon they collected £31 ISs., which much surpassed my 
e<pectalion. Spent the evening agreeably in a religions society of a iiurober of 
serious men ; who were much pleased and editied by my sermon I 

Monday, August 5. — Went in company with Mr. Ross and his deacons to make 
private application to his people ; and collected about thirty guineas in three or four 

upon his spirit, and a peculiar deiterity in giving the conversation a religious turn. 
Tufsday, Avgast 6. — Dined with John Dean, Esq., whose history is very estraor- 
dinary. He met with a moat amazing deliverance at sea about forty years ago, of 
which he has published an account, and which he now annually commemorates by 
a sermon. He was about fifteen years in the service of Peter the Great of Mus- 

English. He was for many years his Majesty's Consul at Oslend. Has been at 
most of the courts in Europe, and by conversation with various nations has learned 
five or six languages. He is now near eighty, and has IVom nothing raised such a 
fortune, that he has a very handsome living, and has retired from business about 
fifteen years. The history of his deliverance at sea is, I think, by far the most 
estranrdinary that I have ever seen. Spent the evening in a religious eociety. 

Wfdrusday, August 1. — Preached for Mr. Ross to a numerous auditory on Jere- 
miah siii. 18 — 30; but not with proper solemnity. I was honoured with the pre- 
sence of three or four ministers. I afterwards found some of the rigid Calvinisis 
were not pleased with my sermon ; because not eiplicit upon original sin. And I 
doubt not but another party were displeased npon quite a difierent account. How 
impossible is it to please men I My success in Nottingham has far eiceeded my 
most sanguine eipectations. I have received above £60, which is more than has 
ever been collected there on such an occasion. 

Thursday, August 8.— Breakfasted with Mrs. Hallows, a lady belonging to Dr. 
Eaton's congregation. She has studied Dr. Clark, and is a desterous disputant in 
the Trinitarian controversy. I have seldom been so closely attacked upon the 
proper Divinity ofthe Son ofGod ; and it cast me afterwards into a pensive melan- 
choly study upon the point. Rode to Loughborough, thirteen miles, and waited on 
Mr. Statham, the disaenling minister) but his congregation is so small that he 
could do little for my mission ; though very friendly and sociable. Lodged in 
Leicester, a large town (eleven miles), but the minister, Mr. Worthington, not being 
Bt home, 1 could only leave my papers for him. 

Friday, August 9.— Rode to Northampton (thirly-lwo miles) through Harborough. 
The town looked desolate and melancholy to me, when I thought upon the removal 
ofthe eioellentDt.Doddridge into a better world. The dear remembrance of him 
engaged my tender thoughts as I rode along, and threw me into pensive melan- 
choly. How much has my mission suffered by his death 1 1 think I never felt such 
friendly sensations towards an entire stranger. Wailed on Mr. Gilbert, his suc- 
cessor, but found him in company i so that I had no time for conversation. 

Saturday, August 10. — In conversing with Mr. Gilbert, I found there is but little 
prospect of success in this town ; the people being lately put to very great eipensa 
about their own afi'aits. Visited the Rev, Mr. Hervey at Weston Favel, and spent 
most of the day in endearing conversation with him. I have observed that when I 
have contracted personal acquaintance with great authors, they have seldom an- 
swered the idea I had formed of them ftom their writings. But Mr. Hervey greatly 
exceeded it. The spirit of devotion animates his conversation ; and the greatest 
modesty and delicacy of imagination adorns it. The Scriptures are his favourite 
topic, and he charms one with his remarks upon their beauties. He also frequently 
throws out some pertinent quoUtion from the Latin and Greek classics, of which 
he is an excellent master. Blessed be God tJial there is such a man on this guilty 
globe. 

Sunday, August li.— Preached A.M. in Dr. Doddridge's pulpit; and the sight 



„^,.,.,gle 



270 MRS. DODDRIDGE— YARMOUTH— COLCHESTER. 

mon enei^y. My subject was " I will ba jour God," &c., and I had some freedom, 
but little aolemniiy. The congregation U decrcaaod since tlie Doctor's death : as 
they can find none to auppiy hia place Fully. And some of tha people have left the 
society, pretending that Mr. Gilbert does not preach the doctrines of grace. But 
i hope it is but a preianee ; for I heard him P. M. preach an ingenious esperi- 
mental discourse on "Look nnto me and be ye saved," &c. He also administered 
the sacrament and spoke very judiciously and pertinently on the occasion. And 
I was nol a little pleased to find him a weeping petitioner to heaven in prayer 
Drunk lea with Mrs. Doddridge, for whom I found a greater friendship than I could 
decently eiprees. A great number of the people jointly requested me to giva them 
a sermon in the evening ; with which I complied, and preached on Isaiah Ixvi, 2, 
with considerable freedom. Many gave me the warmest eipression of their salis- 
fection, and seemed quite revived. Spent the evening after sermon in conversation 
with Mr. Gilbert (who is naturally grave and reserved) and hia aeeistanl, Mt. Wat- 

Monday, Augvst 12.- Went in company with Mr, Warburlon and Mr. Wilkinson 
to make private applications among the people, and received about £\6, ofwhicli 
Mrs. Doddridge procured me three guineas. Dined with her, and found her con- 

respondent of the dear deceased (as she calls the Doctor), and treated me with 
uncommon friendship, I was surprised that she could talk of him with so much 
composure, notwithstanding her flowing affections. She told me she never had 
a more comfortable season, than whan returning from Lisbon, on the boisterous 
ocean, after the Doctor's death. 

Tuesday, August 13.— Finished my application in which I was much obliged to 
Mf. Warburton for his company. Spent an hour with dear Mrs. Doddridge, and 
at her requat, parted with prayar, in which I found toy heart much enlarged. 
She made a remark that has often occurred to me since, " that she rejoiced that 
the dear deceased was called to the tribunal of his Master with a heart full of 
such generous schemes for the good of mankind, which he had zeal to project, 
though not life to eiecute." May this be my happy case I There are such 
charms in a public spirit, that I cannot but wish I could imbibe more of it. And 
in this view, I rejoice in the fatigues and aniieties ofmy present mission : though 
I am quite unmanned, when the thoughts of my Chara rush upon my heart i and 
the prospect of so long an absence is hardly supportable. Bode through New'port, 

Thither I find the attr'actionf friend sh^p^Mrongly dr'a^wB"me!'" "^ "^^ '" ^'""''"'' 
Wednesday, August 14.- Called at St. Albans, a large town, and a prodigious 
thoroughfare. Mr. Hirons, the minister, was not at home ; and therefore I could 
do nothing there to promote my mission. The country has a delightful appearance 
to a traveller at this season of the year. The turnpike roads are good, and almost 
surrounded with fine houses, especially between St. Albans and Ltndon. The 
fields are coveted with all sorts of grain, and white ready for harvest. It is indeed 
the land of plenty. But oh ! it is a sinful land. I am shocked with the blasphemy 
and profaneness of the inhabitanla ; especially the vulgar, who are not under the 
restraint even of good manners. Arrived in London in tha evening, and was 
revived at the sight of my friends. 

Wednesdoyj^ugtarai.-Setout for Yarmouth, and came twanty-nine miles to 
Chelmsford. Tha people in London think wa have received enough ; and there is 
little prospect of further benaaclions there. Visited sundry of my fi-iends, and had 
great pleasure in their company ; particularly Dr. Avery, Mr. Ward, Mr. For- 
feit, Mr. Thomson, Mr. Samuel Stannat, Mr. Savage, Mr. De Berdt, &c. Preached 
last Sunday for Mr. Hall, on Hebrews, xii. 14, and saw their mode of public bap- 
tism. Mr. Hall made a long diecoursa, like a sermon, on the nature, design, sub- 
jects, mode, &o., of the ordirtanoe j prayed, and without laying any particular obli- 
gations on the parent, took the child in his arms, and baptised it, and then con- 
cluded with prayer. Waited on Sir Joseph Hankey, knight and alderman, and 
received £5 6(. Last Tuesday heard Mr. Bradbury, at Pinner's Hall. 

Thursday, Auguat S2.— Visited Mr. Hukford, an old minister, and Mr. Phillips, 
his assistant; who seemed favourable to tho business of my mission, and promised 
to do something against my return that way. Proceeded to Colchester (twenty- 
one miles) and visited Mr. Cornel, who appears a warm friend to eiperimenial re- 
ligion, though I am told, he is, or at least has bean, of a very peevish, unminis- 
rerial temper. He was once assistant with Mr. Hall, in London, He promised to 
solicit benefactions for the College. Colchester is a pretty large town, I am told 
of considerable trade. The old wall is almost demolished. Here is also a church 
or two in ruins, destroyed by Oliver Ctomwcll, because the place stood out very 
obstinately against him. Here is an Independent, a Presbyterian, and a Baptist 



ID. Google 



IPSWICH— A RESOLUTION—HIS COLLECTIONS, 271 

congregation. But the Preahytetlan is vacant, and the Baptist is supplied only bj 
a lajman ; and therefore, I thought it not worth mv while to apply to them 

Tuesday, August 27 .-From last Friday tiil this morning, I have hecn inlpswich, 
aFeryconBderablo town; and I have hardly spent so many days so happUy, and 
with Biioh a flow of spiriu in England. Here live, good Mr^Notcult, whose pio"" 
sermons I have seen in ^erica. He is in hi- eighty-third year ; and broijght me 
in mind of old Simoon. Hfi hreathes a spirit of devotion, and is waiting for a dis- 
mission from earth, with patient and yet eager eipeotation. His people love their 
old prophet, and cheerfully afford him a maintenance, though he has been laid 
aside from public labour above a year. Mr. Gordon ia assistant, and now invited 
to be pastor. He kindly invited me to lodge at hie honse ; and I was greatly edi- 
fied with his free and pious conversation. He has eiperimenlal religion much at 



, and preaches it 


. honestly, a. 


nd with some success to his people. He is ra- 




private dev, 


otion ; and upon the whole seems to walk with 




1 friendship 
'our to culti 


with him, which I trust will be immortal; and 


. I ahail endeai 


vate by correspondence, when I return to mj 
is the conversation of such a ministet nfleri 


: country. ho 


.w delightful 


remiah isii. 33, 

he. irnnH r.,-r.„l^ 


'.STZl 


haracter. Preached for him last Sunday, A. M., 
vening, on Isaiah l.vi, 1, 2, with some freedom | 



and the good people seemed to eagerly drink in the u...r.u=, «„« „ere mucn 
pleased. This gave me hope that (hey wonld be generous to the Colleee : and I 
was not disappointed : for on Monday, Mr. Gordon and his clerk went among the 
people, and collected £23 9s., which is very considerable for people in their eir- 
cumsunces. It ie their practice, on Monday evening, to repeat the sermon of the 
preceding day : with which I complied at their request. There ie also a Presbv- 
lerian congregation in Ipswich, of which Mr. Thomas Scott is minister He is 
suspected of Arminian and Arian principles ; bat if the suspicion be true, I am 
■nre he differs greatly fVom the generality of the fraterni^ with whom I have con- 
vetsed. His soul seems formed for friendship ( and he loves and speaks well of 
many Calvinists and Trinitarians. He is a gentleman of extensive learning, a fine 
genius, and a good poet. Ho is engaged in a practical paraphrase on the Book of 
.lob. with nnteq t nnH I IViinTj ha l.^^ ,^=.^„„..kJ u:_ __l __ r *. . .. n 



dated his 






also showed me sundry other poetical pieces of his, with 

oblige the world. I preached for him last Sunday, P. M., on Psalm icvii. 1, and 
he WHS heartily pleased with my sermon. I can confide in him that he will eiert 
himself in soliciting his benefactions from his people ; though he did not think it 
so proper now as hereafter ; and his people are few and ungenerous ; and therefore 
he could give mo no great encouragement. He is brother lo Dr. Scott of London, 
who was once bis father's assistant in Norwich, and having imbibed the Socinian 
sentiments, opposed his own iather ; and occasioned a division in Ibe congregation. 
At length he commenced M, D., and laid aside the ministry. Rode throuEh Wood- 
bridge, Wickam-market, Saxmundanl, &c., and came to Yoiford. As I was ridine 
along, I formed a resolution lo draw up a history on my return, of my present mis- 
sion, the state of the dissenters in England, of the Church of Scotland, &c., aa far 
as I had opportunity of making observations ; and present the MS. to the College 
of New Jersey; as .t may be entertaining and instructive to the students, and 
perpetuate the remembrance of the remarkable providences we have met with in 
favour of the Institution. But alas I each are my hurries and the fickleness of 
mymind, that the most of my schemes of this kind are uneieeuled. 

Monday, Sipt. 2.— Arrived in Yarmouth last Wednesday, where I have continued 
ever einee ; and lodged at the Rev. Mr. Frost's, who has treated me with such 
uncommon kindness -as I shall never forget. He is an universal scholar, particu- 
larly he understands the languages. He has a public spirit, and a very devout and 
good heart. In prayer he has an uncommon deiteritj in descending to particulars: 
and IS almost as doctrinal and historical as a preacher, and as flourishing as a poet. 
Preached fot him yeBter(la;y A. M. and in the eveniig, with considerable freedom 
and much to his satisfacUon, The people also seemed attentive, and some of 
them affected. The congregation here ie but small and poor; and the friende of 
my mission hardly hoped for more than twelve guineas at the public collection, 
but to our agreeable surprise, I received about £24. This I ascribe to the bless- 
ing of God upon my sermons, and Mr. Frost's warm recommendation. And I 
think It an evidence of the remarkable interposition ofProvidence in favour of the 
College, that wherever I have stayed to make a oollaolion it has doubled what was 
ever raised before on the like occasion. I wailed on the Presbyterian minister, 
Mr. Milner j but he refused to propose the matter to his congregation, under pre- 
tence that he had engaged to use all his influence lo promote a Presbyterian Aca- 
demy in Lancashire. I strongly suspect that the Institution has been mierepre- 
Reuted to him, perhaps by Dr. Beoaon, as a Calvinistic schorae, or ae in the hands 



l.dr.;. Google 



272 NORWICH— MR. WOOD— ILLNESS. 

of bigots.- Yarmouth ia one of the finest towns I have seen in sight of the sea, on 
the river Yarc, with a most spaoiouB, commodious key. The buildings are gene- 
rally good, and some of tiiem of flint ; one in particular, of great antiquity, is ot 
polished flint. 

Saturday, September 13. — I have been iu Norwich about ten days : and lodged at 
Mr. Pauls', an eieellenl young gentleman, who has passed through a great many 
gpiritual tdais, and had a series o? remarkable esperiences. He was once warmly 
engaged with the Methodists ; hut since Mr. WheatlejU brutal abominations have 
come to light, ha has loft him. This unhappy man had preached a long time here 
with great warmth and earnestness : endured with the most lamb-like patience the 
most cruel treatment from the mob, which even endangered his life, and been 
instrumental to awaken multitudes to a serious sense of religion. But has at last 
been found guilty of repeated criminal commerce with sundry women, though hia 
own wife was then alive. With a loud voice does this event cry to all the pro- 
feaaorsofreligion," Be not high-minded but fear." that none that seek thy face 
Lord, may be ashamed on my account ! My eicellent friend, Mr. Frost, attended 
me lo Norwich ; and used all his influence to prepare the way for me among the 
people. Mr. John Scott is also remarkably friendly. But Mr. Taylor and his 
assistant Mr. Bourne, being abroad, and Mr. Wood having retired into the coontrj 
for bis health, I found il difficult to introduce the affair of my raission ; especially 
as Mr. Toier, Mr. Wood's colleague, ia not on a good footing with his people, and 
is about to remove from them to Eieter ; and therefore did not think it prudent to 
be active in the business. Preached for him the weekly lecture last Friday, on 
Isaiah l«i. 3, and also last Sunday, P. M. on Isaiah ilv. 23, with considerable 
freedom. After which I gave an account of the business of my mission. And I 
find both the sermon and the account were very acceptable to the hearers. A public 
collection was proposed to be made neit Sunday, but Mr. Scott and some others 
concluded to make private applications to the principal people; which he and Mr. 
Lincoln did yesterday, and received about £iT. Yesterday the famous Mr. Taylor 
came home, and I waited on him in the evening. He is a very sociable, friendly 
gentleman, and talks very freely and warmly about Christianity ; and seems zealous 
for its propagation through the world- He gave me the strongest eipreasions of 
friendship to my design ; bnt said that as his congregation was just now at the 
eipense of above £3000 in building a pompous new meeting- bouse, he could not 
urge it upon them. Last Monday, on my way to Halesworlh, to see Mr, Wood, I 
passed through Buries, a fine littlo town; dined with Mr, Lincoln, a young dissent- 
ing minister there, who seems a cordial Calvinist. Spent two nights and a day 
with Mr. Wood, and my soul was charmed with the excellent spirit of the man. 
He is a judicious, solemn, prudent minister, and I think England can boast of but 
few like him. He is as warmly engaged in the afl'air of our mission asMr. Tennent 
or myself! and notwithstanding his indisposition, has laboured to promote collec- 
tions in the congregations around. He is generally loved and revered by those of 
difl'erenl sentiments, as well as of his own. He was the favourite friend of the late 
Dr. Doddridge, and seems to possess much of his spirit. His soul is pregnant with 
noble projects for the good of his whole species, as far as his influence .estends. 
His expressions in prayer are remarkably striking and solemn. I intended to have 
left Norwich to-day, but I find it is so generally desired by my benefactors, that I 
should stay another Sabbath, that I could not but consent, Norwich is accounted 
the third city in England; about one and a half miles in length and one in breadth, 
the honsee very close and crowded with inhabitants. It contains about ihirly-one 
parishes, a fine cathedral with a spire of prodigious height, four dissenting congre- 
gations, besides the Quakers. The old Bridewell wall of polished flint is a remark- 
able curiosity. The principal manufacture is wearing Btufl's. Last Saturday visited 
Mr. Steam, a serious, illiterate Baptist preacher, who conversed very freely upon 
eiperimental religion, and promised his influence for me with his small congre- 

I how uncertain ! How thin the parti- 

„„„ „ .J . , the transition from the one to the other! 

of bow great importance is it to be always prepared! These reflections are occa- 
sioned by my uneipected sudden approach to the eternal world last night, I think 
the nearest ever I made. My life hung in a douhtful scale : and one grain would have 
turned it. I spent the evening at Mr. Lincoln's, in company with him, his son and 
daughter, Mr. Scott and Mr. Paul. At supper I was well, but my appetite was 
faint. Atler supper I was well while I smoked a pipe ; but when I began a second, 
I found my spirits flag, and I could not keep up my part in conversation. Then I 
began to sicken, and made a motion to go home. Ws walked out of the parlour ; 
andaslwasjusttakingleaieofthefaraily, I instantly fell down dead on the floor, 
and continued, they told roe, without any appearance of life for near two minutoa 



dnCoOl^lc 



REFLECTIONS— SAVILE—McLAURIN. £73 

Thsn I began to struggle, and draw my breath with great foiee and diflionlty, so as 

to mjaclf, and maa greatly surprieed to find rayseif lallen on the floor, and my 
friends about me in such a (right, rnbhing my bands and temples, for I had lost all 
consciousness, and di ' -■■■■. - "- 



alely sent for a snrgeon, but before he came 1 began to recover. I wa 

nalk home, with one supporting me, and Ihongh I was greatly enfeel 

and my heart heaved and struggled to throw off Uie blood, I hi 



refreshing sleep. This morning I found myself very weak, and a pain at my heart, 
occasioned, I sappose, by the diflieuUy of the circulation of blood. I preached, 
A.M. for Mr. Bowrn, assistant to Mr. Tavlor, but had very little .ivacity or 
Bolemnily, Preached P. M. for Mr. Toier, with uneipected life and freedom, and 
to the great satisfaction of the people, and was surprised to find they coUected near 
£20 at the doors. 

In the evening I was so exhausted that I could hardly live ; but at supper I most 
remarkably fonnd myself refreshed by my food. 

Monday, Sept. 16.— Continued weak, and pained at my heart; and as the doctor 
as well as myself apprehended it was an apoplectic fit, occasioned by the stagna- 
tion of the blood, I had blood drawn this mocning ; and I was obliged to defer my 
journey. When I first returned to my senses after the fit, I was quite serene and 
peaceful in mind. But when I began to reflect upon my circumstances, as being 
among strangers in a strange land, having a dear helpless family so far from me, 
whose subsistence depends upon my life, and being so poorly prepared for the en- 
joyments and araployments of heaven, it gave me no small alarm ; though I had 
much more firmness and intrepidity of mind than I could have eipected. Nothing 

sudden death would have upon my dear Chara. Lord, prepare us both for the 

I was seized with the fit, I was at a friend's house, and among friends — (hat I 
should fall with so much violence, and yet not be hurt. Had 1 been riding, my fall 
might have killed me. Had I been alone or among strangers, I would have had 
none to take proper care of me. But all circumstances were happily ordered by 
Divine Providence. 

Tuesday, Sept. 17.— Aaer laMng an afi'ec^onate leave of my Norwich friends, I 
aet out for Wattesfield, (about thirty miles) and lodged with the Rot. Mr. Harmer, 
a friendly, sociable, and ingenious gentleman. His congregation have formed a 
fund for occasional expenses; and instead of a public collection, he intends to 
apply to the deacons to give a share of that to the College. Wattesfield is a little 
country village, but the dissenting congregation is pretty numerous, and afford 
their minister a handsome living. 

WedifSday, Sept. IS.— Came to Bury St. Edmund's, where there are two dis- 
senting congregations, but they are few. Mr. Savileis an ancient minister of great 
integrity and humility, and a lover of all good men. He is a warm friend to ei- 
perimental religion, and rejoices in the c " ■"■■■■ 
be accomplished. He has a particular fr' 
cause one of them, Mr. Skelton, with h 
was the instrument of making religions ii 
is an ingenious, modest young geutlema 
roughly Calvinistic as Mr. Savile. 

Thursday, S^teriUier 19.— Preached Mr. Savile's Lecture P. M. with some free- 
dom and great popnlarity. And I hope the people here will make a handsome 
collection, though I can't stay to receive it. Bury is a town of great antiquity, but 
its ancient grandeur is declined. The ruins of an old abbey, demolished at the 
Kefonnalion, are very stalely; particularly the gate, which is still entire. The 
walls of the abbey were about two and a half miles in circumference. Hera I 
received the melancholy news of the death of that excellent man, my particular 
friend Mr. McLaurin of Glasgow. That city haslost one of its brightest ornaments, 
the Church of Scotland one of its moat escelleut ministers, and the College of New 
Jersey one of Its best friends. But heaven has received a new inhahitapt fVom this 
■inful world. May I be prepared to follow. SicTiiiMconHtigatviveTe,sic^e mori! 

Friday, September 20.- Came to Sndbury and found Mr. Heital the minister, and 
Mr. Gainsborough one of his people, very friendly to me and ray mission. Lodged 
with the latter. Mr. tieital is one of Dr. Doddridge's pupils, and is possessed of 
an excellent spirit. He has not fallen into the theological innovations ; hut goes 
on in the good old way. Here I was refreshed with an interview with my kind 
friend, ihe Eev. Mr. Hnnl of Hackney. 

Monday, September 33. — Preached yesterday twice for Mr. Hextal on Jeremiah 
xxii. 33, and Isaiah il<. 33. But alas ! with mors affected than real e 
35 



ID. Google 



274 BRAINTREE— SERMON POBLISHED— MR. RUGGLES. 

and Eolemnity. I gave an account publicly ofthe buameas of my mission, and rtiey 
collected about ilS. I find my LownesB of spirits returned, whichmafeea me affect 
solitude, and so impatient of constant company, that I am quue uneociable. 1 a^so 
feel Ihe effects of my late fit, and am Bometimos apprehensi.e of jW return . But 
alas! sin is slill strong in me, and makes frequent vigorous msurreoUonB, which I 
cannot suppress. God be merciful to me a sinner. Last night was much pleased 
with Mr. Gainsborough's prayer in his family. Mr. Hestal, Mr. Gainsborough and 
Mr Fenn went Ihia morning among (he principal peoplo to solicit them lo enlarge 
their benefacliona ; and they auccseded so well, that with what they received 
yesterday they made up about i:43i besides XS 63. from one Mrs. Rowe of Long 
Melford. Rode in the evening to Braintree, in company with Mr. Davidson. 
Lodged at Samuel Buggle's, Esq. a gentleman of van e slate and very serious dia- 
posilioB. He goneroualy subscribed £30 to the College. I find the people here 
are so importunate, that I must stay and preach nest Sunday. There are few 
congregations of diaaenters in England so numetoua as Ihis, which conaiata ol 
about twelve hundred ; and they seem in general to be a very aerious people. 

Wednesday, Septemto" 25.— Preached for Mr. Davidson on laaiah ilv. 33, and tho 
Lord made the discourse acceptable to hie people. ^ .^ „ . t. 

Thursday, September Sfi.— Went to Coggeshal, the place where the eicellent Dr. 
Owen was ones minialer, and communicated my business to the Rev. Mr, Pello, a 
very friendly man ; who promised to lay it before his people. But from what ho 
knows of their dispositions, he could give me little or no encouragement. Went 
thence to Colchester, and spent the evening with Mr. Cornell, in agreeable con- 
versation. He had communicated the affair to his people, but they were not dis- 



e reflection thai I have taken all the means in my power to promote my 

'""^BdirdDj, S^ember 2S.— I was at leisure in the forenoon ; and revived the 
remembrance of the many delightful hours I have spent in my study at n™e 'n 
reading and contemplation. How do I languish and pine for retirement; and what 
namful aniieties about ray Chara dislrees my mind. At the request of friendly min- 
fslers and others in various parts of Great Britain, I have determined to give my 
Sermon on laa. Ixii. 1, a aecond ediUon. May God attend it into the world. The 
reading of it waa very reviving to Mr. Davidson ; who is eminently poaaeased of 
the ministerial leal which it recommends. The more I conversed with him, the 
more my heart is united to him. I find Mr, Erskine has published the imperfect 
nniea of my Sermon on 1 John ii. 3, which lie baa corrected, in general, to my 
taste. HisPreaoein fayonr of the College has already had happy effects in Brain- 
tree, and excited sundry to double their intended benefactions. 

Sunday Seplember 29.— Preached twice for Mr. Davidson wilh some freedom ; 
anda\ «ards joined in the Lord's Supper, with some little devotion. Gave a 
puhl a ount of my mission eitempore; and though the coUcclior. had been 

m nn of spending the 

■n _i. I was parting with Mr. Ruggles, he waa pleased to 
lised, and told me he did not know but he mighi 

of gratitude "to God, whose favouring providence has attended me in so uncomnior 
a manner in this mission. Mr. Davidson conducted mc about eight miles iowardJ 
Chelmsford. His soul is formed for fViendahip, and I could not part with him 
without some tender emotions. He is very happy in his people, who aeem to hi 
Beneratlv possessed with a very serious spirit, and are about 120O in number 
When I came to Chelmsford, I found the ministers there, Mr. Hukford and Mr 
Philips, had raised ilfi in their little congregation, in my absence. They impor 
tuned me lo atay and preach, but my hurries would not permit. This day hai 
given me another occasion to record a providential deliverance. As I was ridinj 
at a gallop, my horae fell down, and tumbled almoat quite over, and I very narrowl] 

Bncrapprehtnd'ed"'my life in tfie greatest danger. But blessed be God, I did no 
receive the least injury. Alas ! I am afraid that the frequency of such deliver 
ances will render them so familiar, that I shall not take a proper notice of them 
and contract a kind of insensibility in danger. 

Tuesday, OetoSer 1.— I arrived in London, and found by a letter from Mr. Ten 
nenl, that he baa almost finished his applications in the Wesl,_and (hat he intend 
to come 10 London as si 



iiGoO'^k' 



MR. TENNENT— LICENSES— LOCKE. 21 

The prospect of so apeedy a return gave me no small pleasure. But the prospe 
of a wioter passage was very allocking, especialiy as I had sucll a melancholy tin 
in my last voyage, and in the present diffident state of my mind, I am not a litt 
intimidated at the dangers of the seas. Received a reviving packet from my de 
Mr. Rodgers, Captain Grant, Mr. Allen, &c., which informed me of a happy situ 
tioB of affairs at home, eioepling that the dissenters are atil! denied the licensu 
of more meeting-houses. 

October 30.— My father and friend arrived in town ahout fifteen days ago ,■ ai 

re £500 in hie tour. We are determined to emba 
iseihle, wil 

surprised to find our espenses run bo high ; as we have not heen eslravagant. 
Since I have been in totidon, 1 have moved in the same circle, and nothing new 
has occurred ; hut that I find by couveisation with Dr. Stennet, there is a prospect 
of obtaining licences in the Biahop of London's Court, for maetiiH-honses in Vir, 
gmia. Since I haie been in town I have preached for Mr. C 
Dr. Marryatt's meeting-house. Dr. 
ton, and for Dr. Guyse. 

Sunday, Oclobtr 37.— Preached for Mr. Hajward A. M., on Hebrews vi. 7, 8, 
with more solemnity and freedom than, alas ! has been usual with me of late ; and 
I thought I perceived a general concern among my hearers, who were numerous by 
accessions from other ^congregations. I observe a set of hearers that generaJJy 

Bulkley at the Old Jewry, where the celebrated Dr.' Foster was wont "to hold his 
lecture. His discourse wasfinely composed, and delivered with a tolerable address j 
but alas f how anti-evangelical • Yesterday we waited on Messrs. John and Charles 
Weslley. Notwithstanding all their wild notions they appear very benevolent, de- 
vout and zealous men, that are labouring with all their might to awaken Iheseoute 
world to a sense of religion ; and they are honoured with success. But I am aftaid 
their encouraging eo many illiterate men to preach the gospel, will have bad con- 
sequences. I heard one of them last Tuesday night, but he eiplained nothing at 
all. His sermon was a mere huddle of pathetic confusion, and I was uneasy, as it 
might bring a reproach upon eiperimontal religion. The despised Methodists, with 
ail their foibles, seem to me to have more of the spirit of religion than any set of 
people in this island. Mr, Locke's epitaph written by himself, Hie Situi titJohan- 
nea Locke. Si giiaiis/UsH trogoi ? Mediocriiate tua contentwa se vixisse respondet. 
IdterU eousgue tanUm pro/edt, vt veritati imlei Hterei .■ hoc ex icriplis illius disce, 
qua ituid it eo reliqimm est, majore fide tibi exhibibimt, qaam epilt^U impecta ela- 
gia. Virlules, Hquas habml, minorit same qunm quae >ibi iaadi, tibi in exemplam 
praponrret i vitia uiifl ee^liantur. Morum examplar si quaras, in eoangelio Imies ; 
viliormn utimaa nusquam : mM-taiitatis certi (qtiod prosit) hic et vbique. 

Monday, November IS. — We came yesterday lo Gravesend, in the Charming 
Anne, Capt. Baker ; having taken lease of my friends, and left London last Fri- 
day. My felher and friend, Mr. Tennenl, sailed with Capt. Hargrave, for Phila- 
delphia, last Wednesday. The impossibility of getting the Trustees together, and of 
my travelling home by land from Philadelphia, determined me, with Mr. Tennent's 
consent, to deny myself the pleasure of his company, and sail directly for Vir- 
ginia, that 1 may the sooner see my earthly all at home. And now, when I 

I would solemnly commend myself to the God of my life, and the Ruler of sea 
and land ; and though I am hut a very insignificant creature, yet as I am of no 
small importance to my helpless family, I wish and pray that if it pleaae God, I 

'■ " e October 37, 1 have preached for Mr, 

n, Dr. Gifibrd, &c. I cannot but ob- 
serve that I found uneipected freedom and solemnity in preaching a neglected old 
sermon, that 1 thought not worthy of hearing, from Heb. li. 1. I have met 
with BO many solicitations, both in conversation and by letters, to publish some of 
my sermons, that I con^nuemy purpose of finishing some of them lor that purpose. 
Now, when I have parted with London forever, I cannot hut think with affection 
upon the many friends I have left behind me, who are entitled to my warmest 
gratitude. I have preached in many of the pulpits of the three denominations; 
and from the warm approbation of a number, I cannot but hope, I have been of 
some service in that way ; though, alas ! nothing lo what might be expected or 
wished. The petition from Virginia being returned, I waited with it on Dr. 
Avery, Mr. Mauduit, &c., and communicated il also to Dr. Stennet, and begged 
be would act in concert with Che committeej which he cheerfully promised. And 



:,Googlc 



PETITION— DAVIES ON SHIPBOARD. 



new scheniH, thej cannot look upon llie diaseoting interest in Virginia, ! 
giouB interest, because foanded on principles which they disapprove ; and t 
Ihey can only esponse it, as the canee of liberty : but a zeal for it in this 
not eo Tigoraua a principle as tlie other. The conrtiers are bo regardle^ 
ligion, abstracted from politics, that it will be difficnlt to carry such a po 
them, especially as the whole weight oF the government of Virginia will li 
other side. However, I am in hopes, the alternative of taking oot licens' 
bishop's court, or of presenting the peUtion, will sacceed ; and I have be] 
committee and Dr. Stennet (o take one or the other method, as they thi 

Friday, Nov. 22.— Came down the river as far as the North Forland, hav 



a loss for an ag 



sailors in a lary mortifying light. 

and impreca'* — " 

nbat meaaut 

cross the seas, it is a miracle of Divine patience, and an evidence this is not the 
slate of retribntions, that so many of them are safclj conducted through the dan- 
gers of the ocean. Alaa! I have my own share of sins, and it shocks me to think 
how unholy I still am. 

Thursday, Nov. 29.— Wa came to the Downs last Sunday, and were detained 
there waiting for a fair wind, till this atlornoon, when wo set sail. Through the 
great goodness of God, I have not as yet felt any ihing of sea sickness, as I ei- 
pected : and I now hope I shall escape it. I spend my time, as well as I can. 

Bishop of London's Sermons on the Evidences of ChriBlianity, Dr. Wright on 
Hardness of Heirt, &o. I have peace of mind ; bnt alas ! I feel great languor in 
devotion, and but little zeal to promote the advantage of those with whom I 



Saturday, Not. 30.— The wind beinp 


- contrary, we 1 


vere obi 


iged to 


iput 


into Ply- 


mouth, a very good harbour; where th 


ere are about t 


wenty-si 




ofw 




rieon, and one or two old castles. 












Sunday, Dee. 1— I purposed to preai 


:h to the comp! 


in J, but 


thehui 




of getting 


fresh water, and clearing ont to sea ag: 




ind beci 




fair, i 


.re.enled 


me. Alas ! I live a very unprofitable life ; and lon|| ti 


> be rest 


■oredt. 


imj 


sphere of 


f f among my own dear people. 
Mnd y Dec. 2.— Having set sail ye 


sterday in the s 


LftemooT 


1 weo 


otou 


t into the 


Ch 1 but it soon grew calm, and 1 


*e were tossed 




all n 


■ight with 


p d ^ swells, which are more d 


isagreeable wh 


leu then 






id. This 


m g tl e wind shifted and blew vioi 


lently; and fin< 


ling we 1 


DOuld 1 






» p t back for Plymouth, and go 


t there in the e 


vening. 


after a 


day, 


i\d night 


1 1 bonr. I fonnd the return 




, which 


quite 




p ts d threw my whole frame inU 


. disorder. We have n 


owbei 






w k board, but have made but lit 


tie way. This 


delay is 






iai of my 


p tl When shall I see my home 


1 Shall it evei 




'hough 






Pljm h last night was disagreeable : 


It first, yet aftc 


rwards ] 


: could 




but look 


p a happy providence ; for thi 


3 wind blew w 


ith such 


prodig 


ious 


violence. 


th 1 d we been in the Channel we sb 


lOuld have been 


in no SI 


mil d» 


nger 




n d day, Dec. 4.— Went to Plymc 




. have g 






mtion for 


the College, and waited on Mr. Baron 


and Mr. Moor. 




,ing mi 






but they told me the dissenting inter. 


est there was 


so low. 


that I 


cou 


Id eipecC 


Su«div, Dee. S.— The winds still co 


ntinne against 


ns,aoth 


at we. 


canni 


It get out 


of the harbour of Plymouth. This delay is .he more 


disagrc 


*able. 




he ship's 


company, to which I am confined, are 


a parcel of the most 


proflig 






sinners, thai I have ever been among. 


Mj ears are g 


rated wi 


ththe 




shocking 


imprecalions and blasphemies, that on 


e would think 


Ihejeo 


uld no 


t pre 


iceed but 



Bulha of infernal spirits. Alaa I lo what a 
numan nature arrive ! This day I had an opportunity 
Heb, sii. 14, and 1 endeavoured honestly to discharge mv conscience ; and found 
no small pleasure and tranquillity after I had unburdened' my heart. What effect 
it may have, must be discovered by their future conduct. Alas I I languish and 
fret to be delayed so long from my dearest creature at home. How lively and 
agreeable her image rises in my mind. May God give me patience and fortitude 
under the disappointment. 
Wednesday, Dec. 11.— We ate still delayed in the harbour of Plymouth ; but 



„^,.,.,glc 



STORM— VOYAGE. 2T7 

we have Btil) growing reason for (hankfiilneas that we got anfe in here; for tha 

Ehip was loBl last Sunrtaj night, on the roclis called the Monades, in the Channel, 
while trying to put into Falmouth, and all the company perished ; and had we 
been in Iho Channel, we wonld probably have shared the same fale. May I be for- 
tiJied to meet all the events before me ) 

SataTday, Dee. 14. — We are slill detained at Plymouth ; and last night both 
the ship and our lives were in the greatest danger. About six o'clock in the even- 
ing il blew a mere hurricane, which continued till about twelve o'clock. The 
wind blew bo atrong that one could hardly stand upon deck. It drove a large Dufch 
ehip from her anchors, and she ran against a lar^e rock on shore. She fired a gun 
as a signal ofdislresa; and having got assistance, she got off. We found she wag 
driving down against our vessel ; and being much larger, she would probably have 
Euiik her, or broke her to pieces. As we were trying to get out of the way, out 

vessel Btrnckagai'nstnsonce or twice; and afterwards we run upon a large Antigua 
ship ; and were obliged lo lie by her side for some time. Another ship was very 
near us on the other side ; and we were in danger of being dashed to pieces 
between them. At last, with great dilfionlly, we anchored in a place where we lay 
safe till morning ; but had not the wind abated, we should, in all probability, have 
dashed against some of the ships, or the rocks, which might have been fatal to us. 
This morning we endeavonred to get in a saferplace,butweran aground, and were 

■ ■■ ■ ; and we could not anchor well till the evening, 

ilwork all day, and most of last night; and after 
ail, a laige snip came mis evemng within a yard of us. I endeavoured to com- 
mend myself into the hands of God, in the estremity of danger; but when 
death, especially in such circumstances, appeared near, it filled me with solemn 
horror. And when I afterwards reflected upon my diffidence, it depressed my spi- 
rits not a little, to find that I am not fortified against all the events of this mortal 
state. Alas 1 it would not be thus with me had I livfed nearer to God, and under 
more realising impressions of the eternal world. 0! that I may take the warning; 
and may my present impressions be lasting and efficacious, and not prove a tran- 
sient fit of extorted devotion '. I am sorry lo find that my discourse last Sunday to 
the ship's company had no effect upon sundry of them. When they venl their pas- 
sions, or are in a hurry, or alarmed with danger, they cannot speak without oaths 
and curses ; which is so shocking that I can hardly venture upon deck, lest I 
should hear them. Alas ! how depraved, how diabolically wicked is homan 

fyiday, December 90.— We have been on board five weeks, (a longer time than 
our whole voyage from Philadelphia) and this morning, the wind blowing from the 
east, we set sail. I find myself already much disordered with sea-sickness ; and I 
am like to have a melancholy passage. 

Saturday, December 2S. — For this week past, we have had the usual vicissitudca 
of sailors, sometimes foul and sometimes fair. We had one night of very bois- 
terous weather, and we could not enjoy a moment's rest in any posture. Last 

disordered with sea sickness that 1 was not able. Alas 1 I lead a most useless life. 
When I am able, I read in Bishop Burnet's History of his own Life and Times; In 
which is a more full account of the strange intrigues of courts than can be met with 
in most of histories. He is always fond of searching into the springs and causes of 
actions ; and no doubt he discovers the true ones ; but sometimes this temper be- 
trays him into censorious conjectures about the hearts of others, of which he was 
no judge. The spirit of moderation and piety that breathes through his writings is 
quite charming. The reign of King Charles II. appears a scene of luinry and 
debauchery, changes in the ministry, imaginary plots, and prostitation to the 
French interest. The short reign of King Henry II. was a continued struggle of 
Popery and arbitrary power against liberty and the Protestant religion. But the 
steps Uken were so hasty and precipitant, that nothing but an enthusiastic bigotry 
could have directed to them or eipected snocees from them. Thereign of William 
and Mary would have been one illustrious dsjr, had it not been so unhappily 
clouded with factions between the wbigs and lories ; and the latter lay as a dead 
weight upon all the generous projects of that hero for the public good. Queen 
Anne's reign was nothing but a contest for victory between the whigs and tories; 
and in the last four years of her reign the latter unhappily got the superiority, and 
concluded the disadvantageoits peace at Utrecht, when the French lay so much at 
mercy, that honourable terms might have easily been obtained. 

Thursday, January 9, nS5.— For above a fortnighl, we have had but very little 
fair wind ; some days have been very squally, and others quite calm, with very 



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278 VOYAGE HOME. 

higli swells; which is estremelj disagreeable. Two days ago we had now[nd,and 
the seas run very high; and the ship go! between two large swells, and nol; obeying 
her helm, went almost round, and we were in the greatest danger of sinking. The 
captain, as pale as death, cried ogt to get the hoats loose, that in Ihem we might 
commit ourselves to the ocean, and endeavour to get to a ship io sight j but it 

(leased God that the vessel righted, and we were safe beyond all cipectalion. 
lay [his providential deliverance have proper impressions upon me ! The two 
last Sundays I have entertained the ship's company with two discourses, one on 
Ihe love of God, and the other on striving to enter in at theatraighl gate. I continue 
much disordered, and so languid and inactive that I am good for nothing. When 
I am able, I spend my time in reading the Universal History, volumes five and six, 
but 1 am not a little mortified to find my memory so slippery, 

Sunday, Jananry 12. — Was so much out of order, that I was not able to enter- 

peot of success so discouraging, that I had no heart to attempt it. 

Saturday, January 18. — This last week has been the most painful and melan- 
choly that I have Been for many years, I have had the tooth-ache in the most 
violent degree; so thai I had no test night nor day; indeed it was sometimes so 

for these five or six nights; but to-day I have a little ease; and oh I how sweet is 

Sunday, January 26.— We have had some days of the most calm weather that I 
have seen at sea ; but last Friday night, a violent storm blew up from the N. W. ; 
which lasted about thirty hours. It is impossible for the most lively imaginaton, 
without the help of sight, to form an idea of the aspect of the ocean at snch a 
time; and it is most astonishing the little vessel wo float in, is not dashed to pieces 
by the furious conflicts of the waves, which loss her about like a cork, and give her 
such shocks that she trembles in every joint. It is a very good subject for a poem ; 
but, alas 1 all my poetical powers are dormant. 

Inconstant, boisterous element; the type 
Of human life. Now gentle calms compose 
The wide-eitended surface ; to the eye 
Opens a level plain, a sea of glass. 

Or only rising gradual, and flow 

In vast majestic swells, not wild, abrupt 

A watery precipice j such as these eyes 

Now see collecting all theit terrors round, 

On every side. Above, the clouds, replete 

With winds and angry flre tremendous, lower. 

The lightning flashes a malignant glare 

Through the thick gloom, and helps but to descry 

The horrors of the dark, and danger's frown. 

Now the fierce flash spreads out in sheets of flame. 

Round heaven's wide canopy — meantime the winds 

Collect their forces, and dischatge their rage 

On the fermenting deep ; 'till watery hills. 

And mountains rise, and roll along, beyond 

The ken of sight; or by quick-shifting winds. 

Driven adverse, dash in furious conflict ; then 

The mountains break in a tumultuous roar. 

The angry foam flies up to heaven in showers, 

And burns and sparkles in the briny waves. 

Sure 'lis the war of elements ; the shock 

Of worlds '.' What horrid images can show 
The dreadful scene '. What loud tremendous sounds. 
What wild, tumultuous verse can represent 
The blended roar of thunder, winds and waves 
In tumult — Now how naturally distress 
Casts up to heaven the wild imploring eye. 
And eager cries for help. Now, now we sink ! 
Strange ! we survive the shock ! Now fiercer still. 
The waves assault our bark, convulse each joint. 
And spread a tremor through each rib of oak. 
Now we shall rise no more. Strange ! we emerge, 
Tossed like a cork, we float fiom wave to wave. 



Ho=,i.div. Google 



VOYAGE HOME, 279 

The yawning gulph below ; while the howling winds. 
And roaring waves, and midnight's hidden glooms. 
Surround ne— thou Ruler of the seas. 
Send forth thy mighty mandate, " Peace, be Btill," 
And calm their rage.— But can even mercy hear 
Such daring rehcls, who, in one vile breath. 
Blend prayers and cutaea t Bui, alae ! my heart; 
Look home] thou art not innocent ; my guilt 
May }iarl these furious hurricanes in air. 
And arm each billow of the sea against me. 

Indulgent Father, have not I bewailed 
My guilt in deep repenlnnce I has not faith 
Applied tho Saviour's blood ! — 

I have reason tn observe, with pleasure, that my mind, for some days, has been 
more engaged than usual in cairo, and I hope, complacentjal surveys of divine 
things, especially of the method of salvation throush Christ. 1 am fully convinced 
that is the only religion for sinners; and as such I would cordially embrace it. 
Were it not for Ibis, what insupportable terrors would danger and death wear ! 

Friday, January 31. — The weather has been very uncertain, and the winds con- 
trary. Thegreatest part of this day has been a dead calm ; but such a violent sea 
bas run as I have never seen ( and as the ship had no wind to direct her course, 
she was tossed about in the most terrible manner, and it seemed nest to a miracle 
to me, tliat she was not dashed to pieces or overset. It is sii weeks to day since 
we sailed fiom Plymouth ; and no less than eleven weeks since I came on board. 
What with sea sickness, what with the wickedness of the company, and the aniie- 
Ijes of absence from my other self, it has been a melancholy time to me. Now 
when I am out of business, my heart is always at home ; and so long a delay by 
contrary winds has been no small trial to my patience. What tender images of 
domestic happiness rise before me, whonever I recollect the favourite idea of my 
Charal I have now seen a good deal of the world; and I am more and more con- 
vinced that she is the person fitted to maUe me happy. I have had death fre- 
quently before me in this passage; and it is still uncertain whether eier I shall see 
my home, though wc suppose we are now near sonndings. With this solemn pros- 
pect I have been frequently shocked ; though at times I seemed supported with 

eipect. I am quite discouraged in my attempt to reform the ship's company, par- 

ticnlariy the C , who has ir — " — •-'•' '■'■'■" '■'""■'"■' —■''■ ^'■' ''-'■■' ' 

have spoken to him repeatedly in 

they forget themselves so far that tiicj swu^r uiiu luipiciiuM,- ■■■ inj i-cji-i-j^. ^tit^a , 

Sunday, Febnmry 3. — It is a remarkable mercy that I am now alive, and capable 
to lake memorials of any thing that happens in the regions of mortality. About 
sis o'clock the-night before last, a violent storm blew up from the north-east, 
which continued neat Ihirty-eii hours; and I never was more apprehensive of 
danger. The waves beat with such violence against the ship that one could hardly 
eipect but she would have been dashed to pieces or overset ; and the captain and 
the most veteran sailors were full of alarming apprehensions. Alas ! how helpless 
ore we on this boistarous element— all our dependence upon one feeble bottom : 
and no other way of safety or deliverance. 1 think there is no phenomenon in 

fortitude, to stand upon the deck and take a view of it. 

What horrors crowd around! Destruction frowns 
In all its frightful shapes. The lowering clouds 
Spread out their solid glooms, and not a star 
Emits a ray of charming light. The winds 
Discharge their whole artillery, rear vast pilea 
Of waves on waves, and watery pyramids. 
Capped with white foam. " ^--.-i- i 



Our sol 


e defenci 


5, dei 


lies 


us hope; the 


waves 


In delu 


ge break . 


D'erl 




dash her sides 




And thi 






hefi 


nher. Hark! 


'the roar 


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king prce 


ipicei 




id the howl 




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us winds, 


. thai 


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im the bottom 




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o'er all the di. 


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eadful icene. 



Ho,i.db, Google 



STOBM— REFLECTIONS. 

ur dangers and our deliTemncea have again been renewed. 

r last Wednesday, when the sea waa aa smooth as ever 1 
Bawii.H oiemupavioieiuBlorm-fromtheBouth which lasted till this morning, about 
forty-eight hours. Its terrors eiceeded all the appearances in nature that I had 
ever seen; and those that had been long accustomed to the sea, agreed they had 
hardly ever seen a more dangerous slomi. We vBere obliged to lie-to, as the sea- 
phraae is, near two nights and two days, and drove at the mercy of the winds and 
waves. I was in a careless, guilty frame when the storm came on ; and I never 
felt so deeply the terrors of being seized by danger or death in such a frame. The 
Bight of death frowning upon me on every side, threw my mind into a ferment like 
that of the ocean round me. Sometimes indeed I had some intervals of serenity 
and resignation : but generally niy views ware gloomy, my fears outrageous, and my 
heart faint. I endeavoured t« commend myself to God, and to resign my dear 
feraily lo his eare ! bnt alas ! I could not do it with cheerfulness. I never appeared 
to myself so helpless in all my life ! confined to a little vessel, in the midst of 
mountainous seas, at a dreadful distance ftom land, and no possible prospect of 
escapingdeath,ifany accident should befall the ship. I could do nothing but lie in 
bed, hearing the howl of winds and roar ofwaves without, and tossed from side to 
side by the motion of the vessel, which sometimes rolled so violently that she lay 
almost on her beam-ends, and I was afraid she would not recover. The waves 
broke over her so as lo wash the men from one side of the deck to the other, and 
dashed in through the dead-lights into the cabin. I often fell upon my face pray- 
ing in a kind of agony, sometimes for myaelf, sometimes for the unhappy ship's 
company, and sometimes for my dear destitute family, whom the nearest prospect 



jeived we had 

Sons too far to the southward upon the coast of Carolina, and were much afraid 
!st we should run ashore on the dangerous sands near Cape Hatteras. But hitherto 
God has preserved us; and if my life can be endeared to me or my friends by 
remarkable deliverances, it will be of more importance than ever. To-day has 
been cloudy and squally, and in the evening a dead calm, a sure presage of a 
storm j and now it begins to blow again. May God pity us, and deliver us from 
this dangerous element, the territory ofDeath. 

Wednesday, February 12.— Blessed he God, we had the welcome sight of land 
this morning ; and suppose we are on the coast of North Carolina, about twenty 
leagues south of Cape Henry. The. wind is contrary, and if a storm should rise', 
we might be driven out te sea again. 

Since my last remarks, we have had strong gales, and violent storms of snow, 
with very intense cold. It has been so cloudy, that we have had no good ohsetva- 
tion for nine days ; and our reckoning of longitude being out, we fenew not where 
we were. We have been eipecting land, and sounding for ground, these fourteen 
days ; hut were still disappomted till this morning. If the longtitode, which has 
been so long sought for in vain could be certainly discovered, it would he vastly 
to the advantage of navigation. Though my mind has baen in such a confusion, 
during the passage, that I have not been able to make any useful remarks to any 
advantage; yet the various phenomena of the ocean have suggealed to me such 
hints as might be well improved by a spiritual meditant. And I shall take short 
memorandums of them, that if I should happen lo be disposed for it hereafter 1 
may improve upon them. The majestic appearance of this vast collection of 

Uncontroulable government who rules so outrageooa an element as he pleases, and 
■tills it with one almighty mandate "Peace, be still," and the terror of the confla- 
gration which shall dry it up. The alternate storms and calms are a picture of the 
mutability of human life in this world— of tha various frames of a Christian. As 
Blorms and hurricanes purify the sea and keep it ftom corrupting ; so afflictions are 
necessary to purge and sanctiiy the people of God, and shall work together for 
their good— and so God brings good out of evil. It is calm in some parts of the 

alternately happy and miserable. The sea in the ferment of a storm gives us an 
image~ofa mind agitated with furious lusts and passions — and a riotous mob. 
The ship is our only safety— so is Christ lo the soul, amid the rnins of sin. After 
a storm and a gloomy night, how welcome and cheering is the return of a calm, 
and the morning light ! So is the return of peace, and the light of God's counte- 
nance to a soul in darkness and distress. The want of an observation to discover 
the latitude, in cloudy weather, leaves the mariner perplexed about his course. 
Thus perplesed is the Christian, when God withdraws the light ofhis countenance, 
or when the meaning of the Scripture is uncertain. II is a great disadvaaUge 



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DAVIES— FROM HIS MISSION TO HIS DEATH. 281 

to rayigalion, and occasions the loss of many ships, that the longituile is not dis- 
coieted. Thus would it liave been ivUh the moral uorlii, if it had not been fa- 
voured with the light of revelation ; and thus ie the heathen part of mankind at a 
loss abaat the way to heaven. 

Alter a long and dangerous vovage, how eager are the seamen looking out for 
land, and how rejoiced at the eight of it. Thus eager are some ChrisHans, and thus 
e^er should thej all be, to see Inimanuel's land, and arrive there. 

It 19 a striking evidence of the degeneracy of human nature, that those who 
traverse this region of wonders, who see so many dangers and deliverances, are 

Arrived in York, February' 13, 1755. The neit day called in Williamsburg, 
waited on the Governor, and rode to Mr. Holt's that night. Came home next 
morning, February 15, and found all well.— What shall I render to the Lord for 
all His goodness 1 

Eipression fails. 



CHAPTER XIII. 
KBV. SAMOEL DAVIE3- 

DuRINS the absence of Mr. Daviea from Virginia, hostilities 
hail commenced on the frontiers. In May 1754, hlood had 
been shed by forces under the command of Colonel Wasliing- 
ton, who unawares fell upon % party of French and Indians, 
near the Great Meadows, as they were advancing to surprise 
Fort Necessity. England and France, both desiring the con- 
trol of North America, were entering the fierce contest that 
decided the fate of that great continent. Hostilities com- 
menced at the confluence of the Alleghany and Monongahela 
rivers. Some Virginians were fortifying the place, now Pitts- 
burgh. A large French force drove them from the position. 
Washington met the force advancing upon him near the Great 
Meadows ; and in July was compelled, by a superior force of 
French and Indians, to capitulate on honourable terms. Pre- 
parations were made to carry on with great vigour, the war thus 
begun. English and French forces were collected ; and efforts 
were made to enlist the numerous warlike tribes of Indians, in 
the contest. The French were the more successful in arraying 
these barbarous allies under their flag; and without pity turned 
the fury of Indian warfare upon the English frontiers. 

According to ancient charters, Virginia extended from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific shores, and covered some of the posts 
the French were most anxious to maintain, both for tho safety 
of their colonies and the ultimate possession of the great Val- 
ley of the Mississippi, if not tho whole continent. The Vir- 
ginia frontiers were east of the grand Alleghany, scattered 
along tho Valley of the Shenandoah, and the head streams 



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282 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

of the Potomac, tlie Jaraea and Roanoke. On these, the In- 
dians, from Ohio, claiming the beautiful valleys and streams 
as the residence of their fathers abandoned at the approach 
of the English, but not given up, began their incursions with 
midnight attacks, the tomahawk and scalping knife, merci- 
less slaughter, and dreary captivity. The whole country waa 
filled with alarm. Consternation seized the frontiers. The 
more remote, and the more timid families, retired and formed 
neighbourhoods with blockhouses of sufScient capacity to afford 
shelter to all, and strength to resist an attack, from a savage 
enemy. Some of the more brave fortified their log houses and 
maintained their post. 

Mr. Davies, on his return to his family, partook of the 
alarm, though his dwelling was far east of the Blue Ridge. 
He felt the necessity of vigorous action by the colonists, and 
of the special protection of Divine Providence. The Provin- 
cial Legislature had appointed the 5th of March as a day for 
fasting and prayer to Almighty God. Mr. Davies preached 
on that day, in Hanover, from the words, "The Most High 
ruleth the kingdom of men and giveth it to whomsoever he 
will," (Dan. iv. 25,) a truly Christian, patriotic sermon, 
calculated to excite among his hearers proper sentiments 
of devotion, and love of country. On the 10th of July, 
1755, the army under Genera! Braddock suffered a signal 
defeat. The savages in the interest of I'rance broke in, 
like a torrent of fire, upon the terror stricken frontiers. The 
soldiers escaping from the massacre, that followed the battle, 
carried the news of the disaster ; deserting their companions, 
many of them never rallied, but sought their homes and a shel- 
ter east of the mountains, and were arrested at the head of tide 
water as deserters spreading terror by their flight, and their 
frightful narrations of savage barbarities. On the 20th of the 
month Mr. Davies preached in Hanover, on the words of Isaiah 
chap. xxii. verses 12, 13 and 14 : " And in that day did the 
Lord God of Hosts call to weeping and to mourning, and to 
baldness, and to girding with sackcloth; and behold joy and 
gladness, slaying oxen and killing sheep, eating flesh and drink- 
ing wine: let us eat and drink for to-morrow wo die." This 
text had been chosen, and a few pages of manuscript had been 
written in view of the distress of the country, under an uncom- 
mon drought, and the calamity of a Prench and Indian war. 
When the appalling news of Braddock's defeat reached Hanover, 
Mr. Davies completed, and delivered to his people, a sermon 
worthy the occasion and of himself. On the first report of the 
defeat and the approach of the cruel enemy not only the more 
exposed families forsook their dwellings, hut apprehending, an 
immediate assault from the advancing foe, many proposed to 



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DAVIES— BRADDOCK'S WAR. 283 

altanilon all the frontiers and return to the thickly settled por- 
tions of the province or to other provinces. After lamenting 
the sins that had brought these accumulated sufferings upon the 
country, Mr. Davies proceeds: — "Let me earnestly recommend 
it to you to furnish yourselves with arms, and put yourselves 
into a posture of defence. What is that religion good for that 
leaves men cowards on the appearance of danger. And permit 
me to say, that I am particularly solicitous that you, my hreth- 
ren of the dissenters, should act with honour and spirit in this 
juncture, as it hecomes loyal subjects, lovers of your country, 
and courageous Christians. That is a mean, sordid, cowardly 
soul, that would abandon his country, and shift for his own little 
self, when there is any probability of defending it. To give 
the greater weight to what I say, I may take the liberty to tell 
you I have as little personal interest, as little to lose, in this 
colony as most of you. If I consulted either my safety, or my 
temporal interest, I should soon remove my family to Great 
Britain or the northern colonies, where I have received very 
inciting offers. Nature has not formed me for a military life, 
nor furnished me with any degree of fortitude and courage ; 
and yet I must declare, that after the most calm and impartial 
deliberation, I am determined not to leave my country while 
there is any prospect of defending it. Certainly he does not 
deserve a place in any country, who is ready to run from it upon 
every appearance of danger. The event of the war is yet un- 
certain ; but let us determine that if the cause should require 
it, we will courageously leave house and home andtake the field." 
After much pathetic address on personal religion, he thus closed : 
— " It is certain many will be great sufferers by the drought, 
and many lives will be lost, in our various expeditions. Our 
poor brethren in Augusta, and other frontier counties, are slaugh- 
tered and scalped. In short it is certain, be the final issue what 
it will, that our country will suffer a great deal ; therefore he 
humble. Be diligent in prayer for our army, and for the un- 
happy families on our frontiers. And may the Lord of Hosts 
be with us, and the God of Jacob he our refuge." 

This spirit of Davies was, in general, the spirit of the dis- 
senters, who formed the line of frontiers in Virginia. The 
more isolated and exposed Tetreated ; the stronger neighbour- 
hoods girded themselves for the war. The congregations on 
the Cowpasture river, in Augusta, were broken up by savage 
inroads, part of the families retreated to the Valley of the She- 
nandoah, and part with their pastor, Mr. Craighead, ulti- 
mately took their abode in Mecklenburg county. North Carolina. 

On the 17th of August, Mr. Davies delivered a thrilling ser- 
mon to the first volunteer company raised in Virginia after 
Braddock's defeat — " to march over trackless mountains, the 



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28i SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

hauTits of wild beasts or fierce savages, into a hideous wilder- 
ne33, to succour their helpless fellow- subjects, and guard their 
country," It was commanded bj Captain Overton. The text 
chosen for the occasion was 2d Samuel, x. 12 : " Be of good 
courage, and let us play the men for our people, and for the 
cities of our God ; and the Lord do that which seemeth him 
good." Fervent piety and ardent patriotism are commingled 
thronghout the discourse. Connected with this sermon is this 
remarkable sentence — "I may point out to the public that 
heroic youth, Coh Washington, whom I cannot but hope Provi- 
dence has hitherto preserved in so signal a manner, for some 
important service." 

In the midst of these agitating scenes, the activity of Mr. 
Davies, in his ministerial duties, was not at all abated. He 
seemed never to forget that he was a minister of the gospel. 
On the 4th of June, 1755, Mr. Robert Henry, of -whom men- 
tion has been made, was installed pastor of Cub-creek, in Char- 
lotte, and Briery, in Prince Edward. Cuh-creek was settled 
by a colony led by Mr. Caldwell, and Briery was the fruit of 
Mr. Davies' visit, improved by Mr. Henry. On the last Sab- 
bath of July, Mr. John Wright was installed pastor of the 
church in Cumberland county. He had been a pupil and pro- 
tege of Mr. Davies. The church in Cumberland was gathered 
from the labours of Mr. Robinson, followed up by the mission- 
aries that followed him, and also from the visits Mr. Davies was 
able to make from time to time. In December of the same 
year the Presbytery of Hanover was formed ; Mr. Davies pre- 
sided as Moderator, but, on account of indisposition, was 
excused from preaching. The Presbytery consisted of six min- 
isters, three of whom, Messrs. Todd, Henry and Wright, had 
been introduced into their charges by the influence of Mr. 
Davies, and occupied part of the ground over which he used to 
ride. By this increase of ministers the specious objections to 
licensing more houses for dissenters — viz. the number of houses 
for a minister — was removed, though all difficulty was not 
reraoved. 

Under date of March 1755, Mr. Davies writes to a member of 
the Society in London for Promoting Religious Knowledge 
among the Poor. 

"Dear Sir: — Divine Providence has safely conducted me 
through the numerous dangers of sea and land, and replaced 
me in my former sphere of usefulness and happiness. The 
confluence of so many mercies at one time, the tender guardian- 
ship of heaven over my dear family and friends, the review of 
my remarkable success in the important business of my mission, 
and promising situation of religion amongst my people, threw 
me into a ferment of grateful passions, which are not yet sub- 



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LA VIES' LETTER TO THE SOCIETY IN LONDON— NEGROES. 285 

sided, though I have been at home about six weeks. I doubt 
not, as a friend, you will congratulate me, and, as a Christian, 
assist me in returns of gratitude and praise to my Divine 
Benefactor, 

" As there is a propriety in transmitting to you an account 
of the distribution and reception of the nohle charity of that 
generous Society to which you belong, I must confine myself to 
that, and refer you to my correspondents for other articles of 
intelligence. Though there are very few of the -white people 
in this colony in abject poverty, yet there are many in such 
low circumstances, that they cannot spare money to purchase 
good books, and many more so stupidly ignorant and insensible 
of their want of instruction, as to esteem it an unnecessary 
charge, and so excuse themselves from it as a needless expense. 
On one or other of these accounts, there are few houses in Vir- 
ginia well furnished in this important respect. Multitudes are 
without any assistance of this kind, and even' Bibles are not 
always to bo found among them. To some of these I have dis- 
tributed — The Compassionate Address, Dr. Doddridge's liise 
and Progress, Mr. Baxter's Call, &e., with the best advice I 
could give them, and hope I shall be able to send you an agree- 
able account of the happy effects of the distribution. 

"But the poor neglected negroes, who are so far from having 
money to purchase books, that they themselves are the property 
of others; who were originally African savages, and never 
heard of Jesus or his gospel, till they arrived at the land of 
their slavery in America, whom their masters generally neglect, 
and whose souls none care for, as though immortality were not 
a privilege common to them with their masters, — these poor 
unhappy Africans are objects of my compassion, and I think 
the most proper objects of the Society's charity. Tho inha^ 
bitants of Virginia are computed to be about 300,000 men, the 
one-half of which are supposed to be negroes. The number of 
those who attend my ministry at particular times is uncertain, 
but generally about three hundred, who give a stated attend- 
ance ; and never have I been so struck with tho appearance of 
an assembly, as when I have glanced my eye to that part of 
the meeting-house where they usually sit, adorned, for so it has 
appeared to me, with so many black countenances eagerly 
attentive to every word they hear, and frequently bathed in 
tears. A considerable number, {about an hundred) have been 
baptized, after a proper time for instruction, and having given 
credible evidence, not only of their acquaintance with the im- 
portant doctrines of tho Christian religion, but also a deep 
sense of them upon their minds, attested by a life of strict 
piety and holiness. As they are not sufficiently polished to 
dissemble with a good grace, they express the sentiments of 



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286 SKETCHES OF VIEGINIA. 

their souls so muoli in the language of simple nature, and with 
such genuine indioationa of sincerity, that it ia impossible to 
suspect their professions, especially when attended with a truly 
Christian life and exemplary conduct. 

'_' My -worthy friend, Mr. Todd, minister of the next congre- 
gation, has near the same number under his instruction, who, 
he tells me, discover the same serious turn of mind. In short, 
sir, there are multitudes of them in different places, who are 
■willing and eagerly desirous to be instructed, and embrace 
every opportunity of acquainting themselves with the doctrines 
of the gospel, and though they have generally very little he!p 
to learn to read, yet to my agreeable surprise, many of them, 
by dint of application, in their leisure hours, have made such a 
progress, that they can intelligibly read a plain author, and 
especially their Bibles; and pity it is that any of them should 
be without them. Some of them have the misfortune to have 
irreligious masters, and hardly any of them so happy as to be 
furnished with these assistances for their improvement. Before 
I had the pleasure of being admitted a member of your Society, 
they were wont to come to me with such moving accounts of 
their necessities in this respect, that I could not help supplying 
them with books to the utmost of my small abilities; and when 
I distributed those amongst them, which mj friends, with you, 
sent over, I had reason to think that I never did an action ia 
all my life that met with so much gratitude from the receivers. 
I have already distributed all the boots that I brought over, 
which were proper for them. Yet still on Saturday evenings, 
the only time thoy can spare, my house is crowded with num- 
bers of them, whose very countenances still carry the air of 
importunate petitioners for the same favours with those who 
came before them. But alas, my stock is exhausted, and I 
must send them away grieved and disappointed. Permit me, 
sir, to be an advocate with you, and by your means, with your 
generous friends, in their behalf. The boots I principally 
want for them are Watts' Psalms and Hymns, and Bibles. 
The two first they cannot be supplied with any other way than 
b^ a collection, as they are not among the books your Society 
give away. I am the rather importunate for a good number of' 
these, as I cannot but observe that the negroes, above all the 
human species I ever knew, have an ear for inusic, and a kind 
of ecstatic delight in Psalmody ; and there are no books they 
learn so soon, or take so much pleasure in, as those used in that 
heavenly part of divine worship. Some gentlemen in London 
were pleased to make me a private present of these books for 
their use, and from the reception they met with, and their 
eagerness for more, I can easily foresee how acceptable and 
useful a htrge number would be among them. Indeed nothing 

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DAVIES' LETTER— THE NEGKOES. 287 

■would be a greater inducement to their industry to learn to 
read, than the hope of such a present, which they would con- 
sider both a help and a reward for their diligence. 

" I hardly know of any modern institution which bears so 
favourable an aspect on the declining interests of religion as 
your Society. They deserve the pleasure of hearing the happy 
effects of their generosity at the distance of four thousand 
miles, in these ends of the earth, and it is no small happiness 
to me that the strictest veracity allows me to transmit so agree- 
able an account. Thus may the inhabitants of Great Britain 
receive blessings in answer to prayers put np for them in Ame- 
rica, where I am sure they have many affectionate intercessors, 
amongst whom be pleased to number 

Your sincere and much obliged friend, 



The preceding letter was preserved by Gillies; and from him 
we learn that the correspondent of Mr. Davies was so delighted 
with the communication that he sent a copy to a friend with 
the following sentiment — " My soul triumphs in the thought of 
an African church formed and raised in the deserts of America, 
nor can I wonder that my worthy friend esteems his congrega- 
tion adorned with these outcasts of the earth, as they appear 
to others, now flying as a cloud, and flocting into Christ as 
doves to their windows. The thought of such an auditory in 
the attitude he represents them, diligently attentive to every 
word they hear, and often bathed in tears, gives me a pleasure 
I cannot easily describe, how I love their black faces ! The 
members of our Society have generously given np the distribu- 
tions which fell to their share to this important service." 

The members of the Society were so interested in this — " first 
attempt of this nature that has ever been made with any 
considerable success"~that collections were made to procure 
Watts' Psalms and Hymns, with other religious books, for dis- 
tribution by Mr. Davies, in some measure according to hia 
wants; and plans were proposed and sent to Mr. Davies in 
Hanover, the object of which was the obtaining, if practicable, 
some three or four young Africans who still retained their 
native language, were pious, and of good abilities, to be edu- 
cated at the College in New Jersey, for the benefit of which 
large donations had been received in England, that they might 
become missionaries to Africa. The books reached America in 
due time ; of their reception and disposition, Mr. Davies shall 
give an account in a letter preserved by Gillies, under date of 
March 2d, 1756. " I>ear ,SiV.-— Your last letter, with the 
large donation of books that attended it, gave mo the most 
agreeable surprise that ever I met with in my whole life. I 



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2S8 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

speak tho vcry'truth, sir, I did not think myself worthy in any 
measure to bo tho instrument of so much goo(], nor had I the 
least expectation, that a letter from my hand would ever be 
honoured with such extensive success. As an honour con- 
ferred upon me ; as an cvidenco that the spirit of Christian 
charity is far from being extinct in your great metropolis, even 
in this infidel and debaached age ; as a present advantage, and 
in the meantime a favourable omen viitn regard to futurity, to 
the neglected heathen slaves in this Christian country ; as an 
acceptable offering to God ; and as fruit that will abound to tlie 
account of the benefactors; in all these, and sundry other 
views, I rejoice in it, I feel that even a heart so insensible aa 
mine, is not proof against the sensations of pious gratitude 
upon such an occasion. It haa more than once cast me into 
the posture of adoration and praise before the throne of grace, 
that I am not left unassisted in the delightful work. I dare 
say, some scores, both black and white, bond and free, concur 
with me in the most ardent returns of gratitude to the author 
of every good gift, for a charity of such extensive usefulness. 
And to you, dear sir, who have been so active in promoting it, 
and to my other friends who have concurred in the same way, 
to the Society which gave so favourable a reception to my 
representation, and to all the contributors, whether within or 
without the Society, I return the most humble and affectionate 
thanks from myself, and from their many beneficiaries, who 
cannot write, nor make their acknowledgments themselves; and 
if the prayers of these poor strangers to the throne of grace, 
■who have lately learned to bow and weep, and cry there, have 
any efficacy, your pious generosity will be rewarded an hun- 
dred fold, both in this and the future world. I count myself 
happy, sir, that I can retaliate you, and tho other benefactors 
of this scheme, in that way, in which only you desire it, and 
that is by giving you an account of the distribution and ac- 
ceptance of the books among those for whom they were in- 
tended ; and this I shall do, with the utmost alacrity and 
cheerfulness to the best of my knowledge. 

" My hurries of various kinds are so incessant, and my cor- 
respondence so extensive, that I have no leisure to take copies 
of my letters, and my memory can retain but a very general 
idea of them ; therefore, if in comparing them, you find some 
mistaken references, defects or repetitions, you need not be 
surprised ; but as far as I can recollect, I gave you a pretty 
full account in a former letter of the numerous African slaves 
in the colony, and now 1 only design to add a few particulars 
which aro new, or did not then occur to my mind. When the 
books arrived, I gave public notice of it, after sermon, at the 
next opportunity, and desired such negroes as could read, and 



"•— 'rfl^ 



DA VIES' ACCOUNT OF THE NEGROES. 289 

Bucli wHite people as would make a good «se of th^m, and were 
so poor that they could not huy such books, to como to me, at 
my house, and I should distribute them amongst them. On 
this occasion I also enlarged upon a new topic of conviction, 
both to the slaves themselves and their masters. Since per- 
sons at so great a distance, who had no connection with ; them, 
were so generously concerned to Christianize the poor negroes, 
and had been at so much pains and expense for that end, then 
how much more concerned, how much more zealous, and indus- 
trious should their masters be, to whom the care of their souls 
aa well as of their bodies is committed, and who enjoy the 
advantage of their laborious service ! and how much more 
ought the poor negroes to be concerned for themselves ? and 
how much more aggravated would be their guilt and ruin, if 
they persisted in obstinate infidelity and wickedness, after so 
much pains had been taken with them for their conversion ? 
This I found afterwards proved a very popular topic of convic- 
tion, and made some impressions upon the minds of not a few. 
"For some time after this, the poor slaves, whenever they 
could get an hour's leisure from their masters, would hurry 
away to my house, and receive the charity with all the genuine 
indications of passionate gratitude which unpolished nature 
could give, and which affectation and grimace would mimic 
in vain. The books were all very acceptable, but none more so 
than the Psalms and Hymns, which enable them to gratify 
their peculiar taste for psalmody. Sundry of them have 
lodged all night in my kitchen, and sometimes when I waked 
about two or three o'clock in the morning, a toiTcnt of sacred 
harmony poured into my chamber, and carried my mind away 
to heaven. In this seraphic exercise, some of them spend 
almost the whole night. I wish, sir, you and their other bene- 
factors could hear any of these sacred concerts. I am persuaded 
it would surprise and please you more than an Oratorio, or a St. , 
Cecilia's day. The good effects of this pious charity are already 
apparent. It convinces the heathen, that, however vicious and 
careless, about the religion they, profess, the generality of the 
white people are, yet there are some who really look upon it 
as a matter of the utmost importance, and universal concern, 
and are actuated with a disinterested zeal to promote it. It 
has excited some of their masters to emulation, and they are 
ashamed, that strangers on the other side of the Atlantic, 
should be at pains to teach their domestics Christianity, and 
they should be quite negligent themselves. It furnishes the 
most proper helps for such of the negroes as can read, and are 
piously disposed, and some of them are evidently improving in 
knowledge. It has excited others to learn to read; for as I 
give books to none but such as can read, and are piously 
3T 



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290 SKETCHES or VIRGINIA. 



id, tLoy consider' tlicm aa a reward for their inclustry; 
and I am told that in almost every house in my congre- 
gation, and in sundry other places, they spend every leisure 
hour in trying to learn, since they expect books as soon as they 
are capable to use them. Some of them, I doubt not, are ex- 
cited to it by a sincere desire to know the will of God, and 
■what they shall do to be saved: others I am afraid are actuated 
by the meaner principle of cariosity, ambition and vanity. 
However, he the principle what it wiU, I cannot but rejoice in 
the effect, as it renders them more capable of instruction in the 
great concerns of religion. This charity may also be of great 
service in a political point of view ; for now, when the French 
and Indians are invading our country, perpetrating the most 
horrid barbarities and depredations upon our frontiers, we 
have not been without alarming apprehensions of insurrections 
and massacre from the numerous slaves among ourselves, whom 
they might seduce to their interest by the delusive promises of 
liberty; and while they do not feel the restraints of conscience 
and Christianity, our apprehensions are but too well grounded. 
I have dono my utmost, without hinting my design to them, to 
prevent so dismal a calamity ; and for this purpose I have en- 
deavoured to convince them, that there are many of the Eng- 
lish, as well as myself, who are really solicitous for their 
welfare, which has given me no small popularity amongst them; 
and especially to bring them under the restraints of the pacific 
religion of Jesus, which has so friendly an influence on society, 
and teaches a proper conduct for every station in life. Now I 
can distribute these books amongst them as tokens of disin- 
terested benevolence, as helps to understand Christianity, and 
in the meantime to detect the impostui-es, superstitions, and 
cruelties of Popery. For this latter purpose the Frotestant's 
Resolution is extremely well calculated. 

" To all this I may add, as I have the honour of distributing 
the books, it gives me a very handsome opportunity of speaking 
seriously and with particular application to many, who might 
not otherwise come in my way. There are thousands of negroes 
in this colony who still continue in the grossest ignorance, and 
most stupid carelessness about religion, and as rank pagans as 
when they left the wilds of Africa. And there are not a few 
of this unhappy character, even in the bounds of my congrega- 
tion, which hy the by is about sixty miles iu circumference. 
But I think, sir, my ministry of late has been most sueeeaaful 
among them. Two Sundays ago I bad the pleasure of seeing 
forty of their black faces around the table of the Lord, who all 
made credible profession of Christianity, and sundry of them 
with unusual evidence of sincerity. Last Sunday 1 baptised 
seven or eight adults, who had been catechumens for some time. 



"•— 'gl^ 



DA VIES' ACCOUNT OF THE KEGROES, 291 

Indeed, many of them seem (tetermmcd to press into the king- 
dom of God, and I am persuaded will find an abundant entrance 
when many of the children of the kingdom shall bo shut out. 

" One of the catechumens, baptised last Sunday, I conversed 
with the evening before. He addressed me to this purpose, in 
broken English— 'I am a poor slave, brought into a strange 
country, where I never expect to enjoy my liberty. While I 
lived in my own country, I knew nothing of that Jeaua, which 
I have hoard you speak so much about. I lived quite careless 
what will become of me when I die, but I now see that such a 
life will never do ; and I come to you sir, that you may tell me 
some good things concerning Jesus Christ, and my duty to Grod ; 
for I am resolved not to live any more as I have done.' — Such 
a simple address is very striking oratory to me, and would my 
time allow, I could give you many such specimens. There is 
one happy circumstance which I think very remarkable, and 
that is, that notwithstanding the odium Protestant dissenters lie 
under in this colony, where they were not known till very lately, 
and notwithstanding the usual disaffection which those bear to 
vital religion who have none themselves, yet the negroes in 
these parts are fully allowed to attend upon my ministry, and 
Bometimes upon my private instructions, even by such masters 
as have no religion at all, or are bigots. Indeed, it is the ob- 
ject of my zeal, not to make them dissenters, but good Chris- 
tiana and good servants. But when I consider, how often the 
most candid and generous endeavours are misconstrued by 
bigotry, much more by impiety, I cannot but wonder my at- 
tempts meet with so little opposition, and escape suspicion, and 
I cannot but look upon it as a very promising presage. 

" I have distributed sundry of the books among the poorer 
sort of white people, with this charge, that they would not keep 
them by them, as a private property, (except the Bibles, for 
which they would have a constant use in their families) but cir- 
culate them about among such of their neighbours as would 
seriously peruse them, that they might be as extensively ser- 
viceable as possible. Some of them have since discovered to 
me what solemn impressions they received in reading them. I 
sent a few of each sort to my friend and brother, Mr. Wright, 
minister in Cumberland, about ninety miles hence, where there 
is a great number of negroes, and not a few of them thoughtful, 
and inquisitive about Christianity, and sundry of them hopeful 
' converts. He has been faithful in the distributing, and informs 
me they meet with a very agreeable and promising reception. 
He is very laborious in his endeavours to instruct the negroes, 
and has set up two or three schools among them, where they 
attend on Sundays, before and after sermon, for they have no 
other leisure time. 

" It affords me no small pleasure, that you have some more 



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292 SKETCHES OF VIRGIKIA. 

books in reserve for me. I know I have had vastly more than 
my proportion, asa member of the Society, and I cannot have 
the face to solicit farther benefactions. Nay, it pains me to 
think, that by directing the channel towards this new world, 
Bome places nearer home may have been drained, or left «n- 
watered. But alas, dear sir, when I reflect upon the almost uni- 
versal neglect of the many thousands of poor slaves in this wide- 
extended country, that they generally continue heathens in a 
Christian country, that but few of their masters will furnish them 
with such means of instruction, and that they are absolutely inca- 
pable of furnishing themselves ; when I reflect upon the burden 
of guilt under which my country groans on this account ; when 
the impressions of these things are fresh upon my mind, I ata 
quite insatiable, and cannever say it is enough. Alas, what are 
four or five hundred books among so many thousand negroes, that 
attend upon my ministry, at the sundry places where I alternately 
. officiate ; and sundry of them who are well disposed I am obliged 
to send away without, a book, for they were all distributed in a 
.few days after their arrival, and I took care not to give one of 
each sort to every particular person, hut ordered them to borrow 
and lend among themselves. I earnestly desire to have some- 
thing to distribute among them, that would at once help them 
to read and teach them the rudiments of Christianity. I have 
bad thoughts of attempting such a thing myself, if I knew how 
to discharge the expense of the press ; though I have no peculiar 
qualification for it; but this, that I might perhaps adapt myself 
better to their mode of thinking and speaking, than those that 
have no acquaintance with them. Dr. Watts's sets o£ CatecJiisms 
are the best I know extant, for the last of these purposes ; and 
therefore when my next nomination comes, I beg you would 
send me a considerable proportion of them. Thus, sir, I have 
given you an account of the use I have made of this generous 
charity, and the happy efi'ects that are likely to follow from it ; 
and I have only this request to add, that the friends of religion, 
with you, would help it forward, not only in this way, but also 
with their importunate prayers. This assistance is greatly 
needed, and earnestly desired, by their, as well as, sir, 

" Your most obliged, and most affectionate humble servant, 
Samuel Dayies." 

In these labours for the spiritual welfare of the negroes, so 
feelingly described by Mr.'Davies, his young co-labourers, Todd, 
Wright and Henry participated, and with corresponding success. 
There was no obstacle thrown in the way of their instructing 
the slaves; masters that were themselves opposed to "dissenters, 
yet freely allowed the negroes to attend" their ministry ; and 
also to receive private instruction on religion. The influence 
of their labours was great upon the negroes, and the effect 



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ANECDOTE OF DAVIES— PEYTON RANDOLPH. 293 

abiding. In the year 1819, Dr. Rice thus writes in the Maga- 
zine, page 203 — " There is now a considerable congregation of 
their descendants at Polegreen, a church in Hanover, at present 
under the pastoral care of the Rev, John D. Blair. But many 
of the members of Davies' church belonged to the estato of Col. 
Bjrd. These were sold, and several of them taken to the county 
of Charlotte. The -writer has seen some of the survivors who 
could read well, and knew perfectly the Assembly's Catechisra." 
He might have added that he had been for a time their minister, 
and possessed their confidence and affections, " At this day 
there are not fewer than one hundred negro communicants in 
a congregation called Cub-creek, in the county just mentioned. 
Of these a very large proportion can read, and are instructed 
in religious doctrines and duties beyond many professors among 
white people. And they afford an experiment of sixty or seventy 
years standing of the effect of this sort of discipline among 
slaves." This was one of Mr. Henry's preaching places ; he 
was successful in his preaching to the negroes, beyond any of 
his cotemporaries. 

Dr. Rice, in the Evangelical Magazine, vol. 2, p. 118, tells 
an anecdote of Mr. Davies, on the authority of Captain John 
Morton, grandfather of Mrs. Rice. The time of the occurrence 
mentioned must have been previous to the mission to Europe. 
After stating the fact that Mr. Davies made frequent visits to 
Williamsburg, to meet the Governor and Council, he says — 
" On one occasion, by special permission, he spoke for himself. 
Captain John Morton accompanied him. The circumstances of 
the case were often detailed by the Captain with great satis- 
faction." What the point to be argued was — whether the pro- 
priety of licensing a particular house, when so many had 
already been licensed for one permanent minister ; or the con- 
struction to be put upon the Act of Toleration, that of the 
Attorney General Ryder, or of the Attorney General Ran- 
dolph — is not stated. It would seem the permissions accorded 
proceeded rather from an inclination in the King's officers to 
amuse themselves with the poor dissenters, than from any other 
motive. The Attorney General was Peyton Randolph. lie 
took his position, and delivered a speech of great legal learn- 
ing. When Davies rose to reply there was a general titter 
through the court. His very first remark, however, discovered 
so intimate an acquaintance with the law on the subject, that 
marks of surprise were manifest on every countenance. In a 
short time the lawyers present began to whisper — the Attorney 
General has met his match to-day, at any rate. The general 
sentiment among the members of the bar, as expressed in the 
hearing of Captain Morton, was — " there is a most excellent 



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294 SKETCHES OF VIRGIKIA. 

lawyer spoiled." In volume 1 of the Magazine, p. 272, tLere 
is another reference to this tradition. A gentleman of high 
standing in Virginia became deeply impressed with a sense ot 
religion, and was aroused to seek the salvation of his soul. Ho 
inquired of a hootseller for some religious hooks. Davies' 
printed Sermons were offered to him ; and at first refused. But 
recollecting to have heard his father recount the circumstances 
of a Mr, Davies coming in contact with the Attorney General 
at AVilliamshurg, while he was a student of law at that place, 
and remembering that his father esteemed him a most extraor- 
dinary man, he purchased the volumes. The reading was spe- 
cially blessed to him, and he was led to rejoice in the hope oi 
the gospel. He ever afterwards spoke of the sermons as his 
father had spoken of their author — as "most extraordinary." 
Of Mr. Davies' labours as pastor, Dr. Eice, in the second vol- 
ume of the Literary and Evangelical Magazine, p. 202, says — 
" "We have learned from aged people, who sat under his ministry, 
that his powers of persuasion seemed sufficient for the accomplish- 
ment of any purpose which a minister of the gospel would 
undertake. Many, for instance, who had grown up in igno- 
rance of religion, who were married and settled in life, and had 
children around them, were prevailed on to learn the elements 
of religions knowledge. A mother might often be seen rocking 
her infant in a cradle, sewing some garment for her husband, 
and learning her catechism at the same time. A girl employed 
in spinning would place her book of questions at the head of 
the wheel, and catching a glance at it as she ran up her yarn 
on the spindle, would thus prepare for public catechising; and 
boys, who wore accustomed to follow the plough, were often to 
be seen, while their horses were feeding at mid-day, reclining 
under an old oak in the yard, learning the weekly task. Young 
and old were willing to be taught by their preacher ; and when 
assembled for catechetical instruction, the elders of the church 
and heads of families were always examined first. This course 
of instruction was not brief, and quickly finished, as is the case 
now. Households generally were furnished with a few standard 
works, of good old times; and were expected to study them 
carefully. The writer has scarcely ever visited a family, the 
heads or fathers of which belonged to Mr. Davies' congregation, 
in which he did not find books or remnant of books, such as 
Watson's Body of Divinity, Boston's Fourfold State, Luther on 
the Gaiatians, Flavel's Works, Baxter's Call to the Uncon- 
verted, and Saint's Everlasting Best, Allcine's Alarm, and 
others of similar character. And these were studied with a 
care and attention which greatly promoted the improvement of 
the public. In fact, Davies' churches were schools in which 



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DAVIES RECRUITING. 



295 



people were taught better things than the ancient sages ever 
commuiiicated to their disciples. The effect of this discipline 
remains to this day," 

The Trench and Indian war wasted the spirits and resources 
of the colonics. In the Spring of 1758, the work of raising 
recruits by voluntary enrolment went on heavily, and Mr. Da- 
vies was called once more to rouse the citizens of Hanover to 
becoming action. The influence of his war sermons appears to 
have been irresistible: and an examination of them might be 
adva,ntageoas to those who may he called to address soldiers. 
It will be seen that the prominent truths of the G-ospcl are held 
forth clearly; and man's dependence on God's providence and 
Christ's intercession forcibly inculcated as the very ground of 
hope for success. Dr. John H. Rice teils us, Magazine vol. 2d, 
pp. 359, 360 — "We have conversed with aged friends, who re- 
member well those times, and the despondency and consterna- 
tion that pervaded the colony. They were themselves at the 
meetings of the people, when Davies preached these sermons ; 
and they represent in lively terms the dejection and gloom de- 
picted on every countenance, when every murmur of the west- 
ern breeze seemed to be associated with the war-whoop of the 
savage, and the wail of the victims of French and Indian cruelty. 
And they say, that as the preacher poured forth the strains of 
his eloquence, his own spirit was transfused into his hearers : 
the cheek that was blanched with fear reddened, and the droop- 
ing eye kindled with martial fire, and at the conclusion, every 
voice was ready to say — 'Let us march against the enemy — let 
us conquer or die." Particularly we have been told, by eye- 
witnesses, that the effect of the following passage was most 
powerful." It was delivered on the 8th of May, 1758, at a 
general muster in Hanover county, for the purpose of raising 
a company for Captain Meredith; and is a part of Sermon 
sixty-third, in the printed volumes. About the middle of the 
sermon he exclaimed — "May I not reasonably insist upon it, 
that the company be made up this very day before we leave 
this place. Methinks your king, your country, nay your own 
interest command me : and therefore I insist upon it. Oh ! for 
the all pervading force of Demosthenes' oratory — but I recall 
my wish that I may correct it,— Oh ! for the influence of the 
Lord of armies, the God of battles, the Author of true courage, 
and every heroic virtue, to fire you into patriots and true sol- 
«diers this moment! ye young and hardy men, whose very faces 
seem to speak that God and nature formed you for soldiers, 
who are free from the incumbrance of families depending upon 
you for subsistence, and who are perhaps but of little service to 
society while at home, may I not speak for you, and declare at 
your mouth,— here we are all ready to abandon our eas«, and 



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296 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

rush into the glorious dangers of the field, in defence of our 
country ? ye that love your country, enlist ; for honour will 
follow you in life or death in such a cause. You that love your 
religion, eniist ; for your religion is in danger. Can Protest- 
ant Christianity expect quarters from heathen savages and 
French Papists. Sure in such an alliance the powers of hell 
make a third party. Ye that love your friends and relations, 
enlist; lest ye see them enslaved and butchered before your 
eyes." 

"After the close of the discourse we have been informed that 
a company was made up for Captain Meredith, in a few min- 
utes, — and that more offered their names than the captain was 
authorized to command. Davies repaired from the muster 
ground to the tavern to order his horse ; and the whole regi- 
ment followed him, and pressed round him to catch every word 
that dropped from his lips. On observing their desire, he stood 
in the tavern porch, and again addressed them until he was 
exhausted with speaking," 

It is not a matter of surprise that Mr. Davies found himself 
quite unmolested, at this time, in performing his ministerial 
services wherever duty and convenience invited him. The At- 
torney Greneral could scarcely venture to throw impediments in 
the path of the best recruiting officer in the province. 

While Messrs. Davies and Tennent were in England, they 
had frequent opportunities for advice and consultation on the 
best method of removing the grievances of the dissenters in 
Virginia. It was the opinion of the leading dissenters that the 
General Court in Virginia had no right to limit the number of 
houses for public worship to be allowed dissenters, — neither 
had the Court a right to specify the persons to preach in par- 
ticular houses; — that all licensed ministers might preach in all 
licensed houses as far as the law was concerned; — that any 
number of families might demand the registering of their 
house, — and of course the people -of New Kent were oppressed 
by the revoking of their license. This was Dr. Doddridge's 
opinion, sent to Mr. Davies in Virginia., shortly before his 
death, as is gathered froni his letter, large fragments of which 
remain. 

Eut as the General Court persisted in their course, the com- 
mittee of the Deputation of Protestant Dissenters, resolved in 
February 1*755, to bring the subject before the King in Coun- 
cil, not by petition for liberty of worship, but by appeal from 
the prosecution of the authorities in Virginia, in the way es- 
pressed in the two following papers, which were sent over to 
Mr. Davies, in reply to the petition referred to in his journal. 

" Bev. Sir: — The committee of the Deputation of Protestant 
Dissenters have received your petition to the King in Council 



"•— 'rfl^ 



ADVICE PROM EKGLAXD. 



29r 



abont licensing houses for religious worship ; and after tlie most 
matnre consideration and advice thereon, they find it will uot 
to prudent to present it at present. And their advice to you 
is — that when any house or place for religious worship is 
wanted, that you apply first to the County Court for a license 
thereof,— if refused there, then apply for license to the Gov- 
ernor and Council, — if refused there, then apply to the Gov- 
ernor alone for a license, — and if he refuses, then use such 
house or place for religious worship, as if it had been licensed, — 
and if prosecuted for so doing acquaint the Committee therewith, 
and they will then send you further directions how to act. 
" Signed by order of said committee, by 

Your most humble servant, 

NaTHL. SnBFEIELD, 

Secretary to the said Committee. 
" Ironmonger'a Lane, StU February, 17S5," 

"Rev. Sir: — As a secret instruction to you which ia not to 
be_ divulged until necessity requires it, I am by order of the 
said Committee to inform yon that if any persona arc prose- 
cuted in your courts in Virginia for using such unlicensed 
houses or places for religious worship, after such application 
for license as in the other letter is directed — that then such 
person or persons so prosecuted should appeal to the King in 
Council here, and the Committee will take care to prosecute 
s«ch appeal. Keep this advice in your ovfn breast until a pro- 
per time of appeal comes. 

" Signed hy order of the said Committee, by 

Tour most humble servant, 

NaTHL. SHEFFIEtD, 

Secretary to the said Committee." 

Ko appeal ever went to England. The difficulty thrown in 
the way of dissenters was greatly lessened during Braddock's 
war. Still the labour and expense of a journey to Williams- 
burg were required to obtain license; and delay? were thrown 
in the way. Some ventured, as Mr. Wright in Cumberland, to 
use a house for worship during the ravages of the Indian wars, 
without license, and were unmolested. After the established 
clergy became involved in contentions with the Legislature 
about the payment of their stipend of sixteen thousand pounds 
of tobacco, whether it should be paid in kind, or at an estimated 
value set by the Legislature, less attention was paid to dissen- 
ters. While this contest waxed hotter and hotter, dissenters 
of different names multiplied ; and the rigour of the courts 
relaxed. _ This unadvised proceeding of the clergy did more 
for the dissenters than all their appeals to natural or constitu- 
tional law had been able to accomplish. 



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298 SKETCHES OE VIRGINIA. 

We come now to an event in tlie life of Mr. Davics which 
filled the people of Hanover with distress, — his removal to 
Princeton College, New Jersey. Of this Mr. Davies says, in 
his farewell sermon — " both nsy first settlement here and my 
final removal were altogether unexpected." On the death of 
tlie President of Nassau Hall, Mr. Burr, Rev. Jonathan Ed- 
wards was called to preside over that important institution. 
His presidency wa3 limited to a few weeks ; having been in- 
augurated, February 16th, 1758, he ended his days on the 22d 
of the following March. Bev. James Lockwood of Wethers- 
field, Connecticut, was, April 19th, chosen his successor. The 
want of unanimity ia the election, with other circumstances, 
■prevented his acceptance. The next election, August 16th, 
was in favour of Mr. Davies of Virginia ; and was by him im- 
mediately submitted to a called meeting of Presbytery. On 
the 13th of September, the Presbytery met in Hanover, and 
unanimously decided against his removal from Virginia. Mr. 
Davies used his influence to secure the election of his friend, 
Samuel Finley. The Trustees, looking over the whole subject, 
turned unanimously upon the man who had plead their cause 
to such advantage in England and Scotland, and stood tip so 
nobly and successfully for the gospel in Virginia ; and not dis- 
couraged by the refusal of Presbytery, laid the subject before 
the Synod of New York and Philadelphia, at its meeting, in 
May, 1759. On Thursday 17th, " An application to the Synod, 
from the Board of Trustees of the College of New Jersey, for 
the liberation of Mr. Davies from his pastoral charge, that he 
inay accept the Presidency of the said College, to which they 
had elected him, was brought in aild read. A supplication 
was also brought in from Mr. Davies' congregation, earnestly 
requesting his continuance with them. The Synod having 
seriously considered the congregation's supplication, and fully 
heard all the reasonings for and against Mr. Davies' libera- 
tion, after solemn prayer to Grod for direction, do, upon the 
whole, judge that the arguments in favour of said liberation 
do preponderate, and agree that Mr. Davies' pastoral relation 
to his congregation be dissolved in order to his removal to the 
College, and do accordingly hereby dissolve it." 

The sentiments and feelings of Mr. Davies, on the subject of 
his removaV from Virginia, are best expressed in his own lan- 
guage, in Sermon 82d, which he delivered. Sabbath, Jiily 1st, 
1759, in Hanover, on the words, — " Mnalli/, brethren, farewell. 
Be perfect; be of good comfort, be of one mind; live in 
peace; .and the God of love and peaoe shall le with you" 
2 Cor. xiii. 11. In the , introduction, he says, — " A few 
weeks before I made my first visit to Hanover, I had no more 
thoughts of it as my pastoral charge, than of -the remotest 



"•— '8'^ 



DA VIES LEAVES VIBGIKU. 299 

coraor of the world ; but was preparing to settle in ease near 
my native place, till the more urgent necessity and importunity 
of the people here, constrained me to alter my resolution, jft 
is known to no mortal but myself with what reluctance, fear, 
and trembling I accepted your call. The rawness and inex- 
perience of my youth, and the formidable opposition then 
made both by Church and State, when a dissenter was stared 
at with horror, as a shocking and portentous phenomenon, were 
no smail discouragements in my way. For some years I. durst 
hardly venture to appear but in the pulpit or my study ; lest, hj 
a promiscuous conversation with the world at large, I should in- 
jure the cause of religion, by some instance of unguarded conduct. 
In short, my self-diifidence rose eo high, that I often thought 
I had done a great exploit, when I had done no harm to this 
important interest, which I had a sincere desire, though little 
ability, to promote. When, after many an anxious conflict, I 
accepted your call, I fully expected I was settled among yoa 
for life ; and whatever advantageous offers have been made to 
me on either side of the Atlantic, have not had the force of 
temptations. It was in my heart to live and die with you ; 
and such of you as best know my circumstances, and how little 
I shall carry from Virginia after eleven years labour in it, must 
be convinced in your own conscience, and can assure others, 
that worldly interest was not the reason of my attachment. 
To satisfy you of the reason of my present removal I will give 
you a brief impartial account of the whole aifair. 

"The College of New Jersey, though an infant institution, 
is of the utmost importance to the interests of religion and 
learning, in several extensive and populous colonies. From it 
both Church and State expect to be supplied with persons pro- 
perly qualified for public stations ; and it has already been very 
useful to loth in this respect. Before the irreparable breach 
made in it, by the death of that excellent man. President Burr, 
its members were increased to near a hundred ; and there was 
no small prospect of considerable additions every year. But, 
alas ! President Burr, its father, is no more. Upon his removal, 
the Trustees made choice of the Rev. Mr. Edwards to succeed 
him, the profoundest reasoner, and the greatest divine, in my 
opinion, that America ever produced. His advancement to the 
place gave the public sanguine expectations of the future fame 
and prosperity of the College. But alas ! how short is humaa 
foresight ! how uncertain and blind are the highest expectations 
of mortals ! He was seated in the President's chair but a few 
days, when he was taken sick and died, and left a bereaved 
society to lament the loss, and pine away under it. An earth- 
quake spread a tremor through a great part of our solid conti- 
nent on that melancholy day in which ho died (March 22d, 



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300 SKETCHES OP VIRGIIflA. 

1758) ; but how much more did Nassau Hal! tremble when this 
pillar fell ! Some of the Trustees, to my great surprise, had 
some thoughts of me upon the first vacancy that happened. 
But knowing the difficulty of my removal, and being very 
unwilling to leave my congregation, they made an attempt, upon 
President Edward's death, to furnish the College with another ; 
and therefore, chose the Eev. Mr. Lockwood, a gentleman of a 
■worthy character in New England. But being disappointed as 
to him, they elected me on the 16th of last August, and were 
at the trouble and expense of sending two mcaaeugcrs to solicit 
the affair with me and the Presbytery. I can honestly say, 
never did anything cast me into such anxious perplexities. 
Never did I feel myself so much in need of Divine directions, 
and BO destitute of it. My difficulty was not to find out my 
own inclination which was pre-engaged to Hanover, but the 
path of duty ; and the fear of mistaking it, in so important a 
turn of my life, kept me uneasy night and day. I submitted 
the matter to the Presbytery, and gave them an honest repre- 
sentation of it, as far as it was known to me. As I was at an 
entire loss in my own mind to discover my duty, I could not, 
upon the authority of my own judgment, approve or regret their 
decision ; but I cheerfully acquiesced in it, and sent it, with my 
own negative answer, to tho Board of Trustees, and expected 
never to hear any more about it. But the Trustees, to my stiil 
greater surprise, made a second application, requesting I would 
act as Vice-President during the winter, till the Synod should 
sit, when the judgment of the Presbytery might be referred to 
that higher judicature. After making all the inquiries in my 
power what was my duty in so perplexing a case, I thought I 
had certainly found out the will of God, and returned an 
absolute refusal in the strongest terms ; transferring all my inte- 
rest at the Board to another gentleman, (Dr. Pinley) whom I 
looked upon as incomparably better qualified for the place, and 
of whose election I then had considerable hopes. Upon this I 
was as much settled in Hanover, in my own mind as ever ; and, 
as many of you may remember, publicly congratulated you 
upon the pleasing prospect. But how was I surprised, and 
struck into a consternation, to receive a third application in 
more importunate terms than ever ! This again unsettled my 
mind, and renewed my perplexities ; though I was encouraged 
to hope, that when I had so sincerely committed my way unto 
the Lord, ho would direct my path, and order things so, as that 
the result should discover my duty. This third application, as 
I informed the Trustees in my answer, constrained me only to 
admit a mere posiihility of its being my duty to comply, but 
my mind was still almost established in the contrary persuasion. 
It constrained me only to lay myself open to conviction, and 



"•— gl^ 



D4VmS— AS A PREACHER. 301 

no longer shut up the avenues of light ; and, therefore, I came 
to this conclusion — To mention, at large, all mj difficulties and 
objections, — to insist that my first election should lie null, 
because my electors were not then apprised of my objections, — 
and to leave it to the Trustees, after hearing alL that could be 
said against it, whether to re-elect me at their next meeting, 
But even this was not all; I farther insisted, that in case they 
should re-elect me, it should he referred to the Synod of New 
York and Philadelphia, whether I should accapt the place. 

" The result of the affair, when left upon this footing, haa 
been, that I was re-chosen at the Board of Trustees by a much 
greater majority than at first; and that the Synod, consisting 
of an unusual number of ministers from various parts, after 
tearing at large what could he said upon both sides, not only 
consented to my acceptance of the proposal, but even dissolved 
my pastoral relation to my dear charge, and ordered my re- 
moval by an almost unanimous vote. This has brought the 
tedious, anxious affair to a final issue." 

Mr. Davica immediately repaired to Princeton, and on 
Thursday the 26th of July, entered upon the duties of his 
office ; and on Tuesday, 26th of September, was inaugurated as 
President of the College. 

The greater part of the printed sermons'of Mr. Davios were 
written under the pressure of his pastoral duties and evangeli- 
cal labours in Virginia, which were incessant and excessive. 
They are the preparations he made for his continually recur- 
ring calls for pulpit labours. Many of them bear the date of 
their first delivery. His frequent and continued absences from 
home forbade extensive reading, or a very free use of a libra- 
ry; but were favourable to meditation and reflection, and lively 
mental action, as he journeyed through the silent forests. His 
constant collision with men of talent and influence, and the 
perpetual excitement on religion, formed and improved his men- 
tal habits, excited his warm and devotional feelings, and gave 
him a facility in his pulpit preparations he might never have 
attained in the full enjoyment of literary and theological trea- 
sures, in a congregation that permitted a sedentary life. The 
few hours he could spend in study, or with his pen, he was pre- 
pared to use to the greatest advantage on some angelic theme 
that had been the subject of his solitary meditations j or some 
point in morals or theology forced upon his attention by the 
necessities or passions of his fellow men. The spiritual wants 
of his flock dictated his sermons ; and his ardent desires to do 
his hearers good, together with his simplicity of soul and fear 
of God, gave wonderful point to his arguments and illustrations. 
His power of sympathy was wonderful ; he seemed at onceto 
enter into the true condition of the people with whom he min- 



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302 SKETCHES OF VIRGIHU. 

gled, and to be able in his discourse to make them enter into 
his feelings about them, and partake of his emotions. He 
wrote bis sermons with care, and carried them to the pulpit, 
and often read them, and often preached without reading, or 
omitted some of his preparations, or added to them, as circum- 
stances and his own feelings prompted. In this way, his short 
time for preparation was amply sufficient, as the same sermon 
might be used repeatedly on one of his wide circuits ; and the 
severe exercise on horseback promoted his hodily vigour, and 
enabled him to apply hia mind with all its force, under strong 
excitement. He makes no parade of learning, but every where 
in hia sermons it is evident that large stores wore at his com- 
mand; that be felt strongly, and thought clearly, and reasoned 
forcibly from great principles and important facts. At the 
twang of his silver bow the heart was pierced through and 
through; and with an angel's tenderness he was pouring in the 
balm of Gilead to the wounded spirit. And in all this the man 
was not seen; hia message only was heard. Men saw, and felt, 
and were excited, and convinced, and driven on to act, as by 
the moving of thoir own souls. They praised no set words of 
argument, admired no figures, lauded no flights of oratory, but 
felt themselves swept along to believe as ho believed, and feel 
as he felt. When removed from the presence of the man, then 
they knew his charms must have been fascinating, and his 
power unresisted. 

Sometimes as we read his Sermons, we begin to think, he ia 
dealing too much in words ; but, when we read again, and catch 
something of his spirit, his ardent heart seems pausing for a 
moment on truth rich in thought and feeling, — and then he 
hurries us along to take another view, to hear another state- 
ment, and to contemplate a kindred truth. Sometimes we 
think ho is going to make a parade of learning, and theological 
lore, and philological treasures; but suddenly, he leads us off, 
tinder the conviction of truth, and with excited feelings, to the 
discussion of some subject in morals or religion in which we are 
ourselves deeply interested. Sometimes we wish there had 
been more argumentative discussion on some of the great and 
disputed doctrines of the Gospel ; but, on second consideration, 
we do not see what could have been gained in a sermon address- 
ed to a mixed audience, by more of the appearance of logic. 
He has slated the truth, he has illustrated it, and applied it, 
and made his hearers believe with him. Like a skilful pleader 
before a jury, he mingles principles, and facts, and feelings, 
with some apparent disorder, but resistless effect. He seems 
to have known for what ho preached, and to whom he preached. 
There is a most wonderful congruity between the circura- 
Btances of the man, of the people, and the manner of hia 



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DA VIES— AS A PREACHER. 303 

preaching; and humanly speaking Lere was tlie secret of his 
success. Always in earnest, he vas always timely ; nothing 
kept him back from declaring the truth he judged fitting the 
condition of things ; and nothing could make him utter what he 
judged ill appropriate. That noblo sense of propriety he 
always carried with him, was a special gift of God, cherished 
by education and guided by the Holy Gliost, on whom he fully 
relied for help and for all his success. In his devotion to hia 
■work and simplicity and timeliness of hia address, he is worthy 
of all admiration. His care in preparing his sermons may be 
known by the declaration — "every sermon, I think worthy of 
the name, cost me four days hard study in the preparation." 

Always earnest in his preaching, frequently excited, he was 
never boisterous. Hia subject excited him, his congregation 
excited him, hia sense of responsibility impressed him, and his 
fervent spirit found vent in impassioned words. In his journal 
he tells us — that some sermons he had prepared and delivered 
under great excitement in America he could not deliver in 
England, without omitting parts, because he was not in proper 
frame to express such sentiments. He could not feign the 
orator. His outward man was excited in unison with his 
aroused spirit ; yet be never seemed to make a gesture ; he only 
uttered his sentiments with becoming motions of his body, and 
tones and modulations of his voice. He often preached to ex- 
cited multitudes, but never forgot he was God's minister. 

Virginia mourned his departure ; and Nassau Hall rejoiced 
in his accession. The wonderful sympathy of the man is seen 
in the readiness with which he accommodated himself to his 
entirely new field of labour. He comprehended his situation. 
The change from the labours of an Evangelist in Virginia to 
the Presidency of a. College, was complete, and perhaps too 
sudden for his physical strength. The historians of Nassau 
Hall all agree in awarding high praise to Mr. Davies for the 
wisdom of his plana, the energy of his efforts, and the success 
that attended his labours to advance the interests of the Col- 
lege. His whole heart and soul were in the work ; he felt that 
all eyes were turned upon — that the friends of the College in 
Europe and America were kindly, yet anxiously observing his 
proceedings. He rose early and studied late; and to the last, 
appeared aa in Virginia, to do the things, and preach the ser- 
mons befitting the occasion which called him forth. This year 
thou shalt die, (Jeremiah xxviii. 16,) was the subject of his new- 
year sermon, January 1st, 1761, at Nassau Hall. On the 4th 
of February he appeared before hia Saviour in Paradise. His 
sickness was of short duration. On Saturday he was bled for 
a violent coid, and transcribed for the press his sermon on the 



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304 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

death of CEeorge II.; on Sabbatli he preached twice in the 
College hall; on Monday morning at the breakfast table he was 
seized with chills, followed by an inflammatory fever, which 
greatly affected his brain. In his moments of the right exer- 
cise of reason he was composed, and referred to his condition 
affectionately and solemnly. During the wanderings of his 
mind, his imaginfttion and inventive powers were busy in the 
contrivance of some plan of benevolent action, or the effecting 
of some good for his fellow men. During the ten days of his 
sickness, both in the wanderings of a diseased brain and in the 
clearer exercises of reason, he exhibited a truly Christian in- 
terest about the great work to which he had been called. 

The father of Mr. Daviea died August 11th, 1759, aged 
eeventy-nine years, having lived with him in Hanover for 
years. His mother survived him. When the corpse of her 
son was laid in the coffin, she stood over it, gazed at it intently 
for some minutes, — and exclaimed — " There is the son of my 
prayers and my hopes, — my only son, — my only earthly sup- 
porter. But there is the will of God, — and I am satisfied." 

Dr. Rodgers of New York, the early friend and companion 
of the son, like the beloved disciple, took the mother to his own 
home, from that hour, and ministered to her wants till the day 
of her death. 

The family record, written in his own hand, in his Bible, pre- 
served by his descendants, says he was born November 3, 1723. 
Accordingly, he was thirty-seven years and three months old 
on the day of bis death. He died early, having lived fast and 
done much. 

Makemie stands as the father of the Presbyterian Church in 
America ; Davics as the apostle of Virginia. To no one man, 
in a religious point of view, does the State owe as much ; no 
one can claim a more affectionate remembrance by Christian 
■eople. His residence in the State is an era in its history. To 
ia wo look for the record and fruits of his labours. The 
i claims him as her spiritual father; and the 
ia creed in politics acknowledges his principles of reli- 
gious freedom and civil liberty. His infltienco on politics was 
indirect, but not the less sure. The sole supremacy of Christ 
in the Church, — the authority of the Word of God, — the equahty 
of the ministers of religion, — and individual rights of con- 
science, — principles for which he plead before the General 
Court, and in the defence of which he encountered such men as 
Pendleton, Wythe, Randolph, and the whole host of the aris- 
tocracy, are now a part and parcel of the religious and political 
creed of an overwhelming majority of the citizens of the 
*' Ancient Dominion," He demonstrated the capability of 



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Yi 

Vi_ 

Virgin] 



DEATH OF DAVIES— CLOSING SKETCH. 31)5 

the Church of Christ to sustain itself, not only without the fos- 
tering aid of the State, but under its oppressive laws. Ke 
showed the patriotism of true religion ;— and in defending the 
principles of Presbytery, he maintained what Virginia now 
boheTea to be the inaiienahlo rights of man. The time of Mr. 
Davies' labours in Virginia embraced that interesting part of 
Patrick Henry's life, from his eleventh to his twenty- second 
year. This great orator, in his youth, could not have been 
unaeciijainted with the dissenting ministers of his native county ; 
and it is scarcely possible he was unaffected by his ministra- 
tions. Two of his sisters, Lucy Henry, who married Valentine 
Wood, and died in Havanna,— and Jane Henry, who married 
Colonel Samuel Meredith, and lived and died at New Glasgow, 
Amherst county, were known to be pious people, and members 
of the Presbyterian Church ;— and we have the authority of an 
elder in the church, now living, a grandson of Lucy Wood, that 
they were members of Mr. Davies' congregations. The first 
popular pleading of Mr. Henry was in Hanover, against the au- 
thorized construction of those very laws under which Mr. Davies 
and the dissenters had grpaned, and from which they had 
obtained but partial relief. The oratory of these great men 
was much of the same kind. Both reasoned from great princi- 
ples and facts, and addressed human nature with an overflowing 

heart,^ on subjects to which the souls of men are ever alive, 

their individual rights and personal interests. What Dr. Fin- 
ley said of one may be said of both—" the unavoidable con- 
sciousness of native power made him bold and enterprising. 
Yet the court proved that his boldness arose not from a partial, 
groundless self-conceit, but from true self-knowledge. Upon 
fair and candid trial, faithful and just to himself, he judged 
what he could do ; and what he could, when called to it, he 
attempted, and what he attempted he accomplished." The 
same bold eloquence that roused the militia of Hanover in 
Eraddock's war, was heard again in Hanover and Williamsburg, 
calling to arms in the revolutionary contest. Mr. Henry' 
through life, held to the religion of the Bible. In another 
chapter the influence of Presbytery on the civil constitution of 
Virginia will be traced at largo, and the indirect influence of 
Mr. Davies and his co-labourers fully seen. 

Mr. Davies' own pen shall close this sketch of his life, with 
the beautiful and characteristic, sentiments in his correspond- 
.ence with Dr. Gibbons aa preserved by Dr. Knley. "I desire 
seriously to devote to God and my dear country, all the labours 
of my head, my heart, my hand, and pen : and if he pleases 
to bless any of them, I hope I shall be thankful, and wonder at 
his condescending grace. my dear brother ! could we spend 
and be spent, all our lives, in painful, disinterested, indefati- 



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gQg SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

gable service for God and the world, how serene and briglit 
would it render tbe swift approaching eve of life ! I am labour- 
ing to do a little to save my country, and, which ia of much 
more consequence, to save souls from death, from that tremen- 
dous kind of death, which a soul can die. I have had but little 
success of late ; but blessed be God, it surpasses my expecta- 
tion, and much more my desert. Some of my brethren labour 
to better purpose. The pleasure of the Lord prospers in their 
hands. 

"Blessed be my Master's name, this disorder" — a violent 
sickness from which he was just recovering — "found me em- 
ployed in his service. It seized me in the pulpit, like a soldier 
wounded in the field. This has been a busy summer with me. 
In about two months I rode about five hundred miles, and 
preached about forty sermons. This affords me some pleasure 
in the review. But alas! the mixture of sin, and of many 
nameless imperfections that run through, and corrupt all my 
services, give me shame, sorrow, and mortification. My fever 
made unusual ravages upon my understanding, and rendered 
me frequently delirious, and always stupid. But when I had 
any little sense of these things, I generally felt pretty calm 
and serene ; and death, that mighty terror, was disarmed. In- 
deed, the thought of leaving my dear family destitute, and my 
flock shepherdlcss, made me often start back, and cling to life ; 
but in other respects, death appeared a kind of indiffereney to 
mc. Formerly I have wished to live longer, that I might be 
better prepared for heaven ; but this consideration had very 
very littlo weight with me, and that for a very unusual reason, 
which was this : — after long trial I found this world a place so 
unfriendly to the growth of every thing divine and heavenly, 
that I was afraid if I should live any longer, I should be no 
better fitted for heaven than I am. Indeed, I have hardly any 
hopes of ever making any great attainment in holiness while in 
this world, though I should be doomed to stay in it as long as 
Methuselah. I see other Christians indeed aronnd me make 
some progress, though they go on with hut a snail-like motion. 
But when I consider that I set out about twelve years old, and 
what sanguine hopes I then had of my future progress, and yet 
that I have been almost at a stand ever since, I am quite dis- 
couraged. 0, my good Master, if I may dare call thee so, I 
am afraid I shall never serve thee much better on this side the 
regions of perfection. The thought grieves me ; it breaks my 
heart, but I can hardly hope better. But if I have the least 
spark of true piety in my breast, I shall not always labour 
under this complaint. No, my Lord, I shall yet serve thee ; 
serve thee through an immortal duration; with the activity, the 
fervour, the perfection of the rapt seraph that adores and 



AUXILIARIES TO LIBERTY OP CONSCIENCE. 



m 



hums. I very much suspect this desponding view of tho mat- 
ter is wrong, and I do not mention it with approbation, hut 
only relate it as an unusual reason for my willingness to die, 
■which I never felt before, and which I could not suppress. 

"I am rising up, my brother, with a desire to recommend 
Ilim better to my fellow sinners, than I have done. But alas ! 
I hardly hope to accomplish it. He has done a great deal 
more by me already, than I ever expected, and infinitely more 
than I deserved. But he never intended me for great things. 
He has beings both of my own, and of superior orders that can 
perform him more worthy service. ! if I might but untie 
the latchet of hia shoes, or draw water for the service of hia 
sanctuary, it is enough for me. I am not an angel, nor would 
I murmur because I am not. 

"In my sickness, I found tho unspeakable importance of a 
Mediator, in a religion for sinners. ! I could have given 
you the word of a dying man for it, that Jesus, that Jesus 
whom you preach, is indeed a necessary and an all sufficient 
Saviour. Indeed he is tho only support for a departing soul. 
JVowe hut Christ, none hut Ohrist. Had I as many good works 
as Abraham or Paul, I would not have darod build my hopes 
on such a quicksand, but only on this firm eternal Rock." 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THREE ATJXIIIARIE3 TO THE CAUSE OF LIBERTY OE CONSCIENCE. 

What was not granted to petition and argument and Eng- 
lish construction of colonial law, was yielded to the force of 
circumstances. The French and Indian war, commonly known 
as Braddock's war, which, after many provocations and preli- 
minary atrocities, broke out in its fury in Vlbb, by the strange 
agency of fire and sword, the tomahawk and scalping knife, 
plead the cause of freedom of conscience with a success hitherto 
unknown. Rev. Francis Makemie had appeared before the 
civil authorities in Virginia, Maryland and New York with 
some success ; Rev. Samuel Davies and his coadjutors had laid 
the cause before the Governor and Council of Virginia, repeat- 
edly, and had gained something for freedom of conscience ; but 
houses for public worship could not be occupied without per- 
mission from the civil authorities, and each application for a 
house of worship was heard on its own merits. The opinion of 
the Attorney General of England had been obtained in favour 



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308 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

of the dissenters in Virginia, but that had no effect upon the 
action of the General Court of the colony, who maintained their 
own construction of their own laws, one of which they claimed 
the Act of Toleration to be. Mr, Daviea had visited England, 
and the dissenters sympathising with him and his people and 
the dissenters in the colony, and in the provinces generally, held 
frequent councils, and their committee armed him with their 
best devices after hia return, to aid him in the arduous struggle 
for religious liberty. But what had not been gained by Eng- 
lish interpretation of law, by appeals to the law of nature, or by 
equal administration of law, was wrought oat by sterner agen- 
cies. The chains, that were not loosed, were broken. 

On his return from England, Davies found the whole frontier 
of Virginia in distress ; the alarm pervaded the whole colony. 
There was an apprehension that the plans of the French officers, 
in making inquiries for the routes from the Ohio to the Poto- 
mac, were to be followed by an armed force of French and 
savages, excited by the success that met them at the Great Mea- 
dows. The invasion, which was the true policy of France, was 
looked upon by the colonists as certain ; and consternation 
seized many stout hearts. The frontiers of Virginia were gene- 
rally inhabited by dissenters from the Established Church, and 
pincipally of the Presbyterian creed and forma of worship ; and 
these frontiers were all exposed to Indian depredations. Some 
of the most powerful sermons and addresses delivered by Da- 
vies were poured forth to arm the frontiers in their defence ; 
and their success was equal to their merit and intention. The 
shock of savage war was felt only by the dissenters' families, 
their cabins were burned, their wives and children fled or were 
murdered. The rest of the colony only sent forth soldiers in 
common with the frontiers ; and the Virginia soldiers were 
always terrible to the savages. 

Daring the confusion of this savage warfare, the Presbyte- 
rians, east of the Blue Ridge, chose houses for worship and occu- 
pied them without license or molestation. The Rev. Mr. 
Wright, the Presbyterian minister in Cumberland county, which 
was then a frontier, under date of August 18, 1755, says — 
"People generally begin to believe the Divine government, and 
that our judgments are inflicted for our sins. They now hear 
sermons with solemnity and attention ; they acknowledge their 
wickedness and ignorance, and believe that the New-light clergy 
and adherents are right. Thus you see, dear sir, that amidst 
all our troubles God is gracious, and brings real good out of our 
real evils; adored be his great name. I have seen, last Lord's 
day, above a hundred weeping and trembling nnder the word. 
I now preach any where, being so distant from the metropolis, 
and the time being so dangerous and shocking." West of the 



„^,.,.,glc 



LIBERTY OF COK SCIENCE— ESTABLISHED CLERGY. gOg 

Blue Ridge, the inhaWtants were generally dissenters, coming 
into the province sueli, there was always less difficulty in obtain- 
ing license for houses of worship, than in those counties east of 
the Ridge, where no dissenters, or but few, had settled, and 
those that appeared were converts from the established church. 
The terrible scourge of war, which fell heaviest on the dissenters, 
brought with it some ease in matters pertaining to conscience ; 
people were permitted to worship where they pleased when the 
expectation of invasion oppressed the whole body politic. 

The next powerful auxiliary in the cause of liberty of con- 
science was the course pursued by the established clergy in re- 
gard to their salaries. Their stipends had been fixed and col- 
lected by law, and were levied and paid in tobacco. At first a 
certain number of pounds was levied on each poll. By act 11th, 
1696, it was ordered that each parish minister "shall have 
and receive, for his or their maintenance, the sume of sixteen 
thousand pounds of tobacco besides their lawful perquisites, and 
that it shall and may be lawfull for the vestry &c., to levy the 
same in their respective parishes." By the same law it was 
also ordered that parishes too weak to pay the salary might be 
united at discretion of the governor, under one minister, in num- 
bers sufficient to sustain a minister. On account of the neglect 
of parishes, accidental or designed, in formally inducting the 
ministers into thoir parishes, there arose difficnitiea about the 
glebes, and the salaries of the ministers. In 1748, in conse- 
quence of a suit brought by the Rev. Mr. Kay of Richmond 
county, concerning the glebe of Lunenburg parish, which wag 
decided in his favour by the General Court, the Legislature in 
session at the time of the decision of the court, to prevent simi- 
lar suits, by act 34th ordered that the glebe lands should con- 
tain two hundred acres of " a good and convenient tract of land" 
— with " proper dwelling and out-houses : that the salary should 
be 16,000 pounds of tobacco," and each, with an allowance of four 
per cent." for shrinkage ; — " and every minister received into 
any pariah as aforesaid, shall be entitled to all the spiritual and 
temporal benefits of his parish, and may maintain an action of 
trespass, against any person or persona whatsoever, who shall 
disturb him in the possession and enjoyment thereof." By Act 
51 of same year, section 30 — " And for preventing all mistakes 
and controversies concerning the allowance to be made, upon 
the payment of public, county, or parish levies, be it enacted 
that the levies aforesaid shall all be laid in nett tobacco." 

In the year 1755 the clergy of the Establishment petitioned 
for an increase of their salary, stating — according to Dr. 
Hawks, quoting from Bland's letter, p. 117 — " that the salary 
appointed by law for the clergy is so scanty that it is with diffi- 
culty they support themselves and families, and can by no 



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310 SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 

means make any provision for their widows and children, who 
are generally left to the charity of their friends — that the small 
encouragement given to clergymen is a reason why so few come 
into this colony from the two Universities; and that so many 
who are a disgrace to the ministry find opportunities to fill the 
parishes; and that the raising the salary would prove of great 
service to the colony." This petition was not granted; the 
time was unfavourahle, whateverTnight have heen the disposi- 
tion of the legislature; — the troubles with the Prench and 
Indians were increasing, and ended, in the summer, in a furious 
war, — and the staple of Virginia that year failed. Whether 
the petition of the clergy was reasonable, depends upon cireum- 
Btances connected with the rate of living at that time. Their 
stipends were a glehe of two hundred acres with the proper 
buildings, and sixteen thousand pounds of tobacco, which at 
twoj)enceper pound would amount to £133 6s. 8 d.. together 
with marriage and funeral fees. This might or might not have 
been a sufiScient support, according to the style of living adopt- 
ed by the clergy. If they followed, or were expected to follow, 
the more wealthy planters in their rate of expenditures, it was 
certainly too small ; if they followed the middling class of peo- 
ple, it was generally enough, with proper economy. If, how- 
ever, it was really too small, they asked for an increase of 
salary at an unfortunate time. For on account of a severe and 
protracted drought, which spread its influence over the whole 
country, and was peculiarly oppressive in Virginia, the Lcgisla- 
tnre in October of this year 1765, passed Act 5th — to enable 
the inhabitants of this colony to discharge their Tobacco debts 
in money for the present year. The preamble is — "Whereas 
by reason of the great drought a very small quantity of tobacco 
is made, so that the inhabitants of this colony are not able to 
pay their public, county and parish levies, and the of&cers' fees, 
and other tobacco debts, in tobacco this present year according 
to the directions of the laws now in force; for remedy whereof, 
and to prevent sheriffs and other collectors of the public dues, 
from taking advantage of the necessities of the people, and ex- 
acting exorbitant prices for tobacco due or payable to them 
from the poor and needy — the enactment is — * that it shall be 
lawful to and for any person or persons, from whom any to- 
bacco is due by judgment, for rent, h-j bond, or upon contract, 
or for public county and. parish levies, or for any secretaries, 
clerks, sheriffs, surveyors, or other olEcers' fees, or by any 
other ways or means whatsoever, to pay and satisfy the same 
either in tobacco, according to the directions of the act of As- 
sembly, intituled. An Act tor amending the staple of tobacco^ 
and preventing frauds in his Majesty's customs, — or in money, 
at the rate of sixteen shillings and eight pence, for every hun- 



"•— gl^ 



THE ESTABLISHED CLERGY—TOBACCO. gj]^ 

dred pounds of nett tobacco, and so in proportion for a greater 
or lesser quantity, at the option of tlio payer.' " This act was 
to continue in force ten months. By this law the tobacco was 
rated at its usual value, when there was a fair crop, two pence 
per pound. And as this was the rate when the debts were 
contracted, the legislature determined there was no injustice to 
the creditors in paying them the estimated value of their 
debts. There was no complaint heard against this law during 
its continuance. 

In September of the year 1758, the Legislature re-enacted 
the law of 1755. The preamble states — " It being evident, 
from the prodigious diminution of our staple commodity, occa- 
sioned by the unseasonableness of the weather in most parts of 
the colony, that there will not be tobacco made to answer the 
common demands of the country ; and it being certainly expe- 
dient, at all such times, to prevent, as much as possible, the 
distresses that must inevitably attend such a scarcity — be it 
therefore enacted," &c. The crop failed; and the price of 
tobacco was greatly raised, getting as high as fifty shillings a. 
hundred. The beneficial clergy complained loudly of this law, 
that by it they were compelled to receive their salary at the rate 
of two ponce per pound for tobacco, when it was worth sixpence 
or more, and thus instead of about ^6400, the real worth of 
their salary, they received less than ^134 ; and added that the 
action of the law was unjust, as the depreciation of tobacco 
had never been made up to them, — and their salaries were small. 
The commissary, the Rev. John Camm, of Williamsburg, assailed 
the law, which in a pamphlet written with great severity, 
he styled " The Two-penny Act." Colonels Richard Bland, 
and Loudon Carter replied with equal severity. The excite- 
ment spread through the colony. A portion of the clergy met 
in convention at the College of William and Mary, and in- 
structed their Commissary, Mr. Camm, to make a representa- 
tion on the subject to the Bishop of London, or the Lords of 
Trade. " It is probable," says Dr. Hawks, p. 118 — " that this 
complaint was made to their diocesan, as there is extant a 
letter from that prelate to the Board of Trade, in which he 
inveighs against this law, as being subversive of the rights 
of the clergy." Mr. Camm replied to the Colonels under 
the title — "The Colonels Dismounted;" and the Colonels re- 
joined, and carried the people generally with them. The excite- 
ment against the clergy became so great, that the printers in 
Virginia declined publishing for them ; and Mr. Camm resorted 
to Maryland for publication. The king in council, however, 
denounced the act of 1755 and 1758 as an usurpation, and 
declared it null and void. 

"This was," says Dr. Hawks — "an unfortunate contest for 



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312 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

the churcli and the clergy. In every conflict of the kind, tlio 
merits of the questions, originally involved in the dispute, are 
apt to be lost sight of ; and in the ardour of controversy, it is 
not unusual for men to transfer their condemnation from 
opinions to those who avow them ; and such there is reason to 
believe was the course pursued in this instance. While among 
the clergy there were some who were above just suspicions or 
reproach, it must be owned that, as a body, they were any thing 
but invulnerable ; and the opportunity for censure, afforded by 
their conduct was too inviting to be overlooked by their antago- 
nists. The leading laymen looked around, and saw almost every 
parish supplied with an incumbent of some sort, while the state 
of religion was in their view, far from flourishing ; they did not 
hesitate to impute this condition of things to the clergy them- 
selves — and the people at large were ready enough to lend a 
willing car to the charge. It was not that there was any par- 
tiality for the dissenters, for the general sentiment was against 
them ; but there was growing up in men's minds a gradual 
alienation from the church, because it was identified with those 
who were suspected of being more anxious to enrich themselves 
than to benefit the souls of others; and men began to admit the 
suspicions that the establishment was proving a burden, instead 
of a blessing. Doubtless, injustice was done, in the process, to 
many a worthy man, who was made to sufl'er by the indiscrimi- 
nate censure which visited this order, while he probably would 
have been as prompt as any one in removing those who had 
subjected both the church and himself to undeserved reproach. 
This unfortunate dispute is recorded because it-waa one of the 
links in a chain of causes which was operating silently, but 
surely, for the prostration of the church ; every thing which pro- 
voked hostility and awakened prejudice, of course prepared 
men's minds for the final blow struck in the stormy times of 
that Eovolution, to which the country was even then approaching 
with unexpected but certain step." 

The preceding view of the contest of the clergy with the 
Legislature and the public at large, is undoubtedly correct, and 
is more impressive as coming from the pen of an able defender 
of the Episcopal Church. After the admission made by him, 
it would seem ungenerous, here, to cite any instances of de- 
linquency in the clergy, which aided in increasing the excite- 
ment produced by this contest. The clergy continued the con- 
test ; and after the king in council had pronounced the law 
null and void, they commenced suits in the civil courts, to re- 
cover damages for the withholding their sixteen thousand 
weight of tobacco or its proper value in money. One suit only 
was brought to an issue, that instituted by the Rev. James 
Maury of the county of Hanover. Of this, says Mr. Wirt, in 



PATKICK HENRY— MR. MAURY. 3;J3 

his Life of Patrick Henry p 40, " The recori of tliia suit is 
now before me. Tlie dedaratioa 13 fjunded on the act of 
1748, which gives the tobacco , the defcndaotB ple-ided special- 
ly the act pf 1758, which authonyes the commutatioE into 
money at sixteen shillings and eightpence , to this pica the 
plaintiff demurred; asaignmg f)i causes of demurrer, first, 
that the act of 1758 not haviDg received the royal assent, had 
not the force of a law ; and secondly, that the king in council, 
had declared the act null and void. The case stood for argu- 
ment on the demurrer to the November term, 1763, and was 
argued by Mr. Lyons for the plaintiff, and Mr. John Lewis for 
the_ defendents; when the Court, very much to the credit of 
their candour and firmness, breasted the popular current by 
sustaining the demurrer." On the first day of the following 
December, Patrick Henry appeared to argue the cause be- 
fore a jury on the question of damages, Mr. Lewis having 
abandoned the cause as desperate. This is the famous case, in 
which Patrick Henry made his first appearance before a court, 
and won laurels as a pleader. The scene is well described by 
Mr. Wirt. Mr. Henry boldly maintained, that the people had 
only consulted their own safety by the law of 1758, and the 
king's veto was only an instance of royal misrule ; and that 
notwithstanding the dissent of the king in council, the act 
ought to be_ considered as the law of the land. The jury 
seemed willing to admit his position, yet according to law 
returned a verdict of one penny damages. The court overruled 
the motion for a new trial. 

No other case was brought to trial ; they were all throughout 
the colony ultimately dismissed by the clergy, who took their 
revenge by an angry pamphlet from the pen of Mr. Camm. 
Mr. Maury did not think it advisable to prosecute an appeal, 
judging it to be entirely useless, in the excited state of the 
public mind. The tradition respecting this man is, that he 
was a clergyman worthy of his office, irreproachable in his mo- 
rals, a believer in the gospel, whoso faith triumphed in the last 
hour; his last expressions were those of praise. There were 
some advantages in having this cause tried at the suit of Mr. 
Maurj;; and there were some serious disadvantages in bringing 
the suit in Hanover, the home of Davies, and the strong hold 
of the dissenters east of the Blue Ridgo. 

The Legislature maintained the legality of their enactment 
4n 1755, and 1758, and to prevent, as far aa possible, any 
decision of the lower courts in favour of the clergy in their 
contest against the application of this act to their salaries, it 
was resolved on the 7th of April, 1767--" that the committee 
of correspondence bo directed to write to the agent, to defend 
the parish collectors from all appeals from judgments here 
40 



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314 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

given, in suits brought by the clergy for recovering their sala- 
ries, payable on or before the last day of May, 1759 ; and that 
this Louse will engage to defray the expense thereof." The 
influence of the established clergy was now gone; and the 
people and the Legislature of the colony waited only for a 
■ fitting opportunity to break down their legal power : and such 
.an opportunity, in a few years, occurred. The clergy were not 
sensible of their danger, at this time, when their rescue might 
.possibly have been achieved; when their infatuation left them, 
[their ruin was unavoidable. 

The third auxiliary was found in the efforts and influences of 
the denomination of Christians called Baptists. There was a 
Baptist church, gathered in Isle of Wight county, by a minister 
from England, as early as the year 1714. But the denomina- 
tion did not spread much in Virginia for many years. About 
the year 1743, a few Baptist families settled on the Opcckon 
in Berkeley county, and formed a church, which spread both 
in the Valley and east of the Blue Eidge, particularly by the 
labours of David Thomas, till by the year 1770, we are told by 
Semple, in his History of the Baptists in Virginia, p. 295, the 
regular Baptists had churches scattered through all the North- 
ern Neck above Fredericksburg. And between the years 1770 
and 1780, by the labours of Mr. Lunsford, a young preacher of 
extraordinary powers, their churches were extended to the Bay 
Shore. 

The Separate Baptists, as they were termed under circum- 
stances, which with the name have passed away, made their 
first appearance about the year 1764, when Shubael Stearns set 
out from New England on a mission to the southward, and 
took his abode on the Calapon in Hampshire county. Remain- 
ing here a short time, he and his companions removed to North 
Carolina and settled on Sandy Creek in Guilford county. 
Here the denomination greatly increased ; and from this spot 
shot out its branches over North and South Carolina and Vir- 
ginia, The most noted agent in extending the denomination in 
Virginia was Samuel Harris, of Pittsylvania. He was hope- 
fully converted, in very interesting circumstances about the 
year 1758, and immediately commenced preaching through the 
counties bordering on North Carolina. About the year 1766, 
he went through the counties on the north side of James River ; 
and on the 20th of November, 1767, assisted in forming the 
church of Upper Spottsylvania, consisting of twenty-five mem- 
bers, the first Separate Baptist church between James and Rap- 
pahanoc Rivers. By the time the Revolutionary war commenced, 
members of the Separate Baptist denomination were found from 
the Blue Ridgq to the Bay Shore, both north and south (of 
James River. 



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THE SEPARATE BAPTISTS. 3J5 

While tlic contest between the cstablishei] clergy and Legis- 
lature about the salaries of the clergj, was alienating the public 
mind from the eatabiislied church herself, the zealous Baptist 
preachers were calling the attention of men to the great inte- 
rests of religion, and preaching, according to their ability, the 
gospel, without money and without price. Generally without 
education, but under strong convictions of the necessity of con- 
versions to God, they appealed to the hearts of men on subjects 
always interesting, but at that time almost novel to the mass of 
their hearers, reared as they were in the bounds of a parish. 
Repentance, conversion to God, justification hy faith in the 
imputed righteousness of Christ sounded strangely in the ears of 
many who were not altogether strangers to the forms of reli- 
gion. These were the doctrines urged upon the hearts of their 
hearers by the Baptist ministers, with all the energy of excited 
spirits inflamed by their contemplations of divine truth, and 
their thoughts and visions of the spiritual world. Multitudes 
became believers under their fervent exhortations. 

For a time, says Mr. Semple, pp. 14, 15 — "the Baptists of 
North Carolina and Virginia were viewed by men in power as 
beneath their notice ; none, said they, but the weak and wicked 
join them ; let them alone, they will soon fall out among them- 
selves, and come to nothing. In some places this maxim was 
adhered to, and persecution in a legal shape was never seen. 
But in many others, alarmed by the rapid increase of the Bap- 
tists, the men in power strained every penal law in the Virginia 
code to obtain ways and means to put down these disturbers of 
the peace, as they were now called. It seems by no means cer- 
tain that any law in force in Virginia authorized the imprison- 
ment of any person for preaching. The law for the preservation 
of peace, however, was so interpreted as to answer this purpose ; 
accordingly, whenever the preachers were apprehended, it was 
done by a peace-warrant. The first instance of actual imprison- 
ment, we believe, that ever took place in Virginia, was in the 
county of Spottsylvania. On the 4th of Jan. I*r68, John 
Waller, Lewis Craig, James Childs, &c., were seized hy the 
sheriff, and bailed before three magistrates, who stood in the 
meeting-house yard, and who bound them in the penalty of one 
thousand pounds, to appear at court two days after. At court 
they were arraigned as disturbers of the peace ; and at their 
trial they were vehemently accused by a certain lawyer, who 
said to the court — May it please your worships, these men are 
great disturbers of the peace, they cannot meet a man upon the 
road but they must ram a text of Scripture down his throat. 
Mr. Waller made his own and his brethren's defence so ingeni- 
ously that they were somewhat puzzled to know how to dispose 



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816 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

of them. They offered to release them if they would promise 
to preach do more ia the county for a year and a day. This 
they refused ; and therefore were sent into close jail. As they 
were moving on from the court-house to the prison, through the 
streets of Fredericksburg, they sung the hymn — ' Broad is the 
road that leads to death.' After four weeks, Lewis Craig was 
released from prison — Waller and the others continued m jail 
forty-three days, and were then discharged without any condi- 
tions. While in prison they constantly preached through the 
grates. The mob without used every exertion to prevent the 
people from hearing, hut to little purpose. Many heard, 
indeed, upon whom the word was in power and demonstration," 
The confinement of these men drew from the Deputy 
Governor, John Blair, under date of July 16th, 1768, a letter 
that does honour to his head and heart, directed to the King's 
attorney in Spottsylvania. 

"Sir, — I lately received a letter signed by a good number of 
worthy gentlemen, who are not here, complaining of the Bap- 
tists ; the particulars of their misbehaviour are not told, any 
further than their running into private houses, and mating dis- 
sensions. Mr. Craig and Benjamin Waller are now with me 
and deny the charge; they tell me they are willing to take the 
oaths as others have ; I told them I had consulted the Attorney 
General, who is of opinion that the General Court only have a 
right to grant, licenses, and therefore I referred them to the 
Court ; but on their application to the Attorney General, thoy 
brought me his letter, advising me to write to you — that their 
petition was a matter of right, and that you may not molest 
these conscientious people so long as they behave themselves in 
a manner becoming pious Christians, and in obedience to the 
laws, till the court when they intend to apply for license, and 
when the gentlemen, who complain, may make their objections 
and be heard. The Act of Toleration (it being found by expe- 
rience, that persecuting dissenters increases their numbers) has 
given them a right to apply, in a proper manner for licensed 
houses, for the worship of God, according to their consciences ; 
and I persuade myself the gentlemen will quietly overlook their 
meetings till the court. I am told, they administer the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper, near the manner we do, and differ 
in nothing from our church but in that of Baptism, and their 
renewing the ancient discipline, by which they have reformed 
some sinners, and brought them to bo truly penitent. Nay, if 
a man of theirs is idle, and neglects to labour and provide for 
his family as he ought, he incurs their censures, which have had 
good effects. If this be their behaviour, it were to be wished 



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DEPUTY GOV. JOHN BLAIR— PATRICK HENRY. ^^-f 

■ffe had some of it among us; but at leaat, I hope, all may re- 
main quiet till the court. 

I am, with great respect to the Gentlemen, Sir, 
Your humble servant, 

John Blaie, 

" Williamsburg, July 16lh, 176B." 

" When this letter came to the attorney" — says Semple — " he 
would have nothing to say in tho affair." 

Patrick Henry, who had a few years before brought himself 
into notice by his famous pica against the parsons, in Hanover, 
hearing of the situation of these Baptist ministers confined in 
Spottsylvania jail, rode some fifty miles to volunteer his ser- 
vices on the day of their second trial. He entered the court- 
house, almost entirely unknown, while the indictment was read- 
ing by the clerk. The king's attorney having made some re- 
marks in defence of the prosecution, Mr. Henry taking the 
paper containing the indictment, said — "May it please your 
worships, I think I heard read by the prosecutor, as I entered 
the house, the paper I now hold in my hand. If I have rightly 
understood, the king's attorney has framed an indictment for the 
purpose of arraigning, and punishing by imprisonment, these 
three inoffensive persons before the bar of this Court for a crime 
of great magnitude, — as disturbers of the peace. May it please 
the Court, what did I hear read? Did I hear it distinctly, — or 
was it a mistake of my own? Did I hear an expression, as of 
a crime, that these men, whom your worships are about to try 
for misdemeanor, are charged with, — with — what ?" — Then in a 
low, solemn, heavy tone he continued — "preaching the gospel 
of the Son of God ?" Pausing amid profound silence, he waved 
the paper three times round his head, then raising his eyes and 
hands to heaven, with peculiar and impressive energy, he ex- 
claimed— " Great God!" A burst of feeling from the audience 
followed this exclamation, Mr. Henry resumed — "May it 
please your worships, in a day like this, — when truth is about 
to burst her fetters, — when mankind are about to be aroused 
to claim their natural and inalienable rights — when the yoke of 
oppression that has reached the wilderness of America, and the 
unnatural alliance of ecclesiastical and civil power, are about 
to be dissevered, — at such a period, when liberty, — liberty of 
conscience, — is about to wake from her slumberings, and inquire 
into the reason of such charges as I find exhibited here to-day 
in this indictment," — here he paused, and alternately cast his 
piercing eyes upon the Coart and upon the prisoners, and re- 
sumed, — "If I am not deceived, according to the contents of 
the paper I now hold in my hand, these men arc accused of 
preaching the gospel of the Son of God! — Great God!" A 



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SKETCHES OP VIRGINIA. 



deeper impression was visible as he paused, and slowly waved 
the paper round his head. " May it please your worships, there 
are periods in the history of man, when corruption and de- 
pravity have so long debased the human character, that man 
sinks under the weight of the oppressor's hand, — becomes his 
servile, his abject slave ; he licks the hand that smites him ; he 
bows in passive obedience to the mandates of the despot; and 
in this state of servility he receives his fetters of perpetual 
bondage. But may it please your worships, such a day has 
passed away. From that period when our fathers left the land 
of their nativity for these American wilds, — from the moment 
they placed their feet upon the American continent, from that 
moment despotism was crushed, the fetters of darkness were 
broken, and heaven decreed that man should be free, — free to 
worship God according to the Bible. Were it not for this, in 
vain were all their sufferings and bloodshed to subjugate this 
new world, if we their offspring must still be oppressed and 
persecuted. But, may it please your worships, permit me to 
inquire once more, for what are these men about to he tried? 
This paper says, for preaching the gospel of the Saviour to 
Adam's fallen race." For the third time he slowly waved the 
indictment around his head, and lifting his eyes to heaven in a 
solemn dignified manner, and again looking at the Court, he 
exclaimed with the full power of his strong voice—" What 
laws have they violated?" The scene now became painful, — 
the audience were excited, — the attorney was agitated, — the 
bench and bar were moved; and the presiding magistrate ex- 
claimed, "Sheriff, discharge those men." 

Spottsylvania in a few years wiped away this stain, when the 
gentlemen assembled in Fredericksburg, in opposition to Dun- 
more, on the 29th of April, 1775, pledged themselves "to pre- 
serve their liberty at the hazard of their lives and fortunes," 
— and appealed to " God to save the liberties of America." 

In different counties the persecution of the Baptists con- 
tinued. Its weight fell mostly upon those who were called 
Separate Baptists, who did not, for various reasons, obtain 
license for their houses of worship, as the regular Baptists 
generally did, Scmple, pp. 294 and 5. At the meeting of 
the southern district at Hall's meeting-house in Halifax, the 
second Saturday of May, 1774, — " Letters were received from 
preachers confined in prison, particularly from David Tinsley, 
then in Chesterfield jail. The hearts of their brethren were 
affected at their safferings, in consequence of which, it was 
agreed to raise contributions for their aid. Agreed to set 
apart the second and third Saturday in June, as public fast 
days, in behalf of our poor blind persecutors, and for the re- 
leasement of our brethren." These fast days aroused all the 



"•— 8'^ 



PROGRESS OF FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE. Q\Q 

sympathiea of tlieir brpthren and of multitii3es who iad no 
Bpeoial attachment to either tho person'^ or doctnnea of the 

EiptlbtS 

In this stite of tl ings it is not wonderful if the Baptists 
showed themselves opposed to all laws that favoiirL 1 ono den 
mmation of rtligion to the detiimcnt ol all oi anv otlery or 
if they sought oppoitumtics to gam m religion, what all classes 
were now seeking to gain in the State, freedom from oppres- 
sion. 

By the agencies that have been glanced at, freedom of con- 
science began to have a place in men's ideas, and to become a 
subject of public discussion: and when, the next year, the sub- 
ject of religious freedom began to be agitated, in the Legisla- 
ture, as a thing to have an existence and a home in Virginia, 
it is supposed by Mr. Jefferson, that two thirds of the people of 
Virginia were dissenters from the Established Church. 



CHAPTER XV. 

FB0GEE5S OF FREEDOM OP CONSCIENCE, DtTRIKG THE TIMES OF 
THE REVOLDTIOS, AND THE AID GIVEN BY MR. JEEFEBSON 
AND MR. MADISON. 

During the American Revolution, all classes of community 
were agitated, and all interests were discussed in private meet- 
ings and public assemblies. From causes already stated, a large 
portion of the inhabitants of the colony of Virginia had become 
dissenters from the Established Church. The continuatora of 
Burke's History say, page 180 — " The dissenters constituted 
at least two thirds of the people"- — at the time of the Declaration 
of Independence. In the class of dissenters he probably ranked 
Presbyterians, Baptists, Germans, Quakers, and those by edu- 
cation favourable to the Episcopal church, but, disinclined to the 
Establishment on account of the proceedings of the clergy. 
Should his statement be thought to be extravagant it will yet he 
conceded by all, that, the number opposed to the Church of 
England, as established in America, was very large. 

The attention of the General Assembly was favourably turned 
to the condition of religious congregations — and the subject of 
toleration necessarily became a subject of legislative action. 
That something must be done to relieve those, disagreeing with 
the forms and creed of the Church of England, was beyond dis- 
cussion or doubt. But what should be done ? what could be 



,.. Google 



820 SKETCHES OF VIRGINIA. 

done that should satisfy all parties? Toleration hccame of 
course a subject of discussion, in private circles, and the halls 
of government. What did toleration mean ? Was it to be ex- 
tended to religious denominations in its classical and restricted 
sense ; or, as some demanded, in its unlimited meaning ? In 
the years immediately preceding the war of the Revolution, the 
majority of tbe legislature were for toleration i